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Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
A Book

by Kayvon Modjarrad,Sina Ebnesajjad

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0323221696
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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While the prevalence of plastics and elastomers in medical devices is now quite well known, there is less information available covering the use of medical devices and the applications of polymers beyond medical devices, such as in hydrogels, biopolymers and silicones beyond enhancement applications, and few books in which these are combined into a single reference. This book is a comprehensive reference source, bringing together a number of key medical polymer topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those currently developing new medical devices or seeking more information about current and future applications. In addition to a broad range of applications, the book also covers clinical outcomes and complications arising from the use of the polymers in the body, giving engineers a vital insight into the real world implications of the devices they’re creating. Regulatory issues are also covered in detail. The book also presents the latest developments on the use of polymers in medicine and development of nano-scale devices. Gathers discussions of a large number of applications of polymers in medicine in one place Provides an insight into both the legal and clinical implications of device design Relevant to industry, academic and medical professionals Presents the latest developments in the field, including medical devices on a nano-scale

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
7. Silicones

by André Colas,Jim Curtis

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076690
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Silicone materials have been widely used in medicine for over 60 years. Available in a variety of material types, they have unique chemical and physical properties that manifest in excellent biocompatibility and biodurability for many applications. Silicone elastomers have remarkably low glass-transition temperatures and maintain their flexibility over a wide temperature range, enabling them to withstand conditions from cold storage to steam autoclaving. They have high permeability to gases and many drugs, advantageous respectively in wound care or in transdermal drug delivery. They have low surface tension and remarkable chemical stability, enabling biocompatibility and biodurability in many long-term implant applications.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
2. Application of Plastics in Medical Devices and Equipment

by Len Czuba

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 012807664X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter will present a look at the medical device market with a particular focus on the materials of construction of devices and what we can expect in new products looking ahead. A deeper look at some other trends that have an effect on the direction of the medical device industry will be done. Finally, consideration will be given to a number of global factors that can have dramatic effects on our industry.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
14. Regulations for Medical Devices and Application to Plastics Suppliers: History and Overview

by Vinny R. Sastri

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076763
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the past 2000 years, many devices have been developed and used in the mitigation and diagnosis of diseases. The materials used in these devices have ranged from stone, wood, metal, ceramics, and most recently plastics. Medical devices have also evolved in sophistication and complexity over time. With the formalization of the scientific method in the seventeenth century such devices became more prevalent [1]. Many medical devices were manufactured by doctors or small companies and sold directly to the public with no government standards or oversight. With the explosion of medical technology in the early twentieth century, several intermediaries had evolved between the medical device industry and the public. In 1879, Dr E.R. Squibb, in an address to the Medical Society of the State of New York, proposed the enactment of a national statute to regulate food and drugs [2]. It was not until 27 years later that the Food and Drug Act of 1906 was introduced into the Congress and signed into law by President Theodore Roosevelt [3]. At that time, devices that were harmful to human safety and health proliferated the market but regulation of medical devices by the Bureau of Chemistry (the precursor to the Food and Drug Administration—FDA) was limited to challenging commercial products only after they had been released into the market. Devices in the marketplace that were defective, adulterated, or misbranded were seized and the device manufacturers were prosecuted in a court of law, but only after the products were sold in the market and caused harm to the end users. Thus, there was a strong need for regulating the devices before they entered the marketplace. An FDA report [4], issued in September 1970, detailed as many as 10,000 injuries and 731 deaths from ineffective medical devices. The report recommended the formation of a regulatory system and body that would enforce the production and sale of safe and effective devices to the public. All medical devices already on the market would be inventoried and classified into a three-tiered system based on their criticality of end use. It also detailed requirements for records and reports, registration and inspection of establishments, and uniform quality assurance programs called good manufacturing practices (GMP). After much lobbying by the FDA, Senate bill SR 510, “The Medical Device Amendments of 1973” was introduced by Senator Edward M. Kennedy and was passed by the Senate in 1975. House bill HR 11124, introduced by Representative Paul Rogers, was passed by the House in 1976. These bills eventually became the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, and were signed into law by President Nixon. The Medical Device Amendments of 1976 became the basis for the medical device regulation in the United States to control and regulate the production of finished devices and thus the device manufacturers themselves.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
4. Polymeric Biomaterials

by Wei He,Roberto Benson

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076666
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomaterials are an indispensable element in improving human health and quality of life. Applications of biomaterials include diagnostics (gene arrays and biosensors), medical supplies (blood bags and surgical tools), therapeutic treatments (medical implants and devices), and emerging regenerative medicine (tissue-engineered skin and cartilage). Polymers, being organic, offer a versatility that is unmatched by metals and ceramics. The wide spectrum of physical, mechanical, and chemical properties provided by polymers has fueled the extensive research, development, and applications of polymeric biomaterials. The significance of polymers as biomaterials is reflected in the market size of medical polymers, estimated to be approximately $1 billion. Many of these polymers were initially developed as plastics, elastomers, and fibers for nonmedical industrial applications, but were later developed as biomedical-specific materials. With rapid growth in modern biology and interdisciplinary collaborative efforts, polymeric biomaterials are being fashioned into bioactive and biomimetic materials, with excellent biocompatibility.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
3. Plastics Used in Medical Devices

by Laurence W. McKeen

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076658
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Medical devices range from simple devices, to test equipment, to implants. Plastics are used more and more in these devices, for weight, cost, and performance purposes. Examples of medical devices include surgical instruments, catheters, coronary stents, pacemakers, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines, X-ray machines, prosthetic limbs, artificial hips/knees, surgical gloves, and bandages.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
13. Biodegradable Polymers

by Zheng Zhang,Ophir Ortiz,Ritu Goyal,Joachim Kohn

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076755
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The design and development of tissue-engineered products has benefited from many years of clinical utilization of a wide range of biodegradable polymers. Newly developed biodegradable polymers and modifications of previously developed biodegradable polymers have enhanced the tools available for creating clinically important tissue-engineering applications. Insights gained from studies of cell-matrix interactions, cell-cell signaling, and organization of cellular components, are placing increased demands on medical implants to interact with the patient’s tissue in a more biologically appropriate fashion. Whereas in the twentieth century biocompatibility was largely equated with eliciting no harmful response, the biomaterials of the twenty first century will have to elicit tissue responses that support healing or regeneration of the patient’s own tissue. This chapter surveys the universe of those biodegradable polymers that may be useful in the development of medical implants and tissue-engineered products. Here, we distinguish between biologically derived polymers and synthetic polymers. The materials are described in terms of their chemical composition, breakdown products, mechanism of breakdown, mechanical properties, and clinical limitations. Also discussed are product design considerations in processing of biomaterials into a final form (e.g., gel, membrane, matrix) that will effect the desired tissue response.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
6. Adhesives for Medical and Dental Applications

by Sina Ebnesajjad

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076682
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This chapter focuses on adhesives used in direct physiological contact in dental and medical procedures. Activity in both areas has been quite extensive outside the United States for decades. In contrast, adhesive use in medical devices, patches, and plasters has been ongoing in the United States for a long time. In the case of medical devices, adhesion is concerned with the joining of materials such as plastics, elastomers, textiles, metals, and ceramics, which are examined in other chapters of the present volume and are covered in various references [1–6], The coverage of this chapter is devoted to applications where to adhesives are in direct contact with tissues and other live organs.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
11. Microbubble Applications in Biomedicine

by Sana S. Dastgheyb,John R. Eisenbrey

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076739
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microbubbles are small (

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
12. Hydrogels in Regenerative Medicine

by Justin M. Saul,David F. Williams

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076747
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hydrogels are crosslinked polymeric networks containing hydrophilic groups that promote swelling due to interaction with water [1]. While hydrogels are heavily used in the field of regenerative medicine, their application to biomedical systems is not new. In fact, it has been suggested that they were truly the first polymer materials to be developed for use in man [2]. They have been in use for clinical applications since the 1960s, initially for use in ocular applications including contact lenses and intraocular lenses due to their favorable oxygen permeability and lack of irritation leading to inflammation and foreign body response, which was observed with other plastics [3]. Before the concept of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine had gained traction, hydrogels were used for cell encapsulation [4]. They have also been utilized extensively in the clinic for wound healing applications due to their oxygen permeability, high water content, and ability to shield wounds from external agents. Perhaps the largest research focus and utility of hydrogels has been found in their use as controlled release systems. This combination of controlled release and cell encapsulation has led to increasing uses of hydrogels in regenerative medicine applications.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
9. Endotracheal Tube and Respiratory Care

by Thomas C. Mort,Jeffrey P. Keck

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076712
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The earliest recorded use of airway manipulation with an artificial device dates back to early Roman civilization when Asclepiades performed a tracheostomy for laryngeal edema. Today it is clear that the role of the endotracheal tube (ETT) in medicine is as invaluable as that of any other medical device created to date. The establishment of a definitive airway via the ETT in both elective and emergency situations has allowed for the delivery of immediate life-sustaining therapies during resuscitation, the maintenance of oxygenation and ventilation in prolonged illness, and the (temporary) delivery of inhaled anesthesia [1]. This chapter begins with a brief history of the development of the ETT. It describes the various ETTs available along with their indications for use and respective limitations. It reviews basic airway anatomy with regard to ETT placement, proper positioning and stabilization of the ETT, and complications attributed to its use. Finally, it addresses respiratory care of the intubated and mechanically ventilated patient.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
8. Review of Research in Cardiovascular Devices

by Zbigniew Nawrat

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076704
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An explosion in multidisciplinary research, combining mechanical, chemical, and electrical engineering with physiology and medicine, during the 1960s created huge advances in modern health care. In cardiovascular therapy, lifesaving implantable defibrillators, ventricular assist devices, catheter-based ablation devices, vascular stent technology, and cell and tissue engineering technologies have been introduced. The latest and leading technology presents robots intended to keep the surgeon in the most comfortable, dexterous, and ergonomic position during the entire procedure. The branch of the medical and rehabilitation robotics includes the manipulators and robots providing surgery, therapy, prosthetics, and rehabilitation. This chapter provides an overview of research in cardiac surgery devices.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
10. Applications of Polyaryletheretherketone in Spinal Implants: Fusion and Motion Preservation

by Steven M. Kurtz

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076720
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The orthopedic and biomaterials literature of the 1990s reflects an early academic curiosity in implant applications of polyaryletherketone (PAEK) biomaterials [1,2]. However, widespread commercial applications for PAEK biomaterials in the human body were first realized with cage implants intended to promote intervertebral body (interbody) fusion of the lumbar spine. Success of PAEK with interbody implants would later inspire applications in a broad variety of spinal implant applications, including posterior fusion, dynamic stabilization, and disc arthroplasty.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
5. Biofilms, Biomaterials, and Device-Related Infections

by Paul Stoodley,Luanne Hall-Stoodley,Bill Costerton,Patrick DeMeo,Mark Shirtliff,Ellen Gawalt,Sandeep Kathju

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128076674
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The initial design criteria in the choice of indwelling materials for medical and dental purposes may be pragmatic, and based on the necessary mechanical properties required to fashion a functional device. Orthopedic implants require strong materials for weight-bearing, and articulating surfaces such as joints require durability and resistance to wear. Stents and shunts require flexibility and patency, and sutures require a high tensile strength yet also must be flexible enough for intricate manipulation. As the devices became more sophisticated and developments in materials science provided more options for manufacture, implants are being used more frequently and with longer anticipated lifetimes. Concurrently, the design process increasingly incorporated biocompatibility and comfort into the design criteria. However, with longer lifetimes, the more frequent use of invasive surgical procedures involving indwelling devices and biologically-friendly materials, there has been a rise in the number of incidences of device-related infection. Urinary catheters have been estimated to account for 30% of all nosocomial infections [1]. Between 66 and 88% of these occur after urinary catheterization [2]. It is also reported that almost 100% of catheterized patients develop an infection in an openly draining indwelling catheter which has been in place for four days or more [2]. For some procedures, such as orthopedic joint arthroplasties, the diagnosed surgical site infection rates are relatively low (between 1% and 2%; [3]); however, the increasing number of patients undergoing joint-replacement surgery translates to large numbers of patients afflicted with the consequences of complicating infections per year. Furthermore, infection of artificial joints can be devastating, since oral or IV antibiotic therapy frequently fails to resolve the infection, with the only remaining course of action being surgical debridement or partial or total revision. These two examples, the first with very high numbers of patients but of lesser severity in terms of impact to the individual, and the second, low numbers but severe patient impact, reflect the incentive to pursue a third design criteria—that of infection resistance—into materials and devices [4]. In the following sections we will discuss the role of bacterial biofilms in infection, and the growing literature highlighting biofilms as an important cause of device-related infection.

Plastics in Medical Devices for Cardiovascular Applications

Plastics in Medical Devices for Cardiovascular Applications
A Book

by Ajay Padsalgikar

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2017-02-01
  • Pages : 196
  • ISBN : 0323371221
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics in Medical Devices for Cardiovascular Applications enables designers of new cardiovascular medical devices to make decisions about the kind of plastics that can go into the manufacture of their device by explaining the property requirements of various applications in this area, including artificial valves, lead insulation, balloons, vascular grafts, and more. Enables designers to improve device performance and remain compliant with regulations by selecting the best material for each application Presents a range of applications, including artificial valves, stents, and vascular grafts Explains which materials can be used for each application, and why each is appropriate, thus assisting in the design of better tools and processes

Handbook of Polymers in Medicine

Handbook of Polymers in Medicine
A Book

by Masoud Mozafari,Narendra Pal Singh Chauhan

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2022-05-15
  • Pages : 550
  • ISBN : 9780128237977
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Polymers in Medicine combines the core concepts and advanced research on polymers to provide a better understanding of this class of materials in medicine. This book covers all aspects of medical polymers, from characteristics and biocompatibility, to the diverse array of applications in medicine. The book begins with an introduction to polymers in medicine and the challenges associated with biocompatibility in human tissue, before subsequent chapters systematically cover individual polymer classes - such as polyurethane and supramolecular polymers - and their specific applications in medicine, from tissue regeneration to orthopaedic surgery and cancer therapeutics. Handbook of Polymers in Medicine offers an interdisciplinary approach that will appeal to researchers in a range of disciplines, including biomedical engineering, materials science, chemistry, pharmacology and translational medicine. This book will also make a useful reference for clinicians and those in medical fields who are interested in materials for medical applications, as well as R&D groups involved in medical device design. Systematically covers individual polymer classes, from characteristics and biocompatibility to applications in biomedicine Covers a broad range of applications in medicine, such as cardiac tissue engineering, targeted drug delivery, dentistry and more Provides an interdisciplinary review of polymers in medicine, allowing advanced students and experienced researchers in a range of biomedical and clinical fields to learn more about this fast evolving area

Plastics in Medical Devices

Plastics in Medical Devices
Properties, Requirements, and Applications

by Vinny R. Sastri

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2013-11-27
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 0323265634
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics in Medical Devices is a comprehensive overview of the main types of plastics used in medical device applications. It focuses on the applications and properties that are most important in medical device design, such as chemical resistance, sterilization capability and biocompatibility. The roles of additives, stabilizers, and fillers as well as the synthesis and production of polymers are covered and backed up with a wealth of data tables. Since the first edition the rate of advancement of materials technology has been constantly increasing. In the new edition Dr. Sastri not only provides a thorough update of the first edition chapters with new information regarding new plastic materials, applications and new requirements, but also adds two chapters – one on market and regulatory aspects and supplier controls, and one on process validation. Both chapters meet an urgent need in the industry and make the book an all-encompassing reference not found anywhere else. Comprehensive coverage of uses of polymers for medical devices. Unique coverage of medical device regulatory aspects, supplier control and process validation. Invaluable guide for engineers, scientists and managers involved in the development and marketing of medical devices and materials for use in medical devices.

Shape-Memory Polymer Device Design

Shape-Memory Polymer Device Design
A Book

by David L. Safranski,Jack C. Griffis

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2017-05-20
  • Pages : 246
  • ISBN : 0323378080
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Shape-Memory Polymer Device Design discusses the latest shape-memory polymers and the ways they have started to transition out of the academic laboratory and into devices and commercial products. Safranski introduces the properties of shape-memory polymers and presents design principles for designing and manufacturing, providing a guide for the R&D engineer/scientist and design engineer to add the shape memory effect of polymers into their design toolbox. This is the first book to focus on applying basic science knowledge to design practical devices, introducing the concept of shape-memory polymers, the history of their use, and the range of current applications. It details the specific design principles for working with shape-memory polymers that don't often apply to mechanically inactive materials and products. Material selection is thoroughly discussed because chemical structure and thermo-mechanical properties are intrinsically linked to shape-memory performance. Further chapters discuss programming the temporary shape and recovery through a variety of activation methods with real world examples. Finally, current devices across a variety of markets are highlighted to show the breadth of possible applications. Demystifies shape-memory polymers, providing a guide to their properties and design principles Explores a range of current and emerging applications across sectors, including biomedical, aerospace/automotive, and consumer goods Places shape-memory polymers in the design toolkit of R&D scientists/engineers and design engineers Discusses material selection in-depth because chemical structure and thermo-mechanical properties are intrinsically linked to shape-memory performance

Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films

Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films
A Book

by Deepak Langhe,Michael Ponting

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2016-01-04
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 0323374662
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films discusses the advancements in multilayer technology, including its capability to produce hundreds of layers in a single film by a melt coextrusion process. These engineered films can have significantly enhanced performance properties, allowing films to be made thinner, stronger, and with better sealing properties. As recent developments in feedblocks and materials have opened up a range of new possibilities, this book discusses different feedblocks, and viscosity and material considerations. It is the first comprehensive summary of the latest technology in multilayer film processing and related applications, and is written from a practical perspective, translating research into commercial production and real world products. The book provides fundamental knowledge on microlayer coextrusion processing technology, how to fabricate such structures, structure and properties of such microlayers, and potential applications, thus helping research scientists and engineers develop products which not only fulfill their primary function, but can also be manufactured reliably, safely, and economically. Provides a fundamental knowledge of microlayer coextrusion processing, including how to fabricate microlayer structures, the properties of microlayers, and potential applications, including optics, polymer film capacitors, and semiconductors Includes an in-depth analysis of all technologies used for producing multilayered films and structures by coextrusion processing Thoroughly assesses potential future trends in multilayer coextrusion technology, thus enabling engineers and scientists to stay ahead of the curve in this rapidly advancing area

Reactive Polymers: Fundamentals and Applications

Reactive Polymers: Fundamentals and Applications
A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers

by Johannes Karl Fink

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2017-10-31
  • Pages : 712
  • ISBN : 0128145102
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reactive Polymers: Fundamentals and Applications: A Concise Guide to Industrial Polymers, Third Edition introduces engineers and scientists to a range of reactive polymers and then details their applications and performance benefits. Basic principles and industrial processes are described for each class of reactive resin (thermoset), as well as additives, the curing process, applications and uses. The initial chapters are devoted to individual resin types (e.g., epoxides, cyanacrylates), followed by more general chapters on topics such as reactive extrusion and dental applications. Injection molding of reactive polymers, radiation curing, thermosetting elastomers, and reactive extrusion equipment are covered as well. The use of reactive polymers enables manufacturers to make chemical changes at a late stage in the production process, which, in turn, cause changes in performance and properties. Material selection and control of the reaction are essential to achieve optimal performance. Material new to this edition includes the most recent developments, applications and commercial products for each chemical class of thermosets, as well as sections on fabrication methods, reactive biopolymers, recycling of reactive polymers and case studies. Covers the basics and most recent developments, including reactive biopolymers, recycling of reactive polymers, nanocomposites and fluorosilicones Offers an indispensable guide for engineers and advanced students alike Provides extensive literature and patent review Reflects a thorough review of all literature published in this area since 2014 Features revised and updated chapters to reflect the latest research in reactive polymers