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Inequality and Energy

Inequality and Energy
How Extremes of Wealth and Poverty in High Income Countries Affect CO2 Emissions and Access to Energy

by Ray Galvin

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-10-25
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 0128176741
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inequality and Energy: How Extremes of Wealth and Poverty in High Income Countries Affect CO2 Emissions and Access to Energy challenges energy consumption researchers in developed countries to reorient their research frameworks to include the effects of economic inequality within the scope of their investigations, and calls for a new set of paradigms for energy consumption research. The book explores concrete examples of energy deprivation due to inequality, and provides conceptual tools to explore this in relation to other issues regarding energy consumption. It thereby urges that energy consumption approaches be updated for a world of increasing inequality. Extreme economic inequality has increased within developed countries over the past three decades. The effects of inequality are now seen increasingly in health, housing affordability, crime and social cohesion. There are signs it may even threaten democracy. Researchers are also exploring its effects on energy consumption. One of their key findings is that less privileged groups have lost consistent access to basic energy services like warm homes and affordable transport, leading to huge disparities of climate damaging emissions between rich and poor. Provides overwhelming evidence of the persistent and increasing income inequality and wealth inequality in developed countries over the past three decades Showcases recent empirical work that explores correlates of this inequality with energy consumption behavior and some of the key problems of access to adequate energy services Shows the connections between these findings and the existing ways of researching energy consumption behavior and policy

Inequality in Energy Consumption

Inequality in Energy Consumption
Statistical Equilibrium Or a Question of Accounting Conventions?

by Gregor Semieniuk,Isabella Weber

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mitigating climate change requires information about the inequality in energy consumption. Recent contributions (Banerjee and Yakovenko, 2010; Lawrence et al., 2013; Yakovenko, 2010, 2013) have studied energy inequality through the lens of maximum entropy. They claim a weighted international distribution of total primary energy demand should approach a Boltzmann-Gibbs maximum entropy equilibrium distribution in the form of an exponential distribution, implying convergence to a Gini coefficient of 0.5 from above. The present paper challenges the validity of this claim and critically discusses the applicability of statistical equilibrium reasoning to economics from the viewpoint of social accounting. It is shown that the exponential distribution is only a robust candidate for a statistical equilibrium of energy inequality when employing one particular accounting convention for energy flows, the substitution method. But this method has become problematic with a higher renewable share in the international energy mix, and no other accounting method supports the claim of a convergence to a 0.5 Gini. We conclude that the findings based on maximum entropy reasoning are sensitive to accounting conventions and critically discuss the epistemological implications of this sensitivity for the use of maximum entropy approaches in social sciences.

Carbon Inequality

Carbon Inequality
The Role of the Richest in Climate Change

by Dario Kenner

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2019-06-20
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 1351171305
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With a specific focus on the United States and the United Kingdom, Carbon Inequality studies the role of the richest people in contributing to climate change via their luxury consumption and their investments. In an innovative contribution, it attempts to quantify personal responsibility for shareholdings in large fossil fuel companies. This book explores the implications of the richest people’s historic responsibility for global warming, the impacts of which affect them less than most others in global society. Kenner analyses how the richest people running large oil and gas companies have successfully used their political influence to lobby the US and UK government. This assessment of their growing political power is particularly pertinent at a time of increasing inequality and growing public awareness of the impact of climate change. The book also highlights the crucial role of the richest in blocking the low-carbon transition in the US and the UK, exploring how this could be countered to ensure fossil fuels are fully replaced by renewable energy. This book will be of great relevance to scholars and policy makers with an interest in inequality, climate change and sustainability transitions.

SDG10 – Reduce Inequality Within and Among Countries

SDG10 – Reduce Inequality Within and Among Countries
A Book

by Umesh Chandra Pandey,Chhabi Kumar,Martin Ayanore,Hany R. Shalaby

  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Release : 2020-02-20
  • Pages : 136
  • ISBN : 1787699838
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Defining inequality as the social, economic and political challenges of our time, this book will examine SDG10 to look ahead at how policy action might engage multiple stakeholders, involve diverse sectors and address gaps between policy and implementation to tackle key inequalities within and among countries.

The Energy Method, Stability, and Nonlinear Convection

The Energy Method, Stability, and Nonlinear Convection
A Book

by Brian Straughan

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-04-09
  • Pages : 243
  • ISBN : 1475721943
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Six new chapters (14-19) deal with topics of current interest: multi-component convection diffusion, convection in a compressible fluid, convenction with temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity, penetrative convection, nonlinear stability in ocean circulation models, and numerical solution of eigenvalue problems.

Energy Poverty in Eastern Europe

Energy Poverty in Eastern Europe
Hidden Geographies of Deprivation

by Stefan Buzar

  • Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Release : 2007-01-01
  • Pages : 175
  • ISBN : 9780754671305
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the consequences of the post-socialist transformation of Eastern and Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union is the emergence of energy poverty, a condition where households are living in inadequately heated homes. This book provides the first full-length examination of the causes, consequences and patterns of energy poverty in former Communist countries.

Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty

Dynamics of Inequality and Poverty
A Book

by John Creedy,Guyonne Kalb

  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 356
  • ISBN : 0762313501
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Consists of papers related to the theme of the dynamics of inequality and poverty. This book concerns with inequality and poverty over extended time periods. It deals with the concept of vulnerability in the context of income mobility of the poor.

Introduction to Partial Differential Equations with Applications

Introduction to Partial Differential Equations with Applications
A Book

by E. C. Zachmanoglou,Dale W. Thoe

  • Publisher : Courier Corporation
  • Release : 2012-04-20
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 048613217X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This text explores the essentials of partial differential equations as applied to engineering and the physical sciences. Discusses ordinary differential equations, integral curves and surfaces of vector fields, the Cauchy-Kovalevsky theory, more. Problems and answers.

Causality I. A Theory of Energy, Time and Space

Causality I. A Theory of Energy, Time and Space
A Book

by Ilija Baruk?i?

  • Publisher : Lulu.com
  • Release : 2008-11-07
  • Pages : 552
  • ISBN : 1409229521
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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---------- Volume 1 (August 21th, 2010) ---------- : This highly original book gives an exact insight into the philosophical, logical, mathematical and physical foundations of causality. Causality is designed to provide both, the new methodology for making causal inferences on the basis of (non-) experimental data and the underlying theory. The new mathematical tools for evaluating causal relationships from (non-) experimental data are presented in the simplest and most intelligible form. Causality is thus an excellent book for self study and a pragmatic help for researchers. Anyone who wishes to elucidate cause effect relationships from (non-) experimental data will find this book invaluable. The reader will enjoy to read and use this book. Finally, a unified mathematical and statistical model of causation is available.

Income Inequality

Income Inequality
The Canadian Story

by David A. Green,William Craig Riddell,France St-Hilaire

  • Publisher : Art of the State
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 588
  • ISBN : 9780886453299
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Rising income inequality has been at the forefront of public debate in Canada in recent years, yet there is still much to be learned about the economic forces driving the distribution of earnings and income in this country and how they might evolve in coming years. With research showing that the tax-and-transfer system is less effective than in the past in counteracting growing income disparities, the need for policy-makers to understand the factors at play is all the more urgent. The Institute for Research on Public Policy, in collaboration with the Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network, has gathered some of the country’s leading experts to provide new evidence on the causes and effects of rising income inequality in Canada and to consider the role of policy. Their research and analysis constitutes a comprehensive review of Canadian inequality trends in recent decades, including changing earnings and income dynamics among middle--class and top earners, wage and job polarization across provinces, and persistent poverty among vulnerable groups. The authors also examine the changing role of education and unionization, as well as the complex interplay of redistributive policies and politics, in order to propose new directions for policy. Amid growing anxieties about the economic prospects of the middle class, Income Inequality: The Canadian Story will inform the public discourse on this issue of central concern for all Canadians."--Publisher's website.

The Stiglitz Report

The Stiglitz Report
Reforming the International Monetary and Financial Systems in the Wake of the Global Crisis

by Joseph Stiglitz

  • Publisher : The New Press
  • Release : 2010-04-06
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 1595585915
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The fact that our global economy is broken may be widely accepted, but what precisely needs to be fixed has become the subject of enormous controversy. In 2008, the president of the United Nations General Assembly convened an international panel, chaired by Nobel Prize–winning economist Joseph Stiglitz and including twenty leading international experts on the international monetary system, to address this crucial issue. The Stiglitz Report, released by the committee in late 2009, sees the recent financial crisis as the latest and most damaging of several concurrent crises—of food, water, energy, and sustainability—that are tightly interrelated. The analysis and recommendations in the report cover the gamut from short-term mitigation to deep structural changes, from crisis response to reform of the global, economic, and financial architecture. The report establishes a bold agenda for policy change, that is sure to be the gold standard for understanding and contending with the international economy for many years to come. The Stiglitz Report is essential reading for anyone concerned about a secure and prosperous world.

Computer Applications for Bio-technology, Multimedia and Ubiquitous City

Computer Applications for Bio-technology, Multimedia and Ubiquitous City
International Conferences, MulGraB, BSBT and IUrC 2012, Held as Part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2012, Gangneug, Korea, December 16-19, 2012. Proceedings

by Tai-hoon Kim,Jeong Jin Kang,William I. Grosky,Tughrul Arslan,Niki Pissinou

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2012-11-28
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 3642355218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conferences, BSBT, MulGraB and IUrC 2012, held as part of the Future Generation Information Technology Conference, FGIT 2012, Gangneung, Korea, in December 2012. The papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions and focus on the various aspects of multimedia, computer graphics and broadcasting, bio-science and bio-technology, and intelligent urban computing.

Income Inequality

Income Inequality
The Gap Between Rich and Poor

by Brian Keeley,Oecd

  • Publisher : Org. for Economic Cooperation & Development
  • Release : 2015-12-21
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 9789264246003
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Income inequality is rising. A quarter of a century ago, the average disposable income of the richest 10% in OECD countries was around seven times higher than that of the poorest 10%; today, it's around 9½ times higher. Why does this matter? Many fear this widening gap is hurting individuals, societies and even economies. This book explores income inequality across five main headings. It starts by explaining some key terms in the inequality debate. It then examines recent trends and explains why income inequality varies between countries. Next it looks at why income gaps are growing and, in particular, at the rise of the 1%. It then looks at the consequences, including research that suggests widening inequality could hurt economic growth. Finally, it examines policies for addressing inequality and making economies more inclusive.

Inequality Problems in Mechanics and Applications

Inequality Problems in Mechanics and Applications
Convex and Nonconvex Energy Functions

by P.D. Panagiotopoulos

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1985-01-01
  • Pages : 412
  • ISBN : 9780817630942
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In a remarkably short time, the field of inequality problems has seen considerable development in mathematics and theoretical mechanics. Applied mechanics and the engineering sciences have also benefitted from these developments in that open problems have been treated and entirely new classes of problems have been formulated and solved. This book is an outgrowth of seven years of seminars and courses on inequality problems in mechanics for a variety of audiences in the Technical University of Aachen, the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the University of Hamburg and the Technical University of Milan. The book is intended for a variety of readers, mathematicians and engineers alike, as is detailed in the Guidelines for the Reader. It goes without saying that the work of G. Fichera, J. L. Lions, G. Maier, J. J. Moreau in originating and developing the theory of inequality problems has considerably influenced the present book. I also wish to acknowledge the helpful comments received from C. Bisbos, J. Haslinger, B. Kawohl, H. Matthies, H. O. May, D. Talaslidis and B. Werner. Credit is also due to G. Kyriakopoulos and T. Mandopoulou for their exceptionally diligent work in the preparation of the fmal figures. Many thanks are also due to T. Finnegan and J. Gateley for their friendly assistance from the linguistic standpoint. I would also like to thank my editors in Birkhiiuser Verlag for their cooperation, and all those who helped in the preparation of the manuscript.

Free Energy and Self-Interacting Particles

Free Energy and Self-Interacting Particles
A Book

by Takashi Suzuki

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-01-08
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 9780817644369
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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* Examines a nonlinear system of parabolic PDEs arising in mathematical biology and statistical mechanics * Describes the whole picture, i.e., the mathematical and physical principles * Suitable for researchers and grad students in mathematics and applied mathematics who are interested in nonlinear PDEs in stochastic processes, cellular automatons, variational methods, and their applications to physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering

Complementarity Modeling in Energy Markets

Complementarity Modeling in Energy Markets
A Book

by Steven A. Gabriel,Antonio J. Conejo,J. David Fuller,Benjamin F. Hobbs,Carlos Ruiz

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-07-20
  • Pages : 630
  • ISBN : 1441961232
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This addition to the ISOR series introduces complementarity models in a straightforward and approachable manner and uses them to carry out an in-depth analysis of energy markets, including formulation issues and solution techniques. In a nutshell, complementarity models generalize: a. optimization problems via their Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions b. on-cooperative games in which each player may be solving a separate but related optimization problem with potentially overall system constraints (e.g., market-clearing conditions) c. conomic and engineering problems that aren’t specifically derived from optimization problems (e.g., spatial price equilibria) d. roblems in which both primal and dual variables (prices) appear in the original formulation (e.g., The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) or its precursor, PIES). As such, complementarity models are a very general and flexible modeling format. A natural question is why concentrate on energy markets for this complementarity approach? s it turns out, energy or other markets that have game theoretic aspects are best modeled by complementarity problems. The reason is that the traditional perfect competition approach no longer applies due to deregulation and restructuring of these markets and thus the corresponding optimization problems may no longer hold. Also, in some instances it is important in the original model formulation to involve both primal variables (e.g., production) as well as dual variables (e.g., market prices) for public and private sector energy planning. Traditional optimization problems can not directly handle this mixing of primal and dual variables but complementarity models can and this makes them all that more effective for decision-makers.

Nonlinear Stability of Ekman Boundary Layers in Rotating Stratified Fluids

Nonlinear Stability of Ekman Boundary Layers in Rotating Stratified Fluids

by Hajime Koba

  • Publisher : American Mathematical Soc.
  • Release : 2014-03-05
  • Pages : 127
  • ISBN : 0821891332
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A stationary solution of the rotating Navier-Stokes equations with a boundary condition is called an Ekman boundary layer. This book constructs stationary solutions of the rotating Navier-Stokes-Boussinesq equations with stratification effects in the case when the rotating axis is not necessarily perpendicular to the horizon. The author calls such stationary solutions Ekman layers. This book shows the existence of a weak solution to an Ekman perturbed system, which satisfies the strong energy inequality. Moreover, the author discusses the uniqueness of weak solutions and computes the decay rate of weak solutions with respect to time under some assumptions on the Ekman layers and the physical parameters. The author also shows that there exists a unique global-in-time strong solution of the perturbed system when the initial datum is sufficiently small. Comparing a weak solution satisfying the strong energy inequality with the strong solution implies that the weak solution is smooth with respect to time when time is sufficiently large.

The New Politics of Strategic Resources

The New Politics of Strategic Resources
Energy and Food Security Challenges in the 21st Century

by David Steven,Emily O'Brien,Bruce D. Jones

  • Publisher : Brookings Institution Press
  • Release : 2014-11-21
  • Pages : 365
  • ISBN : 0815725345
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since 2008, energy and food markets—those most fundamental to human existence—have remained in turmoil. Resource scarcity has had a much bigger global impact in recent years than has been predicted, with ongoing volatility a sign that the world is only part-way through navigating a treacherous transition in the way it uses resources. Scarcity, and perceptions of scarcity, increase political risks, while geopolitical turmoil exacerbates shortages and complicates the search for solutions. The New Politics of Strategic Resources examines the political dimensions of strategic resource challenges at the domestic and international levels. For better or worse, energy and food markets are shaped by perceptions of national interest and do not behave as traditional market goods. So while markets are an essential part of any response to tighter resource supplies, governments also will play a key role. David Steven, Emily O'Brien, Bruce Jones, and their colleagues discuss what those roles are and what they should be. The architecture for coordinating multilateral responses to these dynamics has fallen short, raising questions about the effective international management of these issues. Politics impede here too, as the major powers must negotiate political and security trade-offs to cooperate on the design of more robust international regimes and mechanisms for resource security and the provision of global public goods. This timely volume includes chapters on major powers (United States, India, China) and key suppliers (Russia, Saudi Arabia). The contributors also address thematic topics, such as the interaction between oil and state fragility; the changing political dynamics of climate change; and the politics of resource subsidies.

Inequality Problems in Mechanics and Applications

Inequality Problems in Mechanics and Applications
Convex and Nonconvex Energy Functions

by P.D. Panagiotopoulos

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1985-01-01
  • Pages : 412
  • ISBN : 9780817630942
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

In a remarkably short time, the field of inequality problems has seen considerable development in mathematics and theoretical mechanics. Applied mechanics and the engineering sciences have also benefitted from these developments in that open problems have been treated and entirely new classes of problems have been formulated and solved. This book is an outgrowth of seven years of seminars and courses on inequality problems in mechanics for a variety of audiences in the Technical University of Aachen, the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the University of Hamburg and the Technical University of Milan. The book is intended for a variety of readers, mathematicians and engineers alike, as is detailed in the Guidelines for the Reader. It goes without saying that the work of G. Fichera, J. L. Lions, G. Maier, J. J. Moreau in originating and developing the theory of inequality problems has considerably influenced the present book. I also wish to acknowledge the helpful comments received from C. Bisbos, J. Haslinger, B. Kawohl, H. Matthies, H. O. May, D. Talaslidis and B. Werner. Credit is also due to G. Kyriakopoulos and T. Mandopoulou for their exceptionally diligent work in the preparation of the fmal figures. Many thanks are also due to T. Finnegan and J. Gateley for their friendly assistance from the linguistic standpoint. I would also like to thank my editors in Birkhiiuser Verlag for their cooperation, and all those who helped in the preparation of the manuscript.

Global Environmental Issues

Global Environmental Issues
A Book

by Frances Harris

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-02-08
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 1119952085
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Global Environmental Issues, second edition builds on the popularity of the first edition, viewing global environmental problems as complex issues with a network of causes, influenced by a range of actors with differing priorities. The book recognises that science underpins much of what happens in society and therefore it is important to be able to interpret the environmental and social consequences of scientific developments. In addition to discussing the main biophysical causes, the book illustrates how socio-economic and political factors determine why and how people use land, resources and technology, and how this in turn affects natural resource management. This edition includes new chapters on the politics of science, International environmental regulation and treaties, environmental issues in a globalised world and natural resource management. Global Environmental Issues, second edition is essential reading for upper level undergraduates and Masters students within departments of Environmental Science and Geography. Includes case studies from around the world to provide a real life context for the issues tackled in each chapter Considers both the results of human actions and natural environmental change in order to provide balanced, in-depth debate Includes coverage of contemporary 'hot topics' such as biodiversity, globalization and sustainable development Chapters authored by experts in the field Includes new chapters on The politics of science, International environmental regulation and treaties , Environmental issues in a globalised world and Natural Resource Management Expanded sections include negotiating multilateral environmental agreements, GM crops, biofuels and marine and freshwater resources