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How the Great Scientists Reasoned

How the Great Scientists Reasoned
The Scientific Method in Action

by Gary G. Tibbetts

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2012-10-01
  • Pages : 148
  • ISBN : 012398498X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The scientific method is one of the most basic and essential concepts across the sciences, ensuring that investigations are carried out with precision and thoroughness. This book teaches the basic modes of scientific thought, not by philosophical generalizations, but by illustrating in detail how great scientists from across the sciences solved problems using scientific reason.

Science and Political Controversy: A Reference Handbook

Science and Political Controversy: A Reference Handbook
A Reference Handbook

by David E. Newton

  • Publisher : ABC-CLIO
  • Release : 2014-04-21
  • Pages : 332
  • ISBN : 1610693205
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A shrewd and compelling examination of how political figures throughout history have used scientific findings to achieve their objectives—just as scientists have often put political forces to work to achieve their own goals. • Supplies a detailed review of the past decade during which politicians have misused and misrepresented scientific knowledge • Describes events going back to ancient Greece during which use or misuse of scientific or political power occurred, underscoring how these behaviors are well-established "means to an end" • Includes biographical sketches of individuals who have been involved in such activities

Science and Judicial Reasoning

Science and Judicial Reasoning
The Legitimacy of International Environmental Adjudication

by Katalin Sulyok

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2020-10-29
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 1108489664
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This pioneering study on environmental case-law examines how courts engage with science and reviews legitimate styles of judicial reasoning.

Science Education

Science Education
A Book

by John K. Gilbert

  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 9780415342292
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Udvalgte artikler fra 1985-2005, fordelt på 8 temaer: The relationship between science and science education ; Aims of the formal science curriculum and the needs of the students ; Science education in the formal curriculum ; Assessment in formal science education ; Teaching in science education ; Learning in science education ; The conceptual development of students in science education ; The professional development of science teachers

Good Science, Bad Science, Pseudoscience, and Just Plain Bunk

Good Science, Bad Science, Pseudoscience, and Just Plain Bunk
How to Tell the Difference

by Peter A. Daempfle

  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  • Release : 2012-12-16
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 1442217286
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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We are constantly bombarded with breaking scientific news in the media, but we are almost never provided with enough information to assess the truth of these claims. Does drinking coffee really cause cancer? Does bisphenol-A in our tin can linings really cause reproductive damage? Good Science, Bad Science, Pseudoscience, and Just Plain Bunk teaches readers how to think like a scientist to question claims like these more critically. Author Peter A. Daempfle introduces readers to the basics of scientific inquiry, defining what science is and how it can be misused. Through provocative real-world examples, the book helps readers acquire the tools needed to distinguish scientific truth from myth. The book celebrates science and its role in society while building scientific literacy.

How Science Works

How Science Works
Exploring effective pedagogy and practice

by Rob Toplis

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2010-12-02
  • Pages : 168
  • ISBN : 1136876413
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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How Science Works provides student and practising teachers with a comprehensive introduction to one of the most dramatic changes to the secondary science curriculum. Underpinned by the latest research in the field, it explores the emergence and meaning of How Science Works and reviews major developments in pedagogy and practice. With chapters structured around three key themes - why How Science Works, what it is and how to teach it – expert contributors explore issues including the need for curriculum change, arguments for scientific literacy for all, school students’ views about science, what we understand about scientific methods, types of scientific enquiry, and, importantly, effective pedagogies and their implications for practice. Aiming to promote discussion and reflection on the ways forward for this new and emerging area of the school science curriculum, it considers: teaching controversial issues in science argumentation and questioning for effective teaching enhancing investigative science and developing reasoned scientific judgments the role of ICT in exploring How Science Works teaching science outside the classroom. How Science Works is a source of guidance for all student, new and experienced teachers of secondary science, interested in investigating how the curriculum can provide creativity and engagement for all school students.

Engineering Speaking by Design

Engineering Speaking by Design
Delivering Technical Presentations with Real Impact

by Edward J. Rothwell,Michael J. Cloud

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-12-19
  • Pages : 164
  • ISBN : 135183021X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From the Authors of Engineering Writing by Design: Creating Formal Documents of Lasting Value Engineering presentations are often a topic of frustration. Engineers complain that they don't enjoy public speaking, and that they don't know how to address audiences with varying levels of technical knowledge. Their colleagues complain about the state of information transfer in the profession. Non-engineers complain that engineers are boring and talk over everybody’s heads. Although many public speaking books exist, most concentrate on surface issues, failing to distinguish the formal oral technical presentation from general public speaking. Engineering Speaking by Design: Delivering Technical Presentations with Real Impact targets the formal oral technical presentation skills needed to succeed in modern engineering. Providing clear and concise instruction supported by illustrative examples, the book explains how to avoid logical fallacies (both formal and informal), use physical reasoning to catch mistakes in claims, master the essentials of presentation style, conquer the elements of mathematical exposition, and forge a connection with the audience. Each chapter ends with a convenient checklist, bulleted summary, and set of exercises. A solutions manual is available with qualifying course adoption. Yet the book’s most unique feature is its conceptual organization around the engineering design process. This is the process taught in most engineering survey courses: understand the problem, collect relevant information, generate alternative solutions, choose a preferred solution, refine the chosen solution, and so on. Since virtually all engineers learn and practice this process, it is so familiar that it can be applied seamlessly to formal oral technical presentations. Thus, Engineering Speaking by Design: Delivering Technical Presentations with Real Impact is inherently valuable in that it shows engineers how to leverage what they already know. The book’s mantra is: if you can think like an engineer, you can speak like an engineer.

Scientific and Technological Thinking

Scientific and Technological Thinking
A Book

by Michael E. Gorman,Ryan D. Tweney,David C. Gooding,Alexandra P. Kincannon

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2004-09-22
  • Pages : 378
  • ISBN : 1135625115
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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At the turn of the 21st century, the most valuable commodity in society is knowledge--particularly new knowledge that may give a culture, company, or laboratory an adaptive advantage. Knowledge about the cognitive processes that lead to discovery and invention can enhance the probability of making valuable new discoveries and inventions. Such knowledge needs to be made widely available to ensure that no particular interest group "corners the market" on techno-scientific creativity. Knowledge can also facilitate the development of business strategies and social policies based on a genuine understanding of the creative process. Furthermore, through an understanding of principles underlying the cognitive processes related to discovery, educators can utilize these principles to teach students effective problem-solving strategies as part of their education as future scientists. This book takes the reader out onto the cutting edge of research in scientific and technological thinking. The editors advocate a multiple-method approach; chapters include detailed case studies of contemporary and historical practices, experiments, computational simulations, and innovative theoretical analyses. The editors attempt a provocative synthesis of this work at the end. In order to achieve true scientific and technological progress, an understanding of the process by which species are transforming the world is needed. This book makes an important step in that direction by leading to breakthroughs in the understanding of discovery and invention.

Perspectives On Thinking And Reasoning

Perspectives On Thinking And Reasoning
Essays In Honour Of Peter Wason

by Stephen Newstead,Jonathan St.B.T. Evans

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2013-06-20
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN : 1134834268
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This collection of essays focuses on three reasoning problems devised by Peter Wason - the selection task, the 2-4-6 task, and the THOG problem - which have had a considerable influence since their invention.; The reasons why people make so many errors in these seemingly simple tasks are still not fully understood. A variety of different theoretical perspectives have been used in trying to explain performance. These include the mental models approach, the pragmatic reasoning approach, and the mental logic approach. This book contains chapters which discuss all these theories. Other chapters review the literature or offer alternative theoretical perspectives. A final chapter by Peter Wason describes how he came to create the tasks discussed.

Psychology of Reasoning

Psychology of Reasoning
Theoretical and Historical Perspectives

by K. I. Manktelow,Man Cheung Chung

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 382
  • ISBN : 9781841693101
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A set of specially commissioned chapters from leading international researchers in the psychology of reasoning. Its purpose is to explore the historical, philosophical and theoretical implications of the development of this field.

Connectionist Models of Social Reasoning and Social Behavior

Connectionist Models of Social Reasoning and Social Behavior
A Book

by Stephen John Read,Lynn C. Miller

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2014-01-14
  • Pages : 396
  • ISBN : 1317716957
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Although neural network models have had a dramatic impact on the cognitive and brain sciences, social psychology has remained largely unaffected by this intellectual explosion. The first to apply neural network models to social phenomena, this book includes chapters by nearly all of the individuals currently working in this area. Bringing these various approaches together in one place, it allows readers to appreciate the breadth of these approaches, as well as the theoretical commonality of many of these models. The contributors address a number of central issues in social psychology and show how these kinds of models provide insight into many classic issues. Many chapters hint that this approach provides the seeds of a theoretical integration that the field has lacked. Each chapter discusses an explicit connectionist model of a central problem in social psychology. Since many of the contributors either use a standard architecture or provide a computer program, interested readers, with a little work, should be able to implement their own variations of models. Chapters are devoted to the following topics and models: * the learning and application of social categories and stereotypes; * causal reasoning, social explanation, and person perception; * personality and social behavior; * classic dissonance phenomena; and * belief change and the coherence of large scale belief systems.

Teaching Scientific Inquiry

Teaching Scientific Inquiry
Recommendations for Research and Implementation

by Anonim

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2008-01-01
  • Pages : 380
  • ISBN : 9460911455
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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What are scientific inquiry practices like today? How should schools approach inquiry in science education? Teaching Science Inquiry presents the scholarly papers and practical conversations that emerged from the exchanges at a two-day conference of distinctive North American ‘science studies’ and ‘learning science’scholars.

Science as a Process

Science as a Process
An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science

by David L. Hull

  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release : 1990-05-15
  • Pages : 586
  • ISBN : 0226360512
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Legend is overdue for replacement, and an adequate replacement must attend to the process of science as carefully as Hull has done. I share his vision of a serious account of the social and intellectual dynamics of science that will avoid both the rosy blur of Legend and the facile charms of relativism. . . . Because of [Hull's] deep concern with the ways in which research is actually done, Science as a Process begins an important project in the study of science. It is one of a distinguished series of books, which Hull himself edits."—Philip Kitcher, Nature "In Science as a Process, [David Hull] argues that the tension between cooperation and competition is exactly what makes science so successful. . . . Hull takes an unusual approach to his subject. He applies the rules of evolution in nature to the evolution of science, arguing that the same kinds of forces responsible for shaping the rise and demise of species also act on the development of scientific ideas."—Natalie Angier, New York Times Book Review "By far the most professional and thorough case in favour of an evolutionary philosophy of science ever to have been made. It contains excellent short histories of evolutionary biology and of systematics (the science of classifying living things); an important and original account of modern systematic controversy; a counter-attack against the philosophical critics of evolutionary philosophy; social-psychological evidence, collected by Hull himself, to show that science does have the character demanded by his philosophy; and a philosophical analysis of evolution which is general enough to apply to both biological and historical change."—Mark Ridley, Times Literary Supplement "Hull is primarily interested in how social interactions within the scientific community can help or hinder the process by which new theories and techniques get accepted. . . . The claim that science is a process for selecting out the best new ideas is not a new one, but Hull tells us exactly how scientists go about it, and he is prepared to accept that at least to some extent, the social activities of the scientists promoting a new idea can affect its chances of being accepted."—Peter J. Bowler, Archives of Natural History "I have been doing philosophy of science now for twenty-five years, and whilst I would never have claimed that I knew everything, I felt that I had a really good handle on the nature of science, Again and again, Hull was able to show me just how incomplete my understanding was. . . . Moreover, [Science as a Process] is one of the most compulsively readable books that I have ever encountered."—Michael Ruse, Biology and Philosophy

How Science Works

How Science Works
Teaching and Learning in the Science Classroom

by James D. Williams

  • Publisher : A&C Black
  • Release : 2011-04-21
  • Pages : 168
  • ISBN : 1441147071
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Manual of the Art of Fiction

A Manual of the Art of Fiction
A Book

by Clayton Hamilton

  • Publisher : Wildside Press LLC
  • Release : 2009-10-01
  • Pages : 178
  • ISBN : 1557427909
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a complete course in writing fiction. Drawing examples from the works of such masters as Poe, Hawthorne, and Robert Louis Stevenson, it offers a guided course through such vital topics as Realism, Plot, Characters, Setting, Point of View, The Epic, Structure of the Short Story, and much more.

A Manual of the Art of Fiction

A Manual of the Art of Fiction
A Book

by Clayton Meeker Hamilton

  • Publisher : Good Press
  • Release : 2019-12-04
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"A Manual of the Art of Fiction" by Clayton Meeker Hamilton. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

Materials and Methods of Fiction

Materials and Methods of Fiction
A Book

by Clayton Hamilton

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2020-07-30
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 3752376953
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reproduction of the original: Materials and Methods of Fiction by Clayton Hamilton

Reason and Wonder: A Copernican Revolution in Science and Spirit

Reason and Wonder: A Copernican Revolution in Science and Spirit
A Book

by Dave Pruett

  • Publisher : ABC-CLIO
  • Release : 2012-05-08
  • Pages : 399
  • ISBN : 0313399204
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this enlightening and provocative exploration, Dave Pruett sets out a revolutionary new understanding of our place in the universe, one that reconciles the rational demands of science with the deeper tugs of spirituality.

Scientific Reasoning

Scientific Reasoning
The Bayesian Approach

by Colin Howson,Peter Urbach

  • Publisher : Open Court Publishing Company
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 470
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach explains, in an accessible style, those elements of the probability calculus that are relevant to Bayesian methods, and argues that the probability calculus is best regarded as a species of logic." "Howson and Urbach contrast the Bayesian with the 'classical' view that was so influential in the last century, and demonstrate that familiar classical procedures for evaluating statistical hypotheses, such as significance tests, point estimation, confidence intervals, and other techniques, provide an utterly false basis for scientific inference. They also expose the well-known non-probabilistic philosophies of Popper, Lakatos, and Kuhn as similarly unscientific." "Scientific Reasoning shows how Bayesian theory, by contrast with these increasingly discredited approaches, provides a unified and highly satisfactory account of scientific method, an account which practicing scientists and all those interested in the sciences ought to master."--BOOK JACKET.

Reasoning and Thinking

Reasoning and Thinking
A Book

by K. I. Manktelow

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 259
  • ISBN : 0863777090
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This undergraduate textbook reviews psychological research in the major areas of reasoning and thinking: deduction, induction, hypothesis testing, probability judgement, and decision making. It also covers the major theoretical debates in each area, and devotes a chapter to one of the liveliest issues in the field: the question of human rationality. Central themes that recur throughout the book include not only rationality, but also the relation between normative theories such as logic, probability theory, and decision theory, and human performance, both in experiments and in the world outside the laboratory. No prior acquaintance with formal systems is assumed, and everyday examples are used throughout to illustrate technical and theoretical points. The book differs from others in the market firstly in the range of material covered: other tend to focus primarily on on either reasoning or thinking. It is also the first student-level text to survey an imporatant new theoretical perspective, the information-gain or rational analysis approach, and to review the rationality debate from the standpoint of psuchological research in a wide range of areas.