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Inequality and Energy

Inequality and Energy
How Extremes of Wealth and Poverty in High Income Countries Affect CO2 Emissions and Access to Energy

by Ray Galvin

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-10-25
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 0128176741
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inequality and Energy: How Extremes of Wealth and Poverty in High Income Countries Affect CO2 Emissions and Access to Energy challenges energy consumption researchers in developed countries to reorient their research frameworks to include the effects of economic inequality within the scope of their investigations, and calls for a new set of paradigms for energy consumption research. The book explores concrete examples of energy deprivation due to inequality, and provides conceptual tools to explore this in relation to other issues regarding energy consumption. It thereby urges that energy consumption approaches be updated for a world of increasing inequality. Extreme economic inequality has increased within developed countries over the past three decades. The effects of inequality are now seen increasingly in health, housing affordability, crime and social cohesion. There are signs it may even threaten democracy. Researchers are also exploring its effects on energy consumption. One of their key findings is that less privileged groups have lost consistent access to basic energy services like warm homes and affordable transport, leading to huge disparities of climate damaging emissions between rich and poor. Provides overwhelming evidence of the persistent and increasing income inequality and wealth inequality in developed countries over the past three decades Showcases recent empirical work that explores correlates of this inequality with energy consumption behavior and some of the key problems of access to adequate energy services Shows the connections between these findings and the existing ways of researching energy consumption behavior and policy

Understanding the Energy Transition

Understanding the Energy Transition
Civil society, territory and inequality in Italy

by Natalia Magnani,Giovanni Carrosio

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-11-22
  • Pages : 103
  • ISBN : 3030834816
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The transformation of the dominant model of centralized energy production from fossil fuels to renewable energies is at the center of the public and scientific debate, as well as the subject of national and European policies, as it is connected to highly topical issues such as climate change, emissions reduction and natural disasters, security of supply and sustainability of the current economic development model. Up to now this topic has been mainly addressed by the economic and engineering sciences, with a research focus on the hardware rather than on the human and social software. However, energy systems, and the possibilities of change, are not only economic or technological but involve also patterns of social life, representations, organizational models and relational structures. In order to generate the social preconditions for the transition to a low-emission society, focused on a growing production of energy from renewable sources and on a greater sustainability of consumption, it is therefore urgent to reaffirm the centrality of a sociological approach to energy. This book focused on three core research areas which are crucial to understand what is at stake with the energy transition: conflicts over the construction and location of renewable energy production plants; collective action on renewable sources that promote a new model of energy system in which consumers are also producers; and the social-territorial impact of energy policies.

Inequality in Energy Consumption

Inequality in Energy Consumption
Statistical Equilibrium Or a Question of Accounting Conventions?

by Gregor Semieniuk,Isabella Weber

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mitigating climate change requires information about the inequality in energy consumption. Recent contributions (Banerjee and Yakovenko, 2010; Lawrence et al., 2013; Yakovenko, 2010, 2013) have studied energy inequality through the lens of maximum entropy. They claim a weighted international distribution of total primary energy demand should approach a Boltzmann-Gibbs maximum entropy equilibrium distribution in the form of an exponential distribution, implying convergence to a Gini coefficient of 0.5 from above. The present paper challenges the validity of this claim and critically discusses the applicability of statistical equilibrium reasoning to economics from the viewpoint of social accounting. It is shown that the exponential distribution is only a robust candidate for a statistical equilibrium of energy inequality when employing one particular accounting convention for energy flows, the substitution method. But this method has become problematic with a higher renewable share in the international energy mix, and no other accounting method supports the claim of a convergence to a 0.5 Gini. We conclude that the findings based on maximum entropy reasoning are sensitive to accounting conventions and critically discuss the epistemological implications of this sensitivity for the use of maximum entropy approaches in social sciences.

Inequality Problems in Mechanics and Applications

Inequality Problems in Mechanics and Applications
Convex and Nonconvex Energy Functions

by P.D. Panagiotopoulos

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 412
  • ISBN : 1461251524
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In a remarkably short time, the field of inequality problems has seen considerable development in mathematics and theoretical mechanics. Applied mechanics and the engineering sciences have also benefitted from these developments in that open problems have been treated and entirely new classes of problems have been formulated and solved. This book is an outgrowth of seven years of seminars and courses on inequality problems in mechanics for a variety of audiences in the Technical University of Aachen, the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the University of Hamburg and the Technical University of Milan. The book is intended for a variety of readers, mathematicians and engineers alike, as is detailed in the Guidelines for the Reader. It goes without saying that the work of G. Fichera, J. L. Lions, G. Maier, J. J. Moreau in originating and developing the theory of inequality problems has considerably influenced the present book. I also wish to acknowledge the helpful comments received from C. Bisbos, J. Haslinger, B. Kawohl, H. Matthies, H. O. May, D. Talaslidis and B. Werner. Credit is also due to G. Kyriakopoulos and T. Mandopoulou for their exceptionally diligent work in the preparation of the fmal figures. Many thanks are also due to T. Finnegan and J. Gateley for their friendly assistance from the linguistic standpoint. I would also like to thank my editors in Birkhiiuser Verlag for their cooperation, and all those who helped in the preparation of the manuscript.

Inequality Across Countries in Energy Intensities

Inequality Across Countries in Energy Intensities
An Analysis of the Role of Energy Transformation and Final Energy Consumption

by Juan Antonio Duro Moreno,Emilio Padilla

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 53
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Energy Consumption Inequality and Human Development

Energy Consumption Inequality and Human Development
A Book

by Qiaosheng Wu,Svetlana Maslyuk,Valerie Clulow

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9789535103400
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Energy and the Wealth of Nations

Energy and the Wealth of Nations
An Introduction to Biophysical Economics

by Charles A.S. Hall,Kent Klitgaard

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-03-05
  • Pages : 511
  • ISBN : 3319662198
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this updated edition of a groundbreaking text, concepts such as energy return on investment (EROI) provide powerful insights into the real balance sheets that drive our “petroleum economy.” Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation between energy and the wealth explosion of the 20th century, and the interaction of internal limits to growth found in the investment process and rising inequality with the biophysical limits posed by finite energy resources. The authors focus attention on the failure of markets to recognize or efficiently allocate diminishing resources, the economic consequences of peak oil, the high cost and relatively low EROI of finding and exploiting new oil fields, including the much ballyhooed shale plays and oil sands, and whether alternative energy technologies such as wind and solar power can meet the minimum EROI requirements needed to run society as we know it. For the past 150 years, economics has been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled as a circular flow of income between producers and consumers. In this “perpetual motion” of interactions between firms that produce and households that consume, little or no accounting is given of the flow of energy and materials from the environment and back again. In the standard economic model, energy and matter are completely recycled in these transactions, and economic activity is seemingly exempt from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. As we enter the second half of the age of oil, when energy supplies and the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption are likely to constrain economic growth, this exemption should be considered illusory at best. This book is an essential read for all scientists and economists who have recognized the urgent need for a more scientific, empirical, and unified approach to economics in an energy-constrained world, and serves as an ideal teaching text for the growing number of courses, such as the authors’ own, on the role of energy in society.

SDG10 – Reduce Inequality Within and Among Countries

SDG10 – Reduce Inequality Within and Among Countries
A Book

by Umesh Chandra Pandey,Chhabi Kumar,Martin Ayanore,Hany R. Shalaby

  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Release : 2020-02-20
  • Pages : 136
  • ISBN : 1787699838
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Defining inequality as the social, economic and political challenges of our time, this book will examine SDG10 to look ahead at how policy action might engage multiple stakeholders, involve diverse sectors and address gaps between policy and implementation to tackle key inequalities within and among countries.

The Problem of Social Inequality

The Problem of Social Inequality
Why It Destroys Democracy, Threatens the Planet, and What We Can Do About It

by Scott G. McNall

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2015-12-07
  • Pages : 316
  • ISBN : 1317333438
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Within and among nations, rising levels of social inequality threaten our collective future. Currently, upwards of 80% of people’s life chances are determined by factors over which they have absolutely no control. Social inequality threatens the democratic project because it destroys the trust on which governments depend, and it gives rise to corrupt political and economic institutions. How can we get out of the traps we have created for ourselves? We need to reboot capitalism. Drawing on diverse examples from a range of countries, McNall explains the social, economic, and ecological traps we have set for ourselves and develops a set of rules of resilience that are necessary conditions for the creation and maintenance of democratic societies, and a set of rules essential for creating a sustainable future.

Energy, Inequality and Pro-poor Growth in South Africa

Energy, Inequality and Pro-poor Growth in South Africa
Is Energy Sufficient?

by Nicholas Nwanyek Ngepah

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011-11-02
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 9783846548455
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sustainable Energy and Economics in an Aging Population

Sustainable Energy and Economics in an Aging Population
Lessons from Japan

by Kozo Torasan Mayumi

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-04-01
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 3030432254
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses current challenges in Japan, focusing on the nation’s rapidly aging population and low birth rate, along with persistent public bond issues with heavy interest payments, the potential collapse of social security systems, and income inequality, as well as the global picture. In turn, it examines the accessibility of global fossil fuels and feasibility of large-scale solar energy use. A new theory of money, interest, and capital is put forward, together with a proposal for an alternative system of international monetary cooperation, to promote a more sustainable and equitable world. Specific topics discussed include • the inverted population pyramid, due to the dramatic change in human life spans and declining birth rates; • the rapidly shrinking workforce, aging population, and declining GDP share sourced from industry; • disproportionate debt expansion due to public bond issues and coping with a persistent budget deficit; • the potential collapse of social security systems combined with income inequality; and • how to mitigate these bio-economic predicaments. Global Energy Sources offers an essential guide for policymakers, economists, researchers, and all those concerned with establishing a sustainable and equitable society from both energy and monetary perspectives. Further, it will be of interest to readers around the world, as the lessons learned from Japan are crucial to other developed societies that may eventually face the same types of challenge.

Energy Poverty in Eastern Europe

Energy Poverty in Eastern Europe
Hidden Geographies of Deprivation

by Stefan Buzar

  • Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Release : 2007-01-01
  • Pages : 175
  • ISBN : 9780754671305
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the consequences of the post-socialist transformation of Eastern and Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union is the emergence of energy poverty, a condition where households are living in inadequately heated homes. This book provides the first full-length examination of the causes, consequences and patterns of energy poverty in former Communist countries.

The Just Energy Transition Fund

The Just Energy Transition Fund
Fostering Energy Transition, Countering Economic Inequality and Boosting EU Legitimacy

by Jerzy Dudek (prawo),Piotr Szlagowski-Budacz,Paula Kukołowicz

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9788366306370
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Unplugged: Exploring the Relationship Between Energy Access and Political Stability

Unplugged: Exploring the Relationship Between Energy Access and Political Stability
A Book

by Emilie Nadler

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 62
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This thesis empirically examines the relationship between political stability and energy access. Using worldwide data from the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and United Nations, I performed fixed effects regression analysis with political stability estimates as the dependent variable and total electricity rates by country as the main independent variable. The results showed that electrical rates have little impact on political stability, but that economic inequality and gender inequality affect both electricity access and political stability. These results align with previous studies showing inequality's effect on political stability and violence and show that governments and international actors that wish to reduce political stability and violence need to address inequality and poverty first. The results also indicate that reductions in poverty and inequality will also improve energy access.

Noteworthy

Noteworthy
Inequality, Well-Being, Energy

by Stephanie Gullo

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 1
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Inequality and Fiscal Policy

Inequality and Fiscal Policy
A Book

by Mr.Benedict J. Clements,Ruud A. de Mooij,Mr.Sanjeev Gupta,Mr.Michael Keen

  • Publisher : International Monetary Fund
  • Release : 2015-09-21
  • Pages : 442
  • ISBN : 1513567756
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The sizeable increase in income inequality experienced in advanced economies and many parts of the world since the 1990s and the severe consequences of the global economic and financial crisis have brought distributional issues to the top of the policy agenda. The challenge for many governments is to address concerns over rising inequality while simultaneously promoting economic efficiency and more robust economic growth. The book delves into this discussion by analyzing fiscal policy and its link with inequality. Fiscal policy is the government’s most powerful tool for addressing inequality. It affects households ‘consumption directly (through taxes and transfers) and indirectly (via incentives for work and production and the provision of public goods and individual services such as education and health). An important message of the book is that growth and equity are not necessarily at odds; with the appropriate mix of policy instruments and careful policy design, countries can in many cases achieve better distributional outcomes and improve economic efficiency. Country studies (on the Netherlands, China, India, Republic of Congo, and Brazil) demonstrate the diversity of challenges across countries and their differing capacity to use fiscal policy for redistribution. The analysis presented in the book builds on and extends work done at the IMF, and also includes contributions from leading academics.

The Economic Superorganism

The Economic Superorganism
Beyond the Competing Narratives on Energy, Growth, and Policy

by Carey W. King

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-10-07
  • Pages : 466
  • ISBN : 3030502953
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Energy drives the economy, economics informs policy, and policy affects social outcomes. Since the oil crises of the 1970s, pundits have debated the validity of this sequence, but most economists and politicians still ignore it. Thus, they delude the public about the underlying influence of energy costs and constraints on economic policies that address such pressing contemporary issues as income inequality, growth, debt, and climate change. To understand why, Carey King explores the scientific and rhetorical basis of the competing narratives both within and between energy technology and economics. Energy and economic discourse seems to mirror Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion: For every narrative there is an equal and opposite counter-narrative. The competing energy narratives pit "drill, baby, drill!" against renewable technologies such as wind and solar. Both claim to provide secure, reliable, clean, and affordable energy to support economic growth with the most benefit to society, but how? To answer this question, we need to understand the competing economic narratives, techno-optimism and techno-realism. Techno-optimism claims that innovation overcomes any physical resource constraints and enables the social outcomes and economic growth we desire. Techno-realism, in contrast, states that no matter what energy technologies we use, feedbacks from physical growth on a finite planet constrain economic growth and create an uneven distribution of social impacts. In The Economic Superorganism, you will discover stories, data, science, and philosophy to guide you through the arguments from competing narratives on energy, growth, and policy. You will be able to distinguish the technically possible from the socially viable, and understand how our future depends on this distinction.

Energy Poverty

Energy Poverty
(Dis)Assembling Europe's Infrastructural Divide

by Stefan Bouzarovski

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-12-22
  • Pages : 117
  • ISBN : 3319692992
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This open access book aims to consolidate and advance debates on European and global energy poverty by exploring the political and infrastructural drivers and implications of the condition across a variety of spatial scales. It highlights the need for a geographical conceptualization of the different ways in which household-level energy deprivation both influences and is contingent upon disparities occurring at a wider range of spatial scales. There is a strong focus on the relationships among energy transformation, institutional change and place-based factors in determining the nature and location of energy-related injustices. The book also explores how patterns and structures of energy poverty have changed over time, as evidenced by some of the common measures used to describe the condition. In part, this means investigating the makeup of energy poor demographics across various social and spatial cleavages. More broadly, it also argues that energy sector reconfigurations are both reflected in and shaped by various domains of social and political organization, especially in terms of creating poverty-relevant outcomes.

What Matters for Environmental Quality in the Next-11 Countries

What Matters for Environmental Quality in the Next-11 Countries
Economic Growth Or Income Inequality?

by Hemachandra Padhan

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 26
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This study uses 1971-2013 panel data to explore the implications of growth, wealth disparities and energy consumption on carbon emissions in a sample of Next-Eleven (N-11) countries. It uses modern econometric techniques to highlight a long-run interplay between selected variables in the carbon emissions function for all the N-11 nations and long-run interactions among the series analyzed. Contrastingly, it also shows that economic growth, income inequalities and energy consumption accelerate CO2 emissions.In addition to examining the effects of the wealth disparities square, the study also uses the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis in the context of the N-11 states. Its findings suggest that policymakers should curb rising income inequalities through effective redistributive measures such as tax transfers (cash transfers) and taking up other expenditure programs for the poor. Moreover, the Indian government should emphasize on an energy-reducing strategy policy to reduce income inequalities and achieve sustainable development.

Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation

Journal of Environmental Law and Litigation
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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