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Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma

Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma
A Book

by Christopher Jackson,Michael Lim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-08-15
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 9780128197554
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunotherapeutic Strategies for the Treatment of Glioma provides a review of the current state of immunotherapy for primary brain tumors. The topic is of interest to patients, clinicians, and researchers alike, particularly given the recent failure of large clinical trials. This book serves as an overview of the most promising approaches in the field and provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward. The book discusses several types of immunotherapies for glioma, such as peptide, dendritic cell and heat shock protein vaccines; immune checkpoint blockade; myeloid cells as target; oncolytic viruses; and CAR T cell therapy. Additionally, it discusses the mechanisms of immune suppression in patients and immunogenomics. This volume is a valuable source for cancer researchers, oncologists and several members of biomedical field who are interested in novel strategies to fight glioblastoma. Summarizes the work in immunotherapy for glioma to-date, including the available evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials Reviews the challenges and successes of the most promising strategies for brain tumor immunotherapy Provides a foundation for considering novel and combination therapies moving forward

Glioblastoma:

Glioblastoma:
Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Current Therapeutic Strategies

by Swapan K. Ray

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2009-10-31
  • Pages : 431
  • ISBN : 9781441904102
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor that still remains incurable. It is such a deadly disease that patients do not survive more than a few months after diagnosis. Our understanding of the histopathology and molecular mechanisms of formation of glioblastoma is rapidly advancing so as to provide us clues for devising rational therapeutic strategies for treatment of this malignancy. It is important that we continue to improve our knowledge about the pathogenesis of this devastating disease and explore new areas to find successful therapeutic strategies. Various approaches such as sophisticated imaging techniques, improved surgical procedures, ground-breaking strategies for radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and photodynamic therapy are being used for eradicating glioblastoma. Hopefully, this book will be an important source of information on glioblastoma and therefore be highly useful to the students, postdoctoral fellows, principal investigators, and clinicians involved in this field.

Impact of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Glioblastoma

Impact of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Glioblastoma
A Book

by Jessica Silva

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor. Despite the efforts developed in the respective treatment, consisting of maximal surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis remains very poor. This may be partly related to the resistance of GBM cells and their infiltrative and invasive nature into the surrounding brain tissue. Therefore, newer and challenging alternative approaches for the treatment have emerged, including immunotherapy. This anticancer therapy, based on the stimulation of the host's immune system, has been currently investigated and several advances in the clinical trial stage have already been reached. Immunotherapeutic strategies comprise a set of modalities, including vaccines (cell-free and cell-based), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and oncolytic viruses (OVs). In this chapter, we will review the principal concepts and the recent progress in immunotherapy for GBM.

Intracranial Gliomas Part III - Innovative Treatment Modalities

Intracranial Gliomas Part III - Innovative Treatment Modalities
A Book

by M.F. Chernov,Y. Muragaki,S. Kesari,I.E. McCutcheon

  • Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
  • Release : 2018-07-10
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN : 3318060631
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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At present most intracranial gliomas are considered incurable with current treatment strategies, and the search for new modalities that may effectively control tumor growth continues. The chapters in this volume describe basic principles and therapeutic possibilities of several innovative techniques, including photodynamic therapy, laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy, stereotactic cryodestruction, high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation, boron neutron capture therapy, proton and carbon ion irradiation, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, gene therapy, local chemotherapy, and alternating electric fields therapy. Potential applications of extracellular vesicles and nanotechnology for management of gliomas are highlighted as well. Many of these methods have already demonstrated antitumor efficacy in clinical testing, whereas others are still under development. The materials presented in this book are mainly directed at clinicians treating patients with brain tumors, as well as clinical and basic researchers working in the field of neuro-oncology.

New Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas Treatment

New Therapeutic Strategies in Gliomas Treatment
A Book

by Gerardo Caruso,Concetta Alafaci,Francesco Tomasello,Giuseppe Raudino,Mariella Caffo

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9789533075884
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Locoregional Radioimmunotherapy

Locoregional Radioimmunotherapy
An Innovative Strategy in the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme

by Adrian Merlo

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 188
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Glioma

Glioma
Immunotherapeutic Approaches

by ryuya yamanaka

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-05-27
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN : 1461431468
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Treatment of glioma is currently one of the most challenging problems in oncology, as well as in neurosurgery. Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathomechanism, diagnosis by imaging and the availability of powerful therapeutic tools, the life expectancy of patients with glioblastoma has only been slightly prolonged and a cure remains elusive. None of the currently available surgical tools, including operative microscopes, lasers and image-guided surgery, can enable the detection and removal of all of the tumor tissue. In recent years, however, the landscape has been changing immeasurably, and molecular studies over the past two decades have identified a variety of genetic aberrations that are specifically associated with individual types of gliomas. In addition, certain molecular abnormalities have been linked to therapy responses, thereby establishing clinical biomarkers and molecular targets, and the use of novel agents is being investigated. These agents have been specifically engineered to exert specific cytotoxicity against gliomas, either on their own as single agents or in combination with other modalities. Moreover, there has been an enormous surge of interest in the area of immunology and immunotherapy, which has been facilitated by our understanding of the molecular basis of gliomas. Although several kinds of immunotherapeutic trials have been undertaken, we still await a great breakthrough in terms of clinical efficacy to prolong the survival time of glioma patients.

Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity, Engineering Immune- Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials

Cancer Immunotherapy: Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity, Engineering Immune- Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials
A Book

by Jianxun Song

  • Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
  • Release : 2015-04-16
  • Pages : 283
  • ISBN : 1681080486
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Clinicians, patients and scientists, alike, have been battling cancer for over several decades; however, patient outcomes have not significantly improved over the years with conventional therapies. In recent years, this has caused researchers to look for a change in the status quo, and, the awareness of the human immune system, which has an intrinsic mechanism to control microbial pathogens and dysfunctional self-tissues, has triggered scientists to look for new modes of cancer therapy. Cancer Immunotherapy has become a major research field as a result of these efforts, gaining some recognition for notable breakthroughs in cancer patient prognosis. Frontiers in Cancer Immunology collectively presents the methods which have been studied and used in cancer immunotherapy based on the different components of human immune system. The series will give clinicians and immunologists a roadmap of current trends in all branches of cancer immunology. This volume lists the major immune system components (such as T cells and NK cells and associated antigens/antibodies) which have been demonstrated to limit the growth of or kill tumor cells. Relevant applications in cancer therapy are also included in addition to a general introduction to engineered as well as targeted cancer immunotherapies (cancer vaccines).

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives

Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives
A Book

by Jorge Morales-Montor,Mariana Segovia-Mendoza

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-10-14
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 0128220295
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunotherapy in Resistant Cancer: From the Lab Bench Work to Its Clinical Perspectives provides high level knowledge on detailed mechanisms of actions and biological interactions of different immune drugs, with an aim of offering researchers and clinicians cutting-edge therapies to overcome drug resistance. The book explains the latest immunotherapies for different types of cancer, helping users carry out research projects or create alternatives for drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. Topics discussed include the relationship between immunotherapy and macrophages, immune checkpoints in different types of cancer, immune cocktails in solid tumors, and immune-phenotyping. Additionally, the book presents basic and clinical data on immunoresistance and glycosylation. This book is a valuable source for cancer researchers, medical doctors, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who must understand certain mechanisms to fight cancer that is resistant to immunotherapy. Provides basic and clinical evidence based on molecular interactions and clinical studies to address the risks and benefits of cancer immunotherapy Presents the results of new immunotherapy trials, discussing the state-of-the-art in different types of cancer Discusses targeted therapies approved by the FDA, along with therapies with clinical potential used in basic studies

Enhancing Immunity?to?Glioma: Modulating the Adaptive Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment

Enhancing Immunity?to?Glioma: Modulating the Adaptive Immune Response in the Tumor Microenvironment
A Book

by Joseph Paul Antonios

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 141
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all adult primary malignant brain tumors. For patients diagnosed with GBM, the median survival is 11-14 months despite advances in surgical resection techniques, chemotherapies, and radiation therapy (1). Alternate therapeutic strategies are being actively pursued to target GBM, with various immunotherapeutic modalities designed to generate an anti-GBM immune response showing considerable promise in preclinical models and clinical trials. To more effectively target GBM with these treatments, there has been an increasing appreciation of the numerous mechanisms involved in generating and maintaining the highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in recent years. These studies have described a variety of microenvironmental and systemic factors that promote glioma cell evasion from the immune system. In light of these, it has become apparent that these factors must be understood and explicitly targeted to mount a successful immune response against GBM. This thesis describes the utilization of two different immunotherapeutic strategies to target GBM. The first strategy created a novel GBM target by inducing NY-ESO-1 antigen expression with the demethylating agent, decitabine, and targeting that antigen with engineered T cells. Specifically, we utilized human GBM cell cultures to induce expression of the antigen. We evaluated NY-ESO-1 TCR-transduced T cell-mediated GBM tumor cytolysis in a series of in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Following this, we examined the application of this therapy using an intracranially-implanted xenograft model. Our studies demonstrated that decitabine could effectively upregulate NY-ESO-1 both in vivo and in vitro. Engineered T cells were able to induce tumor cytolysis in vitro and were able to traffic to and target tumor in vivo. Tumor-bearing mice receiving adoptive transfer of these engineered T cells demonstrated significantly increased survival over mice that received non-transduced T cells. By inducing expression of a novel target on GBM, we were able to generate a highly specific, anti-GBM immune response. This strategy represented a clinically translatable therapeutic technique for treating patients with GBM. The second strategy focused on using existing GBM targets to generate an endogenous immune response in a syngeneic, immune competent mouse model. Briefly, we administered an autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine to produce a glioma-specific immune response. In our studies, the vaccination appeared to be capable of inducing T cell infiltration into tumors; however, in large, established tumors, this infiltrating response was not sufficient to increase mouse survival and provide significant therapeutic benefit. We described the role of the negative costimulatory pathway, programmed death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) in mitigating T cell activation and memory in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. We noted that PD-1 blockade with PD-1 mAb was not sufficient to produce a T cell infiltrate. However, when administered with DC vaccination, PD-1 blockade activated the vaccine-generated T cell response in the tumor microenvironment. We found that T cells with PD-1 mAb were able to mediate significant tumor cytolysis when compared to T cells without PD-1 blockade in vitro. The adjuvant administration of PD-1 mAb with the DC vaccine resulted in significant survival benefit over DC vaccine alone in mice bearing large, established gliomas. Additionally, this dual treatment resulted in the increased expression of integrin homing and immunologic memory markers on T cells infiltrating tumor. These findings were corroborated in samples from patient GBM, with PD-1 blockade enhancing the T cell-mediated GBM cytolysis. Concerning this strategy, then, these findings provided us with a means to both generate and enhance a tumor-specific response. While this second strategy proved effective, the mechanism underlying this PD-1/PD-L1-mediated suppression was not fully understood. As such, we proceeded to identify a PD-L1-expressing tumor infiltrating myeloid (TIM) cell population that appeared to dominantly regulate the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism. Importantly, we determined the role that these cells play in inhibiting the immune response using a series of in vitro and in vivo studies utilizing TIM depletion and PD-1 mAb treatment strategies. We found that depletion of TIMs in both human GBM cultures and murine glioma abolished PD-1/PD-L1-mediated inhibition of T cell activation. Targeting TIMs with colony stimulating factor-1 receptor inhibitor (CSF-1Ri) reduced the TIM population significantly and altered the remaining TIMs such that they demonstrated increased expression of chemotactic factors. While treatment with CSF-1Ri in conjunction with DC vaccine did not alter PD-L1 expression on remaining TIMs, we did note that there was increased TIL infiltration with this dual treatment significantly over DC vaccine alone. These findings suggested that TIMs exert inhibitory effects in the tumor microenvironment in a manner not restricted only to the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism. We found that the combined treatment of CSF-1Ri and PD-1 mAb with DC vaccination both increased TIL infiltration and activation in the tumor microenvironment. These findings were therapeutically relevant, with tumor-bearing mice receiving all three treatments showing a significant increase in survival over mice receiving each treatment alone. The studies outlined herein elucidated the role that TIMs play in dominantly mediating the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling mechanism to restrict TIL activation, as well as the ability to manipulate this population pharmacologically with clinically accessible agents. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates two distinct strategies to generate and enhance an immune response against GBM. In our first strategy, we utilized the adoptive transfer of engineered T cells to selectively target an antigen whose expression we artificially induced in GBM. This technique was largely effective. However, we were interested in directly targeting antigens already expressed by GBM. To that end, we described the utility of DC vaccination in generating an immune response. Further, we delineated the inhibitory mechanisms employed by TIMs in the tumor microenvironment and developed a therapeutic adjuvant to administer with DC vaccination. We confirmed the efficacy of these treatments in a series of in vitro and in vivo animal studies, and we recapitulated these findings in our novel, ex vivo human GBM studies. Together, the studies presented in this thesis represent an innovative approach to understanding and immunotherapeutically targeting the GBM microenvironment.

Therapeutic Brain Cancer Targeting by Gene Therapy and Immunomodulation

Therapeutic Brain Cancer Targeting by Gene Therapy and Immunomodulation
A Translational Study

by Apostolos Stathopoulos

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 9789461733634
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Immunotherapy, An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics - E-Book

Immunotherapy, An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics - E-Book
A Book

by Isaac Yang,Michael J Lim

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2010-01-05
  • Pages : 229
  • ISBN : 1455700452
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For this issue, Dr. Michael Lim of Johns Hopkins and Dr. Isaac Yang of UCSF team up to deliver a packed issue on the latest developments in Immunotherapy. The issue covers hot topics such as immunostimulants, Passive Antibody Mediated Immunotherapy, Clinical Applications of A Peptide Based Vaccine, Challenges for Clinical Design of Immunotherapy Trials, The EGFRv3 Peptide Vaccine, Stem Cell Therapy and Dendritic Cell Vaccines, Dendritic Glioma Fusion Vaccine, Adoptive Cellular Immunotherapy, Virus Mediated Immunotherapy, and so much more.

Glioblastoma:

Glioblastoma:
Molecular Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Current Therapeutic Strategies

by Swapan K. Ray

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2009-11-05
  • Pages : 431
  • ISBN : 9781441904096
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Glioblastoma is the most malignant brain tumor that still remains incurable. It is such a deadly disease that patients do not survive more than a few months after diagnosis. Our understanding of the histopathology and molecular mechanisms of formation of glioblastoma is rapidly advancing so as to provide us clues for devising rational therapeutic strategies for treatment of this malignancy. It is important that we continue to improve our knowledge about the pathogenesis of this devastating disease and explore new areas to find successful therapeutic strategies. Various approaches such as sophisticated imaging techniques, improved surgical procedures, ground-breaking strategies for radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy, and photodynamic therapy are being used for eradicating glioblastoma. Hopefully, this book will be an important source of information on glioblastoma and therefore be highly useful to the students, postdoctoral fellows, principal investigators, and clinicians involved in this field.

Oligodendroglioma

Oligodendroglioma
Clinical Presentation, Pathology, Molecular Biology, Imaging, and Treatment

by Nina A. Paleologos,Herbert B. Newton

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-06-18
  • Pages : 422
  • ISBN : 0128131594
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Oligodendroglioma: Clinical Presentation, Pathology, Molecular Biology, Imaging, and Treatment features the latest "cutting-edge" molecular biology, molecular therapeutics, imaging, immunotherapy, and research methods on the topic of oligodendrogliomas. The most detailed and comprehensive resource on the subject, it provides up-to-date information on clinical presentation, pathology, molecular biology, and treatment methods, including immunotherapy. This book is a critical for students, physicians and researchers in the fields of neuroscience, neuro-oncology, neurosurgery, radiation oncology, medical oncology, and others working in research or with patients. Provides the most up-to-date information regarding the clinical presentation, pathology, molecular biology, and methods for the treatment of oligodendroglioma brain tumors, including surgical therapy, radiotherapy, molecular therapeutics, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy Broadly appeals to anyone interested in the field of neuro-oncology and the treatment of patients with oligodendrogliomas Useful to clinicians interested in a thorough overview of the basic science and treatment of oligodendrogliomas Includes a section on immunotherapy, with updates on the use of vaccines and immune-based treatment approaches applied to oligodendrogliomas

Brain Tumor Immunotherapy

Brain Tumor Immunotherapy
A Book

by Linda M. Liau,Donald P. Becker,Timothy F. Cloughesy,Darell D. Bigner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2000-11-10
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 1592590357
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An authoritative panel of researchers and clinicians critically reviews the entire field to provide a comprehensive guide to modern brain tumor immunotherapy and thereby enhance future research in this area. The contributors detail many of the key laboratory experiments and clinical protocols that are currently being investigated, integrate the available information from previous and ongoing research, and help define the current status of the field. Topics range from adoptive cellular and antibody-mediated immunotherapy of brain tumors to tumor vaccines and related strategies, and include many vanguard experimental strategies and immunological techniques for studying brain tumor immunotherapy. Cutting-edge and comprehensive, Brain Tumor Immunotherapy brings together all the important recent advances in our understanding of central nervous system tumor immunology and illustrates in powerful detail the many new applications now harnessing the immune response for brain tumor therapeutics.

Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells and Newcastle Disease Virus in Glioblastoma Multiforme

Immunotherapy with Dendritic Cells and Newcastle Disease Virus in Glioblastoma Multiforme
A Book

by Thomas Neßelhut,Dagmar Marx,Fred Fändrich,Jan Neßelhut

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9789533075884
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Principles of Molecular Neurosurgery

Principles of Molecular Neurosurgery
A Book

by Andrew Freese

  • Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
  • Release : 2005-01-01
  • Pages : 659
  • ISBN : 3805577842
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The future of neurosurgery will be characterized by less invasive, molecular technologies that promise to revolutionize the field of neurosurgery and impact the treatment of additional neurological disorders, including neurometabolic diseases, stroke, dementias, affective and psychiatric diseases, movement disorders, epilepsy, and others. This book encompasses developing an understanding of the principles underlying the advent of novel molecular approaches to neurological and neurosurgical diseases. It Identifies key principles that will allow dramatic improvement in the treatment and outcomes of patients suffering from a varity of disorders affecting the central nervous system and spinal axis. This volume gives neurosurgeons an excellent understanding of the development of novel molecular and cellular technologies that will markedly change the way neurosurgery is practiced in the near future. It is also of special interest to neurologists, psychiatrists, physiatrists, spinal orthopaedic surgeons, neurobiologists and gene therapy research scientists.

Malignant Gliomas: RMR V3 I2

Malignant Gliomas: RMR V3 I2
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Demos Medical Publishing
  • Release : 2012-10-09
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 1617051489
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Radiation Medicine Rounds is a trinary, hard cover periodical designed to provide an up-to-date review of a dedicated radiation medicine topic of interest to clinicians and scientists who are involved in the care of patients receiving radiotherapy. It is intended to serve as both a reference and instructional tool for students, housestaff, fellows, practicing clinicians, medical physicists, cancer biologists, radiobiologists, and interdisciplinary colleagues throughout the oncology spectrum. This issue of Radiation Medicine Rounds discusses the more salient topics surrounding the role of radiation therapy for malignant gliomas. The specialty of radiation therapy has increased in complexity over the years, yet as technology improves, the goal of improving outcomes while decreasing toxicity remains critical. Malignant gliomas remain among the most devastating of all malignancies, yet as conventional treatments (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) have become optimized overall survival has improved. The underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms of these tumors are becoming better understood, with one of the most important realizations being that histopathologically identical malignant gliomas often demonstrate very distinct clinical behaviors. Malignant Gliomas provides the practitioner with a current overview of best practices, recent research, and future directions in the management of this complex and challenging cancer.

Anticancer Research

Anticancer Research
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Current Understanding and Treatment of Gliomas

Current Understanding and Treatment of Gliomas
A Book

by Jeffrey Raizer,Andrew Parsa

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-12-02
  • Pages : 184
  • ISBN : 3319120484
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book reviews the significant advances in our understanding of glioma biology that have been achieved during the past decade and describes in detail the resultant new approaches to treatment. Improvements in surgical techniques, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are comprehensively covered, with discussion of their impact in decreasing patient morbidity and increasing survival. In addition, individual chapters are devoted specifically to current treatment for low-grade gliomas, anaplastic gliomas, and glioblastoma multiforme. Other topics addressed include treatment of the elderly patient, investigating emerging therapies from small molecules to immunotherapy and palliative care. This timely book will be a valuable source of up-to-date information for practitioners and will also be of interest to researchers.