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High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

High-Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria
Phenomenology and Computation

by Ulrich K Deiters,Thomas Kraska

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-04-26
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 0444563547
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram classes, how to recognize them and identify their characteristic features presents rational nomenclature of binary fluid phase diagrams includes problems and solutions for self-testing, exercises or seminars

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria

High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria
A Book

by Marlie Du Rand

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria
A Book

by John M. Prausnitz,Rudiger N. Lichtenthaler,Edmundo Gomes de Azevedo

  • Publisher : Pearson Education
  • Release : 1998-10-22
  • Pages : 864
  • ISBN : 0132440504
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The classic guide to mixtures, completely updated with new models, theories, examples, and data. Efficient separation operations and many other chemical processes depend upon a thorough understanding of the properties of gaseous and liquid mixtures. Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Third Edition is a systematic, practical guide to interpreting, correlating, and predicting thermodynamic properties used in mixture-related phase-equilibrium calculations. Completely updated, this edition reflects the growing maturity of techniques grounded in applied statistical thermodynamics and molecular simulation, while relying on classical thermodynamics, molecular physics, and physical chemistry wherever these fields offer superior solutions. Detailed new coverage includes: Techniques for improving separation processes and making them more environmentally friendly. Theoretical concepts enabling the description and interpretation of solution properties. New models, notably the lattice-fluid and statistical associated-fluid theories. Polymer solutions, including gas-polymer equilibria, polymer blends, membranes, and gels. Electrolyte solutions, including semi-empirical models for solutions containing salts or volatile electrolytes. Coverage also includes: fundamentals of classical thermodynamics of phase equilibria; thermodynamic properties from volumetric data; intermolecular forces; fugacities in gas and liquid mixtures; solubilities of gases and solids in liquids; high-pressure phase equilibria; virial coefficients for quantum gases; and much more. Throughout, Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria strikes a perfect balance between empirical techniques and theory, and is replete with useful examples and experimental data. More than ever, it is the essential resource for engineers, chemists, and other professionals working with mixtures and related processes.

Computer Calculations and Graphics Display of High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria in Binary Mixtures

Computer Calculations and Graphics Display of High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibria in Binary Mixtures
A Book

by Catherine Ann Dauscher

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1988
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing

High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing
A Book

by Tiziana Fornari,Roumiana P. Stateva

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-10-31
  • Pages : 517
  • ISBN : 3319106112
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The aim of this book is to present the fundamentals of high pressure technologies from the perspective of mass transfer phenomena and thermodynamic considerations. Novel food applications are exposed and their relation to chemical analysis, extraction, reaction and particle formation processes are outlined. The chapters are written by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in chemistry, food processes, analytical chemistry, chemical engineering and chemical engineering thermodynamics, and biotechnology. The mission of green food engineering is to promote innovative technologies that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous materials (solvents, reagents) in the design and operation of food related processes, with the view to improve food safety and quality. Several efficient, environmentally friendly and benign technologies based on the use of high pressure and green solvents have demonstrated to be sustainable alternatives to traditional processes in the food industry. Although hundreds of new ideas are being published in the open literature, reliable engineering tools to simulate and design those processes are still under development. High Pressure Fluid Technology for Green Food Processing presents in-depth analyses and outlines the ways towards their maturity. Tiziana Fornari, Research Institute of Food Science (CIAL) Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain Roumiana P. Stateva, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-phase Equilibria

Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-phase Equilibria
A Book

by J. M. Prausnitz,PrausnitzHJ. M.

  • Publisher : Prentice Hall
  • Release : 1969
  • Pages : 523
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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97774-4 The classic guide to mixtures, completely updated with new models, theories, examples, and data. Efficient separation operations and many other chemical processes depend upon a thorough understanding of the properties of gaseous and liquid mixtures. Molecular Thermodynamics of Fluid-Phase Equilibria, Third Edition is a systematic, practical guide to interpreting, correlating, and predicting thermodynamic properties used in mixture-related phase-equilibrium calculations. Completely updated, this edition reflects the growing maturity of techniques grounded in applied statistical thermodynamics and molecular simulation, while relying on classical thermodynamics, molecular physics, and physical chemistry wherever these fields offer superior solutions. Detailed new coverage includes: Techniques for improving separation processes and making them more environmentally friendly. Theoretical concepts enabling the description and interpretation of solution properties. New models, notably the lattice-fluid and statistical associated-fluid theories. Polymer solutions, including gas-polymer equilibria, polymer blends, membranes, and gels. Electrolyte solutions, including semi-empirical models for solutions containing salts or volatile electrolytes. Coverage also includes: fundamentals of classical thermodynamics of phase equilibria; thermodynamic properties from volumetric data; intermolecular forces; fugacities in gas and liquid mixtures; solubilities of gases and solids in liquids; high-pressure phase equilibria; virial coefficients for quantum gases; and much more. Throughout, Molecular Thermodynamics ofFluid-Phase Equilibria strikes a perfect balance between empirical techniques and theory, and is replete with useful examples and experimental data. More than ever, it is the essential resource for engineers, chemists, and oth

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
A Book

by Esteban Alberto Brignole,Selva Pereda

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-04-02
  • Pages : 346
  • ISBN : 044459471X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and optimization is analyzed. The relation between the mixture molecular properties, the selection of the thermodynamic model and the process technology that could be applied are discussed. A classification of mixtures, separation process, thermodynamic models and technologies is presented to guide the engineer in the world of separation processes. The phase condition required for a given reacting system is studied at subcritical and supercritical conditions. The four cardinal points of phase equilibrium engineering are: the chemical plant or process, the laboratory, the modeling of phase equilibria and the simulator. The harmonization of all these components to obtain a better design or operation is the ultimate goal of phase equilibrium engineering. Methodologies are discussed using relevant industrial examples The molecular nature and composition of the process mixture is given a key role in process decisions Phase equilibrium diagrams are used as a drawing board for process implementation

An Experimental Investigation of the High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibrium of Highly Asymmetric Binary Mixtures

An Experimental Investigation of the High Pressure Fluid Phase Equilibrium of Highly Asymmetric Binary Mixtures
A Book

by Mark Anthony McHugh

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1981
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ternary Fluid-phase Equilibria at High Pressures with One Normally Gaseous Component

Ternary Fluid-phase Equilibria at High Pressures with One Normally Gaseous Component
A Book

by Raymond Nickolas Fleck

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1967
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures

High Pressure Phase Behaviour of Multicomponent Fluid Mixtures
A Book

by R.J. Sadus

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-12-02
  • Pages : 411
  • ISBN : 0444596666
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The high pressure phase behaviour of binary fluid mixtures has been extensively studied during the last three decades. There is ample experimental data for a wide variety of binary mixtures and extensive methods for prediction have been developed. In contrast, the investigation of ternary and other multicomponent fluids is in its infancy. Experimental ternary mixture critical data are very rare and theoretical studies have been limited to data correlation rather than genuine prediction. The phase behaviour of ternary and other multicomponent fluid mixtures has many novel aspects which are not manifested in binary mixtures. The properties of ternary mixtures are also likely to be more difficult to characterize experimentally. It is in this context that calculated phase diagrams have an important role in leading the discovery of new phenomena and guiding experimental work. The criteria for phase equilibria of multicomponent fluids with particular emphasis on the critical state are examined in this book, and models for predicting fluid equilibria (e.g., different equations of state) are compared. Particular attention is paid to the critical state of ternary mixtures which has hitherto been largely neglected. The problems associated with predicting ternary equilibria are discussed, and some novel aspects of ternary critical phenomena are illustrated. The books also describes a novel type of critical transition which appears to be a common feature of the equilibria of ternary mixtures. Extensive phase diagrams of a wide range of ternary mixtures including systems containing carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and tetrafluoromethane as one or more component are presented. The theoretical treatment is detailed in the appendix and a computation of known experimental critical points is also included.

Phase Equilibrium Engineering

Phase Equilibrium Engineering
Chapter 11. Phase Equilibrium Engineering Principles in Reactive Systems

by Esteban Brignole,Selva Pereda

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-04-02
  • Pages : 346
  • ISBN : 0128082658
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The benefits of using SCF as reaction media have promoted an intense research and development activity in this field. In this chapter, several case studies demonstrate the advantages of working under supercritical conditions. In particular, gas–liquid catalyzed reactions are one of the areas where the use of supercritical fluids is very attractive. In general, these reactions are diffusion-controlled and the use of supercritical fluids increases the reaction rate by eliminating the gas–liquid interface. In this chapter also, the interesting properties of operation under near-critical conditions are analyzed: higher solubility of reactants and products in the supercritical phase, reduced deposition of reacting components on the catalyst pores, diffusion coefficients higher than in liquids, independent control of the concentration of permanent gases like H2, O2, or CO in the reaction mixture, higher thermal capacity, and low interfacial tension The hydrogenation of low volatile liquids, using solid–fluid heterogeneous catalysts, is presented to show the advantages of working under supercritical conditions. In this case study, the selection of the process conditions that guarantees operation under a supercritical single-phase state is discussed as a typical phase equilibrium engineering problem. Finally, for reactions in which the SCF plays a role not only as solvent but also as a reactant, the problem of phase condition design and cosolvent selection is addressed.

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering

Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering
A Book

by Camila Gambini Pereira

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-10-17
  • Pages : 682
  • ISBN : 0128115572
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermodynamics of Phase Equilibria in Food Engineering is the definitive book on thermodynamics of equilibrium applied to food engineering. Food is a complex matrix consisting of different groups of compounds divided into macronutrients (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins), and micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals). The quality characteristics of food products associated with the sensorial, physical and microbiological attributes are directly related to the thermodynamic properties of specific compounds and complexes that are formed during processing or by the action of diverse interventions, such as the environment, biochemical reactions, and others. In addition, in obtaining bioactive substances using separation processes, the knowledge of phase equilibria of food systems is essential to provide an efficient separation, with a low cost in the process and high selectivity in the recovery of the desired component. This book combines theory and application of phase equilibria data of systems containing food compounds to help food engineers and researchers to solve complex problems found in food processing. It provides support to researchers from academia and industry to better understand the behavior of food materials in the face of processing effects, and to develop ways to improve the quality of the food products. Presents the fundamentals of phase equilibria in the food industry Describes both classic and advanced models, including cubic equations of state and activity coefficient Encompasses distillation, solid-liquid extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, adsorption, crystallization and supercritical fluid extraction Explores equilibrium in advanced systems, including colloidal, electrolyte and protein systems

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure

In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure
A Book

by Andreas Braeuer

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-12-07
  • Pages : 394
  • ISBN : 0444634207
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In situ Spectroscopic Techniques at High Pressure provides a comprehensive treatment of in-situ applications of spectroscopic techniques at high pressure and their working principles, allowing the reader to develop a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited. Coverage is also given to the instrumental requirements for these applications, with respect to the high pressure instrumentation and the spectroscopic components of the equipment. The pedagogical style of the book is supplemented by the inclusion of "study questions" which aim to make it useful for graduate-level courses. Bridges the gap between supercritical fluid science/technology and in-situ spectroscopic techniques Provides a powerful guide to applying spectroscopic techniques as gainful sensors at high pressure Highlights the influence of a high pressure environment and high pressure equipment on spectroscopic techniques Presents a deep understanding of which measurements are accessible with each technique, what their limitations are, and for which application each technique is best suited

Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation

Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation
A Book

by Jürgen Gmehling,Michael Kleiber,Bärbel Kolbe,Jürgen Rarey

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2019-03-15
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 3527809457
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The only textbook that applies thermodynamics to real-world process engineering problems This must-read for advanced students and professionals alike is the first book to demonstrate how chemical thermodynamics work in the real world by applying them to actual engineering examples. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the particular models and procedures, and explains the most important models that are applied in process industry. All the topics are illustrated with examples that are closely related to practical process simulation problems. At the end of each chapter, additional calculation examples are given to enable readers to extend their comprehension. Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation instructs on the behavior of fluids for pure fluids, describing the main types of equations of state and their abilities. It discusses the various quantities of interest in process simulation, their correlation, and prediction in detail. Chapters look at the important terms for the description of the thermodynamics of mixtures; the most important models and routes for phase equilibrium calculation; models which are applicable to a wide variety of non-electrolyte systems; membrane processes; polymer thermodynamics; enthalpy of reaction; chemical equilibria, and more. -Explains thermodynamic fundamentals used in process simulation with solved examples -Includes new chapters about modern measurement techniques, retrograde condensation, and simultaneous description of chemical equilibrium -Comprises numerous solved examples, which simplify the understanding of the often complex calculation procedures, and discusses advantages and disadvantages of models and procedures -Includes estimation methods for thermophysical properties and phase equilibria thermodynamics of alternative separation processes -Supplemented with MathCAD-sheets and DDBST programs for readers to reproduce the examples Chemical Thermodynamics for Process Simulation is an ideal resource for those working in the fields of process development, process synthesis, or process optimization, and an excellent book for students in the engineering sciences.

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids

Introduction to Supercritical Fluids
A Spreadsheet-based Approach

by Richard Smith Jr.,Hiroshi Inomata,Cor Peters

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2013-12-08
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN : 0080931308
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This text provides an introduction to supercritical fluids with easy-to-use Excel spreadsheets suitable for both specialized-discipline (chemistry or chemical engineering student) and mixed-discipline (engineering/economic student) classes. Each chapter contains worked examples, tip boxes and end-of-the-chapter problems and projects. Part I covers web-based chemical information resources, applications and simplified theory presented in a way that allows students of all disciplines to delve into the properties of supercritical fluids and to design energy, extraction and materials formation systems for real-world processes that use supercritical water or supercritical carbon dioxide. Part II takes a practical approach and addresses the thermodynamic framework, equations of state, fluid phase equilibria, heat and mass transfer, chemical equilibria and reaction kinetics of supercritical fluids. Spreadsheets are arranged as Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) functions and macros that are completely (source code) accessible for students who have interest in developing their own programs. Programming is not required to solve problems or to complete projects in the text. Property worksheets/spreadsheets that are easy to use in learning environments Worked examples with Excel VBA Worksheet functions allow users to design their own processes Fluid phase equilibria and chemical equilibria worksheets allow users to change conditions, study new solutes, co-solvents, chemical systems or reactions

Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook

Physical Properties of Polymers Handbook
A Book

by James E. Mark

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-03-21
  • Pages : 1076
  • ISBN : 0387690026
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book offers concise information on the properties of polymeric materials, particularly those most relevant to physical chemistry and chemical physics. Extensive updates and revisions to each chapter include eleven new chapters on novel polymeric structures, reinforcing phases in polymers, and experiments on single polymer chains. The study of complex materials is highly interdisciplinary, and new findings are scattered among a large selection of scientific and engineering journals. This book brings together data from experts in the different disciplines contributing to the rapidly growing area of polymers and complex materials.

Emerging and Traditional Technologies for Safe, Healthy and Quality Food

Emerging and Traditional Technologies for Safe, Healthy and Quality Food
A Book

by Viktor Nedović,Peter Raspor,Jovanka Lević,Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac,Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-12-16
  • Pages : 478
  • ISBN : 3319240404
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since its inception in 2002, the Central European Food Congress (CEFood) has been a biannual meeting intended for food producers and distributors as well as researchers and educators to promote research, development, innovation and education within food science and technology in the Middle European region with a tight connection to global trends. The 6th CEFood, held in Novi Sad, Serbia, May 23-26, 2012, highlighted the novel technologies and traditional foods aimed at both the European and global markets. Specifically, CEFood 2012 focused on the latest progress in fundamental and applied food science, research and development, innovative technology, food ingredients, novel trends in nutrition and health, functional and bioactive food, food engineering, food safety and quality and the food and feed market. This book will consist of contributions from various presenters at CEFood 2012, covering the major themes of this Congress. Chapters contributed by expert presenters from the 6th CEFood Congress of 2012 Highlights the novel technologies of food science Discusses the future of the food industry and food research

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids

Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids
Methods, Fundamentals and Modeling

by Can Erkey,Michael Turk

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-12-08
  • Pages : 282
  • ISBN : 0444640908
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials in Near and/or Supercritical Fluids: Methods, Fundamentals and Modeling offers a comprehensive review of the current status of research, development and insights on promising future directions, covering the synthesis of nanostructured materials using supercritical fluid-based processes. The book presents fundamental aspects such as high-pressure phase behavior of complex mixtures, thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption from supercritical solutions, mechanisms of particle formation phenomena in supercritical fluid-based processes, and models for further development. It bridges the gap between theory and application, and is a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and students alike. Includes thermodynamic and mass transfer data necessary for industrial plant design Explains the mechanisms of reactions in a supercritical fluid environment Lists numerous industrial processes for the production of many consumer products

Petroleum Fluid Phase Behavior

Petroleum Fluid Phase Behavior
Characterization, Processes, and Applications

by Raj Deo Tewari,Abhijit Y. Dandekar,Jaime Moreno Ortiz

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-12-14
  • Pages : 412
  • ISBN : 1351857231
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book deals with complex fluid characterization of oil and gas reservoirs, emphasizing the importance of PVT parameters for practical application in reservoir simulation and management. It covers modeling of PVT parameters, QA/QC of PVT data from lab studies, EOS modeling, PVT simulation and compositional grading and variation. It describes generation of data for reservoir engineering calculations in view of limited and unreliable data and techniques like downhole fluid analysis and photophysics of reservoir fluids. It discusses behavior of unconventional reservoirs, particularly for difficult resources like shale gas, shale oil, coalbed methane, reservoirs, heavy and extra heavy oils.

CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions

CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions
A Book

by Christian Wohlfarth

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-08-10
  • Pages : 775
  • ISBN : 1466554436
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A large amount of experimental data has been published since the debut of the original CRC Handbook of Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions. Incorporating new and updated material, the CRC Handbook of Phase Equilibria and Thermodynamic Data of Aqueous Polymer Solutions provides a comprehensive collection of thermodynamic data of polymer solutions. It helps readers quickly retrieve necessary information from the literature, and assists researchers in planning new measurements where data are missing. A valuable resource for the modern chemistry field, the Handbook clearly details how measurements were conducted and methodically explains the nomenclature. It presents data essential for the production and use of polymers as well as for understanding the physical behavior and intermolecular interactions in polymer solutions.