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Handbook of Water and Energy Management in Food Processing

Handbook of Water and Energy Management in Food Processing
A Book

by Jiri Klemes,Robin Smith,Jin-Kuk Kim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-06-30
  • Pages : 1056
  • ISBN : 1845694678
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Effective water and energy use in food processing is essential, not least for legislative compliance and cost reduction. This major volume reviews techniques for improvements in the efficiency of water and energy use as well as wastewater treatment in the food industry. Opening chapters provide an overview of key drivers for better management. Part two is concerned with assessing water and energy consumption and designing strategies for their reduction. These include auditing energy and water use, and modelling and optimisation tools for water minimisation. Part three reviews good housekeeping procedures, measurement and process control, and monitoring and intelligent support systems. Part four discusses methods to minimise energy consumption. Chapters focus on improvements in specific processes such as refrigeration, drying and heat recovery. Part five discusses water reuse and wastewater treatment in the food industry. Chapters cover water recycling, disinfection techniques, aerobic and anaerobic systems for treatment of wastewater. The final section concentrates on particular industry sectors including fresh meat and poultry, cereals, sugar, soft drinks, brewing and winemaking. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Handbook of water and energy management in food processing is a standard reference for the food industry. Provides an overview of key drivers for better management Reviews techniques for improvements in efficiency of water and energy use and waste water treatment Examines house keeping proceedures and measurement and process control

Handbook of Water and Energy Management in Food Processing

Handbook of Water and Energy Management in Food Processing
A Book

by Jiří Jaromír Klemeš,Robin Smith (Chemical engineer),Jin-Kuk Kim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 1029
  • ISBN : 9781601196613
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Annotation Effective management of water and energy use in food processing is essential, not least for legislative compliance and cost reduction. This major volume reviews techniques for improvements in efficiency of water and energy use and wastewater treatment in the food industry. Opening chapters provide an overview of key drivers for better management. The second part of the book reviews methods to improve efficiency, from good housekeeping procedures to advanced techniques such as heat recovery. Improvements in particular processes, such as chilling and refrigerated storage, are also discussed. Following chapters cover advances in wastewater treatment technology. The book concludes by focusing on specific industry sectors such as baking and brewing.

Handbook of Food Factory Design

Handbook of Food Factory Design
A Book

by Christopher G. J. Baker

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-08-27
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 1461474507
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food manufacturing has evolved over the centuries from kitchen industries to modern, sophisticated production operations. A typical food factory includes the food processing and packaging lines, the buildings and exterior landscaping, and the utility-supply and waste-treatment facilities. As a single individual is unlikely to possess all the necessary skills required to facilitate the design, the task will undoubtedly be undertaken by an interdisciplinary team employing a holistic approach based on a knowledge of the natural and biological sciences, most engineering disciplines, and relevant legislation. In addition, every successful project requires a competent project manager to ensure that all tasks are completed on time and within budget. This Handbook attempts to compress comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of these areas into a single volume. It is hoped that it will prove to be of value across the food-manufacturing community. The multi-disciplinary nature of the subject matter should facilitate more informed communication between individual specialists on the team. It should also provide useful background information on food factory design for a wider range of professionals with a more peripheral interest in the subject: for example, process plant suppliers, contractors, HSE specialists, retailers, consultants, and financial institutions. Finally, it is hoped that it will also prove to be a valuable reference for students and instructors in the areas of food technology, chemical engineering, and mechanical engineering, in particular.

Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry

Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry
Life Cycle Assessment and Related Approaches

by U Sonesson,J Berlin,F Ziegler

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2010-09-30
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0857090224
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Life cycle assessment (LCA) of production and processing in the food industry is an important tool for improving sustainability. Environmental assessment and management in the food industry reviews the advantages, challenges and different applications of LCA and related methods for environmental assessment, as well as key aspects of environmental management in this industry sector. Part one discusses the environmental impact of food production and processing, addressing issues such as nutrient management and water efficiency in agriculture. Chapters in Part two cover LCA methodology and challenges, with chapters focusing on different food industry sectors such as crop production, livestock and aquaculture. Part three addresses the applications of LCA and related approaches in the food industry, with chapters covering combining LCA with economic tools, ecodesign of food products and footprinting methods of assessment, among other topics. The final part of the book concentrates on environmental management in the food industry, including contributions on training, eco-labelling and establishing management systems. With its international team of editors and contributors, Environmental assessment and management in the food industry is an essential reference for anyone involved in environmental management in the food industry, and for those with an academic interest in sustainable food production. Reviews the advantages, challenges and different applications of LCA and related methods for environmental assessment Discusses the environmental impact of food production and processing, addressing issues such as nutrient management and water efficiency in agriculture Examines environmental management in the food industry, including contributions on training, eco-labelling and establishing management systems

Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing

Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing
A Book

by Joyce Boye,Yves Arcand

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-01-11
  • Pages : 686
  • ISBN : 146141587X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book will review the current status of the agriculture and agri-food sector in regard to green processing and provide strategies that can be used by the sector to enhance the use of environmentally-friendly technologies for production, processing. The book will look at the full spectrum from farm to fork beginning with chapters on life cycle analysis and environmental impact assessment of different agri-food sectors. This will be followed by reviews of current and novel on-farm practices that are more environmentally-friendly, technologies for food processing that reduce chemical and energy use and emissions as well as novel analytical techniques for R&D and QA which reduce solvent, chemical and energy consumption. Technologies for waste treatment, "reducing, reusing, recycling", and better water and energy stewardship will be reviewed. In addition, the last section of the book will attempt to look at technologies and processes that reduce the generation of process-induced toxins (e.g., trans fats, acrylamide, D-amino acids) and will address consumer perceptions about current and emerging technologies available to tackle these processing and environmental issues.

The Interaction of Food Industry and Environment

The Interaction of Food Industry and Environment
A Book

by Charis M. Galanakis

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-01-22
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 012817515X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Interaction of Food Industry and Environment addresses all levels of interaction, paying particular attention to avenues for responsible operational excellence in food production and processing. Written at a scientific level, this book explores many topics relating to the food industry and environment, including environmental management systems, environmental performance evaluation, the correlation between food industry, sustainable diets and environment, environmental regulation on the profitability of sustainable water use in the food industry, lifecycle assessment, green supply chain network design and sustainability, the valorization of food processing waste via biorefineries, food-energy-environment trilemma, wastewater treatment, and much more. Readers will also find valuable information on energy production from food processing waste, packaging and food sustainability, the concept of virtual water in the food industry, water reconditioning and reuse in the food industry, and control of odors in the food industry. This book is a welcomed resource for food scientists and technologists, environmentalists, food and environmental engineers and academics. Addresses the interaction between the food industry and environment at all levels Focuses on the past decade’s advances in the field Provides a guide to optimize the current food industry’s performance Serves as a resource for anyone dealing with food and environmental science and technology Includes coverage of a variety of topics, including performance indicators, the correlation between the food industry, sustainable diets and the environment, environmental regulations, lifecycle assessments, green supply chain networks, and more

Handbook of Food Process Design

Handbook of Food Process Design
A Book

by Shafiur Rahman,Jasim Ahmed

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-05-21
  • Pages : 1600
  • ISBN : 144433011X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This book will offer a comprehensive account of the design of all major food processing systems, including both established and novel unit operations. The range of equipment available for any given process will be described, including the basic theoretical principles and modes of operation. Advantages and limitations of the equipment within various relevant parameters (such as size, processing time, cost and energy requirements) will be explained and schematic diagrams will be provided to show the stages of each process component in detail. The book also covers computer-aided design and control systems, cost considerations and cleaning and sanitation methods. Practical examples of process design scenarios will be included to help the reader in specifying and designing their own operations. All chapters will follow the following format:1. Purpose of unit operation2. What are the end products of the process?3. Process flow sheet, material and energy balances, and schematic diagram of the process and its components4. Basic theoretical principles and mode of operations.5. Different types of equipment available with their advantages and limitations. What are the parameters we need to know? For example, time, energy, size, and other factors.6. Empirical data and rules of thumb used to facilitate the various design calculations, simplified equations and shortcut methods.7. Simple equations, tables, and graphs to estimate the design parameters.8. Process control, operations and maintenance of the unit operations.9. Advanced levels of process design for complicated systems. Computer aided process/plant design.10. Cleaning and sanitation methods.11. Capital and operating cost for different size of the equipments.12. Summary and future needs.13. Worked out examples related to design"--

Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems

Small and Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Systems
Advanced Design, Performance, Materials and Applications

by R Beith

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2011-04-30
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 0857092758
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems are a form of cogeneration technology suitable for domestic and community buildings, commercial establishments and industrial facilities, as well as local heat networks. One of the benefits of using cogeneration plant is a vastly improved energy efficiency: in some cases achieving up to 80–90% systems efficiency, whereas small-scale electricity production is typically at well below 40% efficiency, using the same amount of fuel. This higher efficiency affords users greater energy security and increased long-term sustainability of energy resources, while lower overall emissions levels also contribute to an improved environmental performance. Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the technological and practical developments of small and micro CHP systems. Part one opens with reviews of small and micro CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment, as well as their integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels. Part two focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines, gas turbines and microturbines, Stirling engines, organic Rankine cycle process and fuel cell systems. Heat-activated cooling (i.e. trigeneration) technologies and energy storage systems, of importance to the regional/seasonal viability of this technology round out this section. Finally, part three covers the range of applications of small and micro CHP systems, from residential buildings and district heating, to commercial buildings and industrial applications, as well as reviewing the market deployment of this important technology. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Small and micro combined heat and power (CHP) systems is an essential reference work for anyone involved or interested in the design, development, installation and optimisation of small and micro CHP systems. Reviews small- and micro-CHP systems and their techno-economic and performance assessment Explores integration into distributed energy systems and their increasing utilisation of biomass fuels Focuses on the development of different types of CHP technology, including internal combustion and reciprocating engines

Food Processing Technology

Food Processing Technology
Principles and Practice

by P J Fellows

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-06-22
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 1845696344
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The first edition of Food processing technology was quickly adopted as the standard text by many food science and technology courses. This completely revised and updated third edition consolidates the position of this textbook as the best single-volume introduction to food manufacturing technologies available. This edition has been updated and extended to include the many developments that have taken place since the second edition was published. In particular, advances in microprocessor control of equipment, ‘minimal’ processing technologies, functional foods, developments in ‘active’ or ‘intelligent’ packaging, and storage and distribution logistics are described. Technologies that relate to cost savings, environmental improvement or enhanced product quality are highlighted. Additionally, sections in each chapter on the impact of processing on food-borne micro-organisms are included for the first time. Introduces a range of processing techniques that are used in food manufacturing Explains the key principles of each process, including the equipment used and the effects of processing on micro-organisms that contaminate foods Describes post-processing operations, including packaging and distribution logistics

Food Processing

Food Processing
Principles and Applications

by Stephanie Clark,Stephanie Jung,Buddhi Lamsal

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-04-03
  • Pages : 592
  • ISBN : 1118846281
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food Processing: Principles and Applications second edition is the fully revised new edition of this best-selling food technology title.Advances in food processing continue to take place as food scientists and food engineers adapt to the challenges imposed by emerging pathogens, environmental concerns, shelf life, quality and safety, as well as the dietary needs and demands of humans. In addition to covering food processing principles that have long been essential to food quality and safety, this edition of Food Processing: Principles and Applications, unlike the former edition, covers microbial/enzyme inactivation kinetics, alternative food processing technologies as well as environmental and sustainability issues currently facing the food processing industry. The book is divided into two sections, the first focusing on principles of food processing and handling, and the second on processing technologies and applications. As a hands-on guide to the essential processing principles and their applications, covering the theoretical and applied aspects of food processing in one accessible volume, this book is a valuable tool for food industry professionals across all manufacturing sectors, and serves as a relevant primary or supplemental text for students of food science.

Security of Industrial Water Supply and Management

Security of Industrial Water Supply and Management
A Book

by Aysel T. Atimtay,Subhas K. Sikdar

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-08-24
  • Pages : 275
  • ISBN : 9400718675
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over time, the increased use of fresh water for agriculture and industry together with contamination from discharges of pollutants, mean that ever more areas of the planet are becoming water-stressed. Because of the competing needs of communities and industry for fresh water, industry will be challenged to meet its growing demands for water, which is essential for producing the goods and services that would boost human welfare. Thus industry will need to learn how to cost-effectively purify and recycle its wastewater for reuse, ultimately approaching a net zero-discharge condition. The chapters in this book, written by international experts, treat the technical issues of such treatment and water management, and also provide guidance on technologies, either existing or in development, that can potentially achieve the goal of recycle-reuse. The book will serve as a useful reference for academics, government and industry professionals alike.

Sustainable Process Integration and Intensification

Sustainable Process Integration and Intensification
Saving Energy, Water and Resources

by Jirí Jaromír Klemeš,Petar Sabev Varbanov,Sharifah Rafidah Wan Alwi,Zainuddin Abdul Manan

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2018-04-23
  • Pages : 324
  • ISBN : 3110535548
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In its second edition, Sustainable Process Integration and Intensification continues the presentation of fundamentals of key areas of both fields. Thoroughly updated and extended to include the latest developments, the reader also finds illustrated working sessions for deeper understanding of the taught materials.The book is addressed to graduate students as well as professionals to help the effectively application in plant design and operation.

Process Integration and Intensification

Process Integration and Intensification
Saving Energy, Water and Resources

by Jirí Jaromír Klemeš,Petar Sabev Varbanov,Sharifah Rafidah Wan Wan Alwi,Zainuddin Abdul Manan

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release : 2014-05-26
  • Pages : 265
  • ISBN : 3110306859
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"The authors have provided all the elements required for complete understanding of the basic concepts in heat recovery and water minimization in chemical and related processes, and followed these with carefully selected and developed problems and solutions in order to ensure that the concepts delivered can be applied." Simon Perry, The University of Manchester. This graduate textbook covers fundamentals of the key areas of Process Integration and Intensification for intra-process heat recovery (Heat Integration), inter-process heat recovery and cogeneration (Total Site) as well as water conservation. Step by step working sessions are illustrated for deeper understanding of the taught materials. The textbook also provides a wealth of pointers as well as further information for readers to acquire more extensive materials on the diverse industrial applications and the latest development trends in Process Integration and Intensification. It is addressed to graduate students as well as professionals to help the effectively application of Process Integration and Intensification in plant design and operation.

Handbook of Waste Management and Co-Product Recovery in Food Processing

Handbook of Waste Management and Co-Product Recovery in Food Processing
A Book

by Keith W. Waldron

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-10-26
  • Pages : 680
  • ISBN : 1845697057
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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...an ideal information source for those involved in managing waste and recovering waste for use in products to produce revenue... (Food Science and Technology - review of Volume 1) This is a most welcome addition to the literature, likely to be essential study material for both technologists and process engineers. (The Chemical Engineer - review of Volume 1) Food processors are under pressure, both from consumers and legislation, to reduce the amount of waste they produce and to consume water and energy more efficiently. Handbook of waste management and co-product recovery in food processing provides essential information about the major issues and technologies involved in waste co-product valorisation, methods to reduce water and energy consumption, waste reduction in particular food industry sectors and end waste management. Opening chapters in Part one of Volume 2 cover economic and legislative drivers for waste management and co-product recovery. Part two discusses life cycle analysis and closed-loop production systems to minimise environmental impacts in food production. It also includes chapters on water and energy use as well as sustainable packaging. Part three reviews methods for exploiting co-products as food and feed ingredients, whilst the final part of the book discusses techniques for non-food exploitation of co-products from food processing. Provides essential information about the major issues and technologies involved in waste product valorisation Examines methods to reduce water and energy consumption in partciular food industry sectors Discusses the economic and legislative drivers for waste management and co-product recovery

Innovative Food Processing Technologies

Innovative Food Processing Technologies
Extraction, Separation, Component Modification and Process Intensification

by Kai Knoerzer,Pablo Juliano,Geoffrey W Smithers

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2016-06-29
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN : 008100298X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Innovative Food Processing Technologies: Extraction, Separation, Component Modification and Process Intensification focuses on advances in new and novel non-thermal processing technologies which allow food producers to modify and process food with minimal damage to the foodstuffs. The book is highly focused on the application of new and novel technologies, beginning with an introductory chapter, and then detailing technologies which can be used to extract food components. Further sections on the use of technologies to modify the structure of food and the separation of food components are also included, with a final section focusing on process intensification and enhancement. Provides information on a variety of food processing technologies Focuses on advances in new and novel non-thermal processing technologies which allow food producers to modify and process food with minimal damage to the foodstuffs Presents a strong focus on the application of technologies in a variety of situations Created by editors who have a background in both the industry and academia

Water-Energy-Food Nexus

Water-Energy-Food Nexus
Principles and Practices

by P. Abdul Salam,Vishnu Prasad Pandey,Sangam Shrestha

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-08-21
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 1119243130
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Water, energy and food are key resources to sustain life, and are the fundamental to national, regional and global economies. These three resources are interlinked in multiple ways, and the term “nexus” captures the interconnections. The nexus has been discussed, debated, researched, and advocated widely but the focus is often on the pairings of “water-energy” or “water-food” or “energy-food”. To really benefit from the nexus approach in terms of resource use efficiency it is essential to understand, operationalize and practice the nexus of all three resources. As demand for these resources increases worldwide, using them sustainability is a critical concern for scientists and citizens, governments and policy makers. Volume highlights include: Contributions to the global debate on water-energy-food nexus Examples of the nexus approach in practice from different regions of the world Perspectives on the future of the nexus agenda Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Theories and Practices is a valuable resource for students, research scholars and professionals in academic institutions with strong interests in interdisciplinary research involving geography, earth science, environmental science, environmental management, sustainability science, international development, and ecological economics. The volume will also be useful for professionals, practitioners and consultants in /NGOs, government, and international agencies.

Electron Beam Pasteurization and Complementary Food Processing Technologies

Electron Beam Pasteurization and Complementary Food Processing Technologies
A Book

by Suresh Pillai,Shima Shayanfar

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-11-28
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 1782421084
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food safety is a constant challenge for the food industry, and food irradiation technology has developed significantly since its introduction, moving from isotope irradiation to the use of electron beam technology. Electron Beam Pasteurization and Complementary Food Processing Technologies explores the application of electron beam pasteurization in conjunction with other food processing technologies to improve the safety and quality of food. Part one provides an overview of the issues surrounding electron beam pasteurization in food processing. Part two looks at different thermal and non-thermal food processing technologies that complement irradiation. Finally, a case study section on the commercial applications of e-beam processing provides examples from industry.

Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries

Cereal Grains for the Food and Beverage Industries
A Book

by Elke K Arendt,Emanuele Zannini

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-04-09
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 0857098926
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cereals are a staple of the human diet and have a significant effect on health. As a result, they are of major significance to the food industry. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries provides a comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species, from their composition to their use in food products. The book reviews the major cereal species, starting with wheat and triticale before covering rye, barley and oats. It goes on to discuss other major species such as rice, maize, sorghum and millet, as well as pseudo-cereals such as buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth. Each chapter reviews grain structure, chemical composition (including carbohydrate and protein content), processing and applications in food and beverage products. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries is an essential reference for academic researchers interested in the area of cereal grains and products. It is also an invaluable reference for professionals in the food and beverage industry working with cereal products, including ingredient manufacturers, food technologists, nutritionists, as well as policy-makers and health care professionals. A comprehensive overview of all of the important cereal and pseudo-cereal species Chapters review each of the following species: Wheat, Maize, Rice, Barley, Triticale, Rye, Oats, Sorghum, Millet, Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth Reviews grain structure, chemical composition, processing and applications in food and beverage products for each of the considered grains

Open Innovation in the Food and Beverage Industry

Open Innovation in the Food and Beverage Industry
A Book

by Marian Garcia Martinez

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-01-22
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 0857097245
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food and beverage companies are increasingly choosing to enhance internal idea development by pursuing an ‘open innovation’ approach, allowing the additional exploitation of external ideas and paths to market. Drawing on a range of important case studies, Open innovation in the food and beverage industry investigates the challenges and opportunities afforded by the incorporation of open innovation into the food industry. Part one provides a comprehensive overview of the changing nature of innovation in the food and drink industry, acknowledging trends and considering the implications and impact of open innovation. Part two then reviews the role of partners and networks in open innovation, with collaboration, co-creation of value with consumers, the effectiveness of cluster organizations and the importance of network knowledge all discussed, before part three goes on to explore the establishment and varied management aspects of open innovation partnerships and networks. Finally, open-innovation tools, processes and managerial frameworks are the focus of part four, with discussion of the development, application and psychology of a range of initiatives. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Open innovation in the food and beverage industry is a unique guide to the implementation and management of open innovation for all food industry professionals involved in management, research and product development, as well as academics with an interest in open innovation across all industries. Investigates the challenges and opportunities afforded by the incorporation of open innovation into the food industry Provides a comprehensive overview of the changing nature of innovation in the food and drink industry and reviews the role of partners and networks in open innovation Explores the establishment and varied management aspects of open innovation partnerships and networks and discusses the development, application and psychology of a range of initiatives

Recent Advances in Sustainable Process Design and Optimization

Recent Advances in Sustainable Process Design and Optimization
A Book

by Dominic C. Y. Foo,Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi,Raymond R. Tan

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 796
  • ISBN : 9814271950
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a compilation of the various recently developed techniques emphasizing better chemical processes and products, with state-of-the-art contributions by world-renowned leaders in process design and optimization. It covers various areas such as grass-root design, retrofitting, continuous, batch, energy, separation, and pollution prevention, striking a balance between fundamental techniques and applications. A large section of this book focuses on industrial applications and will serve as a good compilation of recent industrial experiences for which the process design and optimization techniques were practised. Industrial practitioners will find this book useful as a guide to practice the various techniques in their respective plants and processes. The book is accompanied by some electronic supplements (i.e., models and programs) for selected chapters.