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Human Modeling for Bio-Inspired Robotics

Human Modeling for Bio-Inspired Robotics
Mechanical Engineering in Assistive Technologies

by Jun Ueda,Yuichi Kurita

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-09-02
  • Pages : 358
  • ISBN : 0128031522
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Human Modelling for Bio-inspired Robotics: Mechanical Engineering in Assistive Technologies presents the most cutting-edge research outcomes in the area of mechanical and control aspects of human functions for macro-scale (human size) applications. Intended to provide researchers both in academia and industry with key content on which to base their developments, this book is organized and written by senior experts in their fields. Human Modeling for Bio-Inspired Robotics: Mechanical Engineering in Assistive Technologies offers a system-level investigation into human mechanisms that inspire the development of assistive technologies and humanoid robotics, including topics in modelling of anatomical, musculoskeletal, neural and cognitive systems, as well as motor skills, adaptation and integration. Each chapter is written by a subject expert and discusses its background, research challenges, key outcomes, application, and future trends. This book will be especially useful for academic and industry researchers in this exciting field, as well as graduate-level students to bring them up to speed with the latest technology in mechanical design and control aspects of the area. Previous knowledge of the fundamentals of kinematics, dynamics, control, and signal processing is assumed. Presents the most recent research outcomes in the area of mechanical and control aspects of human functions for macro-scale (human size) applications Covers background information and fundamental concepts of human modelling Includes modelling of anatomical, musculoskeletal, neural and cognitive systems, as well as motor skills, adaptation, integration, and safety issues Assumes previous knowledge of the fundamentals of kinematics, dynamics, control, and signal processing

Lethal Autonomous Weapons

Lethal Autonomous Weapons
Re-Examining the Law and Ethics of Robotic Warfare

by Jai Galliott,Duncan MacIntosh,Jens David Ohlin

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2021-01-19
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0197546048
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The question of whether new rules or regulations are required to govern, restrict, or even prohibit the use of autonomous weapon systems has been the subject of debate for the better part of a decade. Despite the claims of advocacy groups, the way ahead remains unclear since the international community has yet to agree on a specific definition of Lethal Autonomous Weapon Systems and the great powers have largely refused to support an effective ban. In this vacuum, the public has been presented with a heavily one-sided view of Killer Robots. This volume presents a more nuanced approach to autonomous weapon systems that recognizes the need to progress beyond a discourse framed by the Terminator and HAL 9000. Re-shaping the discussion around this emerging military innovation requires a new line of thought and a willingness to challenge the orthodoxy. Lethal Autonomous Weapons focuses on exploring the moral and legal issues associated with the design, development and deployment of lethal autonomous weapons. In this volume, we bring together some of the most prominent academics and academic-practitioners in the lethal autonomous weapons space and seek to return some balance to the debate. As part of this effort, we recognize that society needs to invest in hard conversations that tackle the ethics, morality, and law of these new digital technologies and understand the human role in their creation and operation.

Biologically Inspired Robotics

Biologically Inspired Robotics
A Book

by Yunhui Liu,Dong Sun

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-12-19
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 1439854971
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Robotic engineering inspired by biology—biomimetics—has many potential applications: robot snakes can be used for rescue operations in disasters, snake-like endoscopes can be used in medical diagnosis, and artificial muscles can replace damaged muscles to recover the motor functions of human limbs. Conversely, the application of robotics technology to our understanding of biological systems and behaviors—biorobotic modeling and analysis—provides unique research opportunities: robotic manipulation technology with optical tweezers can be used to study the cell mechanics of human red blood cells, a surface electromyography sensing system can help us identify the relation between muscle forces and hand movements, and mathematical models of brain circuitry may help us understand how the cerebellum achieves movement control. Biologically Inspired Robotics contains cutting-edge material—considerably expanded and with additional analysis—from the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO). These 16 chapters cover both biomimetics and biorobotic modeling/analysis, taking readers through an exploration of biologically inspired robot design and control, micro/nano bio-robotic systems, biological measurement and actuation, and applications of robotics technology to biological problems. Contributors examine a wide range of topics, including: A method for controlling the motion of a robotic snake The design of a bionic fitness cycle inspired by the jaguar The use of autonomous robotic fish to detect pollution A noninvasive brain-activity scanning method using a hybrid sensor A rehabilitation system for recovering motor function in human hands after injury Human-like robotic eye and head movements in human–machine interactions A state-of-the-art resource for graduate students and researchers.

Nonlinear Circuits and Systems for Neuro-inspired Robot Control

Nonlinear Circuits and Systems for Neuro-inspired Robot Control
A Book

by Luca Patanè,Roland Strauss,Paolo Arena

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-03-20
  • Pages : 99
  • ISBN : 3319733478
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book guides readers along a path that proceeds from neurobiology to nonlinear-dynamical circuits, to nonlinear neuro-controllers and to bio-inspired robots. It provides a concise exploration of the essence of neural processing in simple animal brains and its adaptation and extrapolation to modeling, implementation, and realization of the analogous emergent features in artificial but bio-inspired robots: an emerging research field. The book starts with a short presentation of the main areas of the Drosophila brain. These are modeled as nonlinear dynamical structures, which are then used to showcase key features like locomotion, motor learning, memory formation, and exploitation. It also discusses additional complex behaviors, such as sequence learning and perception, which have recently been discovered to exist in insects. Much of the material presented has been tested in biorobotics classes for the Master’s degree in Automation Engineering and Control of Complex Systems at the University of Catania. Reporting on the work fostered by several national and international research projects, the book offers researchers novel ideas on how neuro-inspired dynamics can be used in developing the autonomous machines of the future.

Biologically Inspired Control of Humanoid Robot Arms

Biologically Inspired Control of Humanoid Robot Arms
Robust and Adaptive Approaches

by Adam Spiers,Said Ghani Khan,Guido Herrmann

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-05-19
  • Pages : 276
  • ISBN : 3319301608
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniques investigated in this book. The method includes attractive features such as the decoupling of motion into task and posture components. Various developments are made in each of these elements. Simple cost functions inspired by biomechanical “effort” and “discomfort” generate realistic posture motion. Sliding-mode techniques overcome robustness shortcomings for practical implementation. Arm compliance is achieved via a method of model-free adaptive control that also deals with actuator saturation via anti-windup compensation. A neural-network-centered learning-by-observation scheme generates new task motions, based on motion-capture data recorded from human volunteers. In other parts of the book, motion capture is used to test theories of human movement. All developed controllers are applied to the reaching motion of a humanoid robot arm and are demonstrated to be practically realisable. This book is designed to be of interest to those wishing to achieve dynamics-based human-like robot-arm motion in academic research, advanced study or certain industrial environments. The book provides motivations, extensive reviews, research results and detailed explanations. It is not only suited to practising control engineers, but also applicable for general roboticists who wish to develop control systems expertise in this area.

Biologically Inspired Intelligent Robots

Biologically Inspired Intelligent Robots
A Book

by Yoseph Bar-Cohen,Cynthia L. Breazeal

  • Publisher : SPIE Press
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 393
  • ISBN : 9780819448729
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The multidisciplinary issues involved in the development of biologically inspired intelligent robots include materials, actuators, sensors, structures, functionality, control, intelligence, and autonomy. This book reviews various aspects ranging from the biological model to the vision for the future.

Bio-inspired Control of Robots to Assist Humans with Repetitive Movement Tasks

Bio-inspired Control of Robots to Assist Humans with Repetitive Movement Tasks
A Book

by Jinxin Zhao

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 131
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Oscillatory movements play important roles in human life, various movements in human life, such as walking, bicycling, cleaning, chewing, swimming, etc., are periodic or repetitive. A robotic device that can assist human with such motion tasks would be of utterly significant. This research work addresses the control design problem for such robotic devices and investigates the methods for designing feedback controllers for a robotic system to help a human with periodic motion tasks. The control objective is to stabilize a human-intended oscillatory movement while reducing the required human effort. To approach this problem, two mathematical models are studied and formed as controllers accordingly for a general mechanical system. First, a biological neural circuit model, central pattern generator (CPG), is adopted. Animal locomotions under CPG control are capable of complying with various environment dynamics to yield different oscillatory movements. We take advantage of a mathematical model of reciprocal inhibition oscillator (RIO), a simple-structured and well-studied type of CPG. The RIO controller acts as a nonlinear damping compensator and removes part of the resistive forces in the system, thereby reducing the human effort. It is shown that the resulting human-intended oscillation is a locally stable periodic solution of the closed-loop system, assuming a simple human intention motor control. The result is first presented for a single degree-of-freedom (DOF) mechanical system and then extended to a multi-DOF system. Alternatively, a nonlinear oscillator model, Andronov-Hopf Oscillator (AHO), is selected. Nonlinear oscillators are appropriate candidates for controlling such systems since they are capable of generating stable rhythm signals. Here we consider the problem of designing a nonlinear adaptive feedback controller for uncertain linear mechanical systems so that convergence to a natural mode of oscillations is achieved for the closed-loop system. We propose a controller based on the Andronov-Hopf oscillator with additional adaptation mechanisms for estimating the unknown natural frequency and damping parameters. We prove that, with sufficiently slow adaptation, the estimated parameters locally converge to their true values and entrainment to the natural oscillation is achieved as part of an orbitally stable limit cycle. Numerical examples demonstrate that adaptation and convergence can in fact be fast. To examine the research results, a four-linkage robotic arm system is designed and prototyped. With the hardware set-up, the proposed human intention motor control is validated by first identifying the control parameters and then replacing human to control the robotic arm. Furthermore, it is experimentally shown that robotic arm under RIO control is able to stabilize human-intended oscillatory movements and reduce the human eeffort.

Biomimetic Neural Learning for Intelligent Robots

Biomimetic Neural Learning for Intelligent Robots
Intelligent Systems, Cognitive Robotics, and Neuroscience

by Stefan Wermter,Günther Palm,Mark Elshaw

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2005-08-25
  • Pages : 383
  • ISBN : 3540318968
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents research performed as part of the EU project on biomimetic multimodal learning in a mirror neuron-based robot (MirrorBot) and contri- tions presented at the International AI-Workshop on NeuroBotics. The ov- all aim of the book is to present a broad spectrum of current research into biomimetic neural learning for intelligent autonomous robots. There is a need for a new type of robot which is inspired by nature and so performs in a more ?exible learned manner than current robots. This new type of robot is driven by recent new theories and experiments in neuroscience indicating that a biological and neuroscience-oriented approach could lead to new life-like robotic systems. The book focuses on some of the research progress made in the MirrorBot project which uses concepts from mirror neurons as a basis for the integration of vision, language and action. In this book we show the development of new techniques using cell assemblies, associative neural networks, and Hebbian-type learning in order to associate vision, language and motor concepts. We have developed biomimetic multimodal learning and language instruction in a robot to investigate the task ofsearching for objects. As well as the researchperformed in this area for the MirrorBot project, the second part of this book incorporates signi?cant contributions from other research in the ?eld of biomimetic robotics. This second part of the book concentrates on the progress made in neuroscience inspired robotic learning approaches (in short: NeuroBotics).

Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security
A Book

by National Defense University

  • Publisher : NDU Press
  • Release : 2010-10-01
  • Pages : 372
  • ISBN : 1780390408
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite the vital importance of the emerging area of biotechnology and its role in defense planning and policymaking, no definitive book has been written on the topic for the defense policymaker, the military student, and the private-sector bioscientist interested in the "emerging opportunities market" of national security. This edited volume is intended to help close this gap and provide the necessary backdrop for thinking strategically about biology in defense planning and policymaking. This volume is about applications of the biological sciences, here called "biologically inspired innovations," to the military. Rather than treating biology as a series of threats to be dealt with, such innovations generally approach the biological sciences as a set of opportunities for the military to gain strategic advantage over adversaries. These opportunities rangefrom looking at everything from genes to brains, from enhancing human performance to creating renewable energy, from sensing the environment around us to harnessing its power.

Philosophical Transactions

Philosophical Transactions
Biological sciences

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Each issue of Transactions B is devoted to a specific area of the biological sciences, including clinical science. All papers are peer reviewed and edited to the highest standards. Published on the 29th of each month, Transactions B is essential reading for all biologists.

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
Biological sciences. Series B

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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2001 International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems

2001 International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers(IEEE)
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 2408
  • ISBN : 9780780366138
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Autonomous Robots

Autonomous Robots
From Biological Inspiration to Implementation and Control

by George A. Bekey

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 577
  • ISBN : 9780262025782
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An introduction to the science and practice of autonomous robots that reviews over 300 current systems and examines the underlying technology.

Intelligent Robotics and Applications

Intelligent Robotics and Applications
12th International Conference, ICIRA 2019, Shenyang, China, August 8–11, 2019, Proceedings

by Haibin Yu,Jinguo Liu,Lianqing Liu,Zhaojie Ju,Yuwang Liu,Dalin Zhou

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-08-01
  • Pages : 754
  • ISBN : 3030275264
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The volume set LNAI 11740 until LNAI 11745 constitutes the proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Applications, ICIRA 2019, held in Shenyang, China, in August 2019. The total of 378 full and 25 short papers presented in these proceedings was carefully reviewed and selected from 522 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections as follows: Part I: collective and social robots; human biomechanics and human-centered robotics; robotics for cell manipulation and characterization; field robots; compliant mechanisms; robotic grasping and manipulation with incomplete information and strong disturbance; human-centered robotics; development of high-performance joint drive for robots; modular robots and other mechatronic systems; compliant manipulation learning and control for lightweight robot. Part II: power-assisted system and control; bio-inspired wall climbing robot; underwater acoustic and optical signal processing for environmental cognition; piezoelectric actuators and micro-nano manipulations; robot vision and scene understanding; visual and motional learning in robotics; signal processing and underwater bionic robots; soft locomotion robot; teleoperation robot; autonomous control of unmanned aircraft systems. Part III: marine bio-inspired robotics and soft robotics: materials, mechanisms, modelling, and control; robot intelligence technologies and system integration; continuum mechanisms and robots; unmanned underwater vehicles; intelligent robots for environment detection or fine manipulation; parallel robotics; human-robot collaboration; swarm intelligence and multi-robot cooperation; adaptive and learning control system; wearable and assistive devices and robots for healthcare; nonlinear systems and control. Part IV: swarm intelligence unmanned system; computational intelligence inspired robot navigation and SLAM; fuzzy modelling for automation, control, and robotics; development of ultra-thin-film, flexible sensors, and tactile sensation; robotic technology for deep space exploration; wearable sensing based limb motor function rehabilitation; pattern recognition and machine learning; navigation/localization. Part V: robot legged locomotion; advanced measurement and machine vision system; man-machine interactions; fault detection, testing and diagnosis; estimation and identification; mobile robots and intelligent autonomous systems; robotic vision, recognition and reconstruction; robot mechanism and design. Part VI: robot motion analysis and planning; robot design, development and control; medical robot; robot intelligence, learning and linguistics; motion control; computer integrated manufacturing; robot cooperation; virtual and augmented reality; education in mechatronics engineering; robotic drilling and sampling technology; automotive systems; mechatronics in energy systems; human-robot interaction.

Biorobotics

Biorobotics
Methods and Applications

by Barbara H. Webb,Thomas R. Consi

  • Publisher : Aaai Press
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A spiking neuron controller for robot phonotaxis / Barbara Webb -- Environmental information, animal behavior, and biorobot design: reflections on locating chemical sources in marine environments / Frank W. Grasso -- Insect strategies of visual homing in mobile robots / Ralf Möller ... [et al.] -- Aerial minirobot that stabilizes and tracks with a bio-inspired visual screening sensor / Stéphane Viollet and Nicolas Franceschini -- Construction of a hexapod robot with cockroach kinematics benefits both robotics and biology / Roger D. Quinn and Roy E. Ritzmann -- Build robots with a complex motor system to understand cognition / Holk Cruse -- Perceptual invariance and categorization in an embodied model of the visual system / Nikolaus Almássy and Olaf Sporns -- Investigating models of social development using a humanoid robot / Brian Scassellati.

Smart Engineering System Design

Smart Engineering System Design
Neural Networks, Evolutionary Programming, Data Mining, and Artificial Life : Proceedings of the Artificial Neural Networks in Engineering Conference (ANNIE 2005) : Held November 7-9, 2005, in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.

by Cihan H. Dagli

  • Publisher : Intelligent Engineering System
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 894
  • ISBN : 9780791802403
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The newest volume in this series presents refereed papers in the following categories and their applications in the engineering domain: Neural Networks; Complex Networks; Evolutionary Programming; Data Mining; Fuzzy Logic; Adaptive Control; Pattern Recognition; Smart Engineering System Design. These papers are intended to provide a forum for researchers in the field to exchange ideas on smart engineering system design.

Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence

Bio-Inspired Artificial Intelligence
Theories, Methods, and Technologies

by Dario Floreano,Claudio Mattiussi

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2008-08-22
  • Pages : 659
  • ISBN : 0262062712
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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New approaches to artificial intelligence spring from the idea that intelligence emerges as much from cells, bodies, and societies as it does from evolution, development, and learning. Traditionally, artificial intelligence has been concerned with reproducing the abilities of human brains; newer approaches take inspiration from a wider range of biological structures that that are capable of autonomous self-organization. Examples of these new approaches include evolutionary computation and evolutionary electronics, artificial neural networks, immune systems, biorobotics, and swarm intelligence -- to mention only a few. This book offers a comprehensive introduction to the emerging field of biologically inspired artificial intelligence that can be used as an upper-level text or as a reference for researchers. Each chapter presents computational approaches inspired by a different biological system; each begins with background information about the biological system and then proceeds to develop computational models that make use of biological concepts. The chapters cover evolutionary computation and electronics; cellular systems; neural systems, including neuromorphic engineering; developmental systems; immune systems; behavioral systems -- including several approaches to robotics, including behavior-based, bio-mimetic, epigenetic, and evolutionary robots; and collective systems, including swarm robotics as well as cooperative and competitive co-evolving systems. Chapters end with a concluding overview and suggested reading.

Microbiorobotics

Microbiorobotics
Biologically Inspired Microscale Robotic Systems

by Minjun Kim,Anak Agung Julius

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2012-03-08
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 145577894X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microbiorobotics is a new engineering discipline that inherently involves a multidisciplinary approach (mechanical engineering, cellular biology, mathematical modeling, control systems, synthetic biology, etc). Building robotics system in the micro scale is an engineering task that has resulted in many important applications, ranging from micromanufacturing techniques to cellular manipulation. However, it is also a very challenging engineering task. One of the reasons is because many engineering ideas and principles that are used in larger scales do not scale well to the micro-scale. For example, locomotion principles in a fluid do not function in the same way, and the use of rotational motors is impractical because of the difficulty of building of the required components. Microrobotics is an area that is acknowledged to have massive potential in applications from medicine to manufacturing. This book introduces an inter-disciplinary readership to the toolkit that micro-organisms offer to micro-engineering The design of robots, sensors and actuators faces a range of techology challenges at the micro-scale. This book shows how biological techniques and materials can be used to meet these challenges World-class multi-disciplanry editors and contributors leverage insights from engineering, mathematical modeling and the life sciences – creating a novel toolkit for microrobotics

Biomimetics

Biomimetics
Biologically Inspired Technologies

by Yoseph Bar-Cohen

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2005-11-02
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN : 1420037714
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nature is the world's foremost designer. With billions of years of experience and boasting the most extensive laboratory available, it conducts research in every branch of engineering and science. Nature's designs and capabilities have always inspired technology, from the use of tongs and tweezers to genetic algorithms and autonomous legged robots. Taking a systems perspective rather than focusing narrowly on materials or chemistry aspects, Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies examines the field from every angle. The book contains pioneering approaches to biomimetics including a new perspective on the mechanization of cognition and intelligence, as well as defense and attack strategies in nature, their applications, and potential. It surveys the field from modeling to applications and from nano- to macro-scales, beginning with an introduction to principles of using biology to inspire designs as well as biological mechanisms as models for technology. This innovative guide discusses evolutionary robotics; genetic algorithms; molecular machines; multifunctional, biological-, and nano- materials; nastic structures inspired by plants; and functional surfaces in biology. Looking inward at biological systems, the book covers the topics of biomimetic materials, structures, control, cognition, artificial muscles, biosensors that mimic senses, artificial organs, and interfaces between engineered and biological systems. The final chapter contemplates the future of the field and outlines the challenges ahead. Featuring extensive illustrations, including a 32-page full-color insert, Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies provides unmatched breadth of scope as well as lucid illumination of this promising field.

Bioengineered and Bioinspired Systems

Bioengineered and Bioinspired Systems
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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