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Infectious Disease in Aquaculture

Infectious Disease in Aquaculture
Prevention and Control

by B Austin

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012-04-25
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 0857095730
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With an ever increasing demand for seafood that cannot be met by capture fisheries alone, growing pressure is being placed on aquaculture production. However, infectious diseases are a major constraint. Infectious disease in aquaculture: prevention and control brings together a wealth of recent research on this problem and its effective management. Part one considers the innate and adaptive immune responses seen in fish and shellfish together with the implications of these responses for disease control. The specific immune response of molluscs and crustaceans is considered in depth, along with the role of stress in resistance to infection. Advances in disease diagnostics, veterinary drugs and vaccines are discussed in part two, with quality assurance, the use and effects of antibiotics and anti-parasitic drugs in aquaculture, and developments in vaccination against fish are explored. Part three focuses on the development of specific pathogen-free populations and novel approaches for disease control. Specific pathogen free shrimp stocks, developments in genomics and the use of bacteria and bacteriophages as biological agents for disease control are explored, before the management and use of natural antimicrobial compounds. With its distinguished editor and expert team of contributors, Infectious disease in aquaculture: prevention and control provides managers of aquaculture facilities and scientists working on disease in aquaculture with a comprehensive and systematic overview of essential research in the prevention and control of infectious disease. Collates a wealth of recent research on infectious disease and its effective management in aquaculture production Considers the innate and adaptive immune responses seen in fish and shelfish and the implications for disease control Discusses advances in disease diagnostics, veterinary drugs and vaccines

Aquaculture Biosecurity

Aquaculture Biosecurity
Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Aquatic Animal Disease

by A. David Scarfe,Cheng-Sheng Lee,Patricia J. O'Bryen

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-02-08
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 0470376635
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Published in Cooperation with THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY Aquaculture loses millions of dollars in revenue annually due to aquatic animal diseases. Disease outbreaks continue to threaten profitable and viable aquaculture operations throughout the world. As a result, aquaculture biosecurity programs that address aquatic animal pathogens and diseases have become an important focus for the aquaculture industry. Aquaculture Biosecurity: Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Aquatic Animal Disease provides valuable information that will increase success in combating infectious aquatic disease. Key representatives of international, regional, and national organizations presented their views on this important issue as part of a special session at the 2004 World Aquaculture Society Annual Conference. The chapters of this book cover a wealth of experience from the varied perspectives of these experts on biosecurity, policies, and measures to take the offensive against the spread of diseases in aquatic animals. With contributions from renowned international experts, covering approaches to biosecurity policies and measures currently practiced, Aquaculture Biosecurity: Prevention, Control, and Eradication of Aquatic Animal Disease is a vital reference for all those concerned about protecting aquaculture from impacts of aquatic animal disease.

HEALTHY STURGEON

HEALTHY STURGEON
STURGEON DISEASE AND TREATMENT ILLUSTRATED GUIDELINES

by Yan Merkulov,Ivan Markov

  • Publisher : Applied Sturgeon Agency
  • Release : 2019-11-24
  • Pages : 111
  • ISBN : 5604243396
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Healthy sturgeon" - a practical guide to the diagnosis and treatment of sturgeon diseases in aquaculture. How did the idea of this book come about? Full-cycle breeding of sturgeon in fresh water is a relatively young direction of aquaculture, compared, for example, with the cultivation in artificial conditions of species such as carp or trout. The main incentive for the rapid large-scale development of sturgeon breeding was a catastrophic reduction in the number of sturgeons in nature and the introduction, in this regard, of a ban on their fishing. Within a short time, thousands of fish farms appeared around the world, some of which were previously cultivated by other species, while others were built specifically for sturgeon. The available knowledge about sturgeons characterized them as very resistant to various fish diseases. However, in practice, fish farmers from both old and newly created farms are faced with the fact that under artificial conditions all groups of sturgeon (from young to mature fish) are significantly susceptible to various diseases. There were frequent cases when in certain periods the death of sturgeon juveniles reached 90%. One of the main reasons for this is that radical changes in lifestyle, expressed in the exclusion of the sea period and constant keeping in fresh water, have had a negative impact on sturgeon resistance to diseases that have not previously been noted at these fish. This is especially true for bacterial diseases that cause the most damage on sturgeon farms. Many fish farmers were not ready for this. As practice shows, if fishery specialists had taken timely measures to identify diseases in the initial stages, then, in most cases, it would be possible to prevent the mass death of fish and avoid serious losses. Therefore, working on this book, we have tried to fully help fish farmers in solving the main problems: timely diagnosis of diseases, the choice of emergency measures to prevent the development and further spread of the disease and, most importantly, the creation of conditions that prevent the emergence of diseases of fish on the sturgeon farm. The diagnostic and laboratory research methods described in this manual are focused specifically on the capabilities of fisheries laboratories, which are equipped mainly with optical equipment and rapid analysis tools. A detailed description of the external manifestations and clinical signs that in a fish farm will help to establish the onset of the disease in a timely manner was a priority task that the authors of this book tried to solve. For a better perception, all the diseases described in the book are illustrated by a large number (more than two hundred) of original photographs, diagrams and drawings. For ease of use of the book, the materials are grouped into three sections: The first section is devoted to general information about diseases, the principles of their diagnosis and ichthyopathological examination. Also, the section provides information about the features of the anatomy of sturgeon, in relation to the issues of ichthyopathology. The second section contains descriptions of infectious and non-infectious diseases of sturgeon, indicating the causes of their occurrence, risk factors and methods of treatment. The third section describes the general principles and methods of treatment of fish, the characteristics of some of the most commonly used drugs. The materials of the manual are adapted for a wide range of readers, including those studying fish farming and fish diseases on their own. More about this book on our site by link: https://www.osetrovod.ru/healthy-sturgeon

Assessing Infectious Disease Emergence Potential in the U.S. Aquaculture Industry

Assessing Infectious Disease Emergence Potential in the U.S. Aquaculture Industry
Phase 1: U.S. Aquaculture Industry Profile

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Health Maintenance and Principal Microbial Diseases of Cultured Fishes

Health Maintenance and Principal Microbial Diseases of Cultured Fishes
A Book

by John A. Plumb

  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Release : 1999-06-09
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 9780813822983
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Infectious diseases are among the greatest constraint to the expansion and realisation of the full potential of aquaculture. This valuable reference text concentrates on the infectious viral and bacterial diseases most important in aquaculture, and also addresses their existence in natural environments. The author organises the viral and bacterial diseases of fish into groups or families that are most extensively cultured. Dr. Plumb creates a balance between diseases of warmwater, coolwater, and coldwater fishes, and presents information on important disease problems not only in North America, but also around the world.

Climate Change and Infectious Fish Diseases

Climate Change and Infectious Fish Diseases
A Book

by Patrick T.K. Woo,Jo-Ann Leong,Kurt Buchmann

  • Publisher : CABI
  • Release : 2020-09-04
  • Pages : 527
  • ISBN : 1789243270
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This definitive reference work explores the effects of current and expected climate change, taking place throughout the world, on selected bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infectious fish diseases of economically important fish in tropical and temperate waters"--

Fish Farm Health Evaluation

Fish Farm Health Evaluation
Interpretation of Site Mortality Records

by Sílvia Soares

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In aquaculture worldwide, diseases are a significant constraint to economic expansion. The Scottish salmonid industry has experienced many cycles of development, with episodes of little or negative profitability caused by excess of production, and times of crisis due to different disease problems. In Scotland, the early implementation of regulation largely contributed to the control of infectious disease outbreaks. The recent Chilean outbreak of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) illustrated the threats and the impacts of disease in the aquaculture industry and the importance of implementing good regulation and husbandry practices to reduce the impact of the spread of infectious disease. Databases of site production data have an important role to play in the investigation and understanding of diseases. They store valuable data collected during the time of production, which are essential for the identification of potential health and production problems during the production cycle of farmed fish. Mortality records are one of the most important sources of information on a farm, especially if it includes the cause of death as deformities, predators and diseases. Any deviation from the expected levels of mortality may indicate production problems, infectious diseases, or inadequate welfare. The investigation of increased rates of mortality must include examining farm records, determining the influence of death rate on production and the potential risk factors of diseases in a farm. This project demonstrated the importance of mortality records for setting industry standards of "expected" mortality losses and for investigating the value of recorded mortalities as a tool for aiding in surveillance and control of infectious diseases. It also aimed to determine the utility of reported mortality in supporting and assisting management-strategy decisions at the farm and industry level. In this project, we developed a baseline benchmark curve for expected mortality losses for Atlantic salmon in seawater. This novel approach constitutes a first attempt to establish a baseline curve for normal mortality, which allows detection of potential production problems based on deviations of mortality from the baseline curve of normal mortality. The results of this study also indicated that mortality levels may vary across production cycles, which can again be identified by using the baseline. We found that site was the factor with the highest contribution to variance in mortality. This site-to-site variation in mortality may have resulted from epidemics and environmental incidents, or other local event/effects. Temperature, and/or geographical area were also characteristics that contribute to variation in mortality. The regulator, Marine Scotland Science, with the backing and support of the salmonid industry has suggested potential mortality thresholds as an indicator of presence of infectious diseases, which could be used as alerts for inspection by the official authority. In this study, high mortality rates on fish farms were investigated as an indicator of the presence of infectious disease. The analysis was performed using several analytical approaches: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, measures of sensitivity and specificity, and bootstrap methods. The study was performed by splitting the production cycle into small fish with mean weight below 750 g and large fish with mean weight over 750 g. In the small fish, the results did not suggest reported mortality as a strong indicator of the presence of infectious disease, which may be caused by the lack of records of infectious disease at this stage of the production cycle. In the larger fish, high mortality rates were found to be a strong potential indicator of the presence of infectious diseases, including the suggested mortality threshold. In a survey, the role of traditional diagnosis in the prevention and control of disease outbreaks was assessed. For that, key informant interviews were performed with open questions to the health or farm manager of several trout and Atlantic salmon farms and we also used the diagnostic reports of the Veterinary Diagnostic Services (VDS) from Stirling University to triangulate the data. We showed that disease diagnoses are of great importance for disease identification and control of actual diseases. Farmer's experience was also indicated as essential in the identification of the first signs of disease, which was principally through the daily monitoring of fish. This study suggested that disease diagnosis starts at the farm level with the daily monitoring of fish and the records of different parameters by the farmer, including mortality. Those records were showed to be vital to identify problems within the production. This thesis illustrated a novel approach to investigate and interpret recorded mortality at the farm level. The results presented in this thesis indicated reported mortality as a vital on-farm tool for identification of diseases and production problems. This thesis suggested priority areas where further investigation is required.

Aquaculture Virology

Aquaculture Virology
A Book

by Frederick S. B. Kibenge,Marcos Godoy

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-07-11
  • Pages : 568
  • ISBN : 0128017546
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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To date textbooks on viruses infecting fish, crustaceans and molluscs, the three main aquatic animal farmed groups, have been on the whole “diseases-centric and individual viral diseases selected based on “epizoo-centric approaches with little to no coverage of the basic biology of the viruses, in contrast to textbooks on viruses infecting terrestrial - farmed, pet, and free-range (wild) - animals and humans. Despite considerable advances in animal virology in recent years coupled with an economically important global aquaculture industry, knowledge of viruses of animal aquaculture is still sparse and in some cases outdated although these viruses are closely related to well-known virus families. The last book in fish virology (Fish viruses and fish viral diseases 1988, Wolf, K.) was published in the 1980s. A lot of work has been done on fish viruses and many new aquatic animal viruses continue to be discovered. Aquaculture Virology provides the current state of knowledge of aquatic animal viruses within the current virus classification and taxonomic context thereby allowing the reader to draw on the principles of general virology. This book is a systematic and concise resource useful to anyone involved with or looking to move into aquaculture and fisheries. Clinical veterinarians, aquaculture disease practitioners, biologists, farmers, and all those in industry, government or academia who are interested in aquatic animal virology will find this book extremely useful. Provides unique comprehensive information on animal viruses for aquaculture and fisheries Presents high quality illustrations of viral structure, diagrams of viral disease processes, gross pathology and histopathology lesions, and summary tables to aid in understanding Describes aquatic animal viruses of the three major aquatic animals, fish, crustaceans, and molluscs, within the current virus classification and taxonomic context thereby allowing the reader to draw on the principles of general virology

Assessing Infectious Disease Emergence Potential in the U.S. Aquaculture Industry

Assessing Infectious Disease Emergence Potential in the U.S. Aquaculture Industry
Phase 2, Infectious Disease Emergence Qualitative Risk Assessment Tool, Development : Phase 3, Infectious Disease Emergence Qualitative Risk Assessment Tool, Application and Results

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 112
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Assessing Infectious Disease Emergence Potential in the U.S. Aquaculture Industry

Assessing Infectious Disease Emergence Potential in the U.S. Aquaculture Industry
Phase 2: Infectious Disease Emergence Qualitative Risk Assessment Tool: Development ; Phase 3: Infectious Disease Emergence Qualitative Risk Assessment Tool: Application and Results

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fish Vaccination

Fish Vaccination
A Book

by Roar Gudding,Atle Lillehaug,Oystein Evensen

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-05-05
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 0470674555
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fish farming, in seawater and in freshwater, in cages, tanks or ponds, makes an ever-increasing and significant contribution to the production of aquatic food in many regions of the world. During the last few decades there has been significant progress and expansion in the aquaculture sector, characterized by intensified production and the exploitation of many new species. Aquaculture must be a sustainable bio-production, environmentally as well as economically. Disease prevention in order to reduce losses, and the use of antimicrobials is crucial in this perspective. Vaccination has, in a few years, become the most important method for disease prevention in aquaculture, and effective prophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish is essential for further development of the industry. This book provides general information about disease prevention in fish by vaccination, as well as specific descriptions of the correct use of vaccines against the most important bacterial and viral infectious diseases of aquatic animals. The book is written by some of the world’s leading experts in the subject, drawn from many countries where aquaculture is a significant and expanding part of the economy. Fish Vaccination is an encyclopedia of fish vaccinology for every present and future aquaculturist. Professionals in the aquaculture sector, including fish veterinarians and fish biologists, within the industry, in scientific institutions and regulatory authorities will all find a huge wealth of commercially important knowledge within this book. Libraries in all universities where aquaculture, biological and veterinary sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.

Health Maintenance of Cultured Fishes

Health Maintenance of Cultured Fishes
Principal Microbial Diseases

by John A. Plumb

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-01-18
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 1351081594
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The text concentrates on the infectious viral and bacterial diseases that are most prevalent in aquaculture. Although much information has been derived from North American studies, important diseaase problems from other parts of the world are included. Also, where applicable, the influence of the various diseases on wild populations has been included. This book is intended for students and scientists who are interested in health maintenance of aquatic animals, aquatic pathobiology, and infectious diseases of fin fish. Hopefully, it will be used as a text for beginning fish pathologists and as a reference source for those of broader experience.

Responsible Use of Antibiotics in Aquaculture

Responsible Use of Antibiotics in Aquaculture
A Book

by Pilar Hernández Serrano,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  • Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 194
  • ISBN : 9789251054369
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Antibiotics are drugs of natural or synthetic origin that have the capacity to kill or to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently non-toxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases of human, animals and plants. They have long been present in the environment and have played a crucial role in the battle between man and microbe. Many bacterial species multiply rapidly enough to double their numbers every 20-30 minutes, so their ability to adapt to changes in the environment and survive unfavourable conditions often results in the development of mutations that enable the species to survive changing external conditions. Another factor contributing to their adaptability is that individual cells do not rely on their own genetic resources. Many, if not all, have access to a large pool of itinerant genes that move form one bacteria cell to another and spread through bacterial populations through a variety of mobile genetic elements, of which plasmids and transposable elements are two examples. The capacity of bacteria to adapt to changes in their environment and thus survive is called resistance. Drug choices for the treatment of common infectious diseases are becoming increasingly limited and expensive and, in some cases, unavailable due to the emergence of drug resistance in bacteria and fungi-resistance that is threatenging to reverse much medical progress of the past 50 years. Dissemination of resistant micro-organisms may occur in both hospitals and communities. It is recognized that a major route of transmission of resistant micro-organishm from animals to humans is through the food chain. In aquaculture, antibiotics have been used mainly for therapeutic purposes and as prophylactic agents. The contribution to antimicrobial resistance of antibiotics used in aquaculture is reviewed here, using a risk analysis framework. Some recommendations on responsible conduct in this context are proposed, aimed at diminishing the threat of build up of antimicrobial resistance.

Aquaculture Pathophysiology

Aquaculture Pathophysiology
A Book

by Frederick S. B. Kibenge,Roger Sie-Maen Chong,Bernardo Baldisserotto

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-04-01
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 0128123370
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aquaculture Pathophysiology provides a practical reference on the steadily increasing importance of aquatic animal infectious diseases. With the burgeoning expansion of the animal aquaculture industry to new geographic areas, new microbial and parasitic species with pathogenic potential will continue to emerge. This necessitates rapid identification of new pathogens to enable their control. The book is a systematic and concise resource for researchers, teachers, students, diagnostic laboratory staff, clinical veterinarians, aquaculture disease practitioners, biologists, farmers, and all those in industry, government or academia who are interested in aquaculture, fisheries and comparative biology. Identifies bacteria, fungus and other pathogens affecting aquatic food supply Discusses effects on anatomy, physiology, pathology and toxicology Includes effects on fish, crustaceans and mollusks Recommends preventative measures, including vaccination and biosecurity Features post infection solutions in pharmacology and pain management

Development of Bacterins and Vaccines for Control of Infectious Diseases in Fish

Development of Bacterins and Vaccines for Control of Infectious Diseases in Fish
A Book

by John L. Fryer

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1977
  • Pages : 10
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Theory and Application of Aquaculture Research and Extension for International Development

Theory and Application of Aquaculture Research and Extension for International Development
A Book

by Larken Talhe Root

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9781369201659
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aquaculture has the potential to significantly improve nutrition and livelihoods through continued international development. This can only be achieved through collaborative research and extension services for fish farmers around the world. This study highlights a project aimed at reducing infectious disease through novel biological research methods. Infectious diseases cause major loss of fish in state-run hatcheries. This study examines the infection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the gram-negative bacteria Flavobacterium psychrophilum which can result in Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD). The approach involves examining the physiological effects of infection in these fish at the protein level. Using non-biased Liquid Chromotography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques, the total protein content in the kidney, spleen, plasma, and muscles tissue at site of infection were analyzed for differential abundance between infected and control populations. Artificially infected cohorts were compared against fish taken from an active hatchery to determine whether laboratory results would be reflective of a real-world context. Sets of proteins which change in abundance consistently between individuals as a response to BCWD infection make ideal candidates as bio-markers which can then be used in the development of diagnostic tools. Proteomic methods also reveal the underlying mechanisms of the infection and response through gene ontology and pathway analysis. Plasma samples were found to have the highest number of significantly regulated proteins determined by differential abundance. The greatest protein regulation in the plasma was seen in enzymes involved in glycolysis, actin cytoskeletal regulation, immune response, and oxidation-reduction regulation.

Marine Disease Ecology

Marine Disease Ecology
A Book

by Donald C. Behringer,Brian R. Silliman,Kevin D. Lafferty

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2020-01-30
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 0192554832
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Whether through loss of habitat or cascading community effects, diseases can shape the very nature of the marine environment. Despite their significant impacts, studies of marine diseases have tended to lag behind their terrestrial equivalents, particularly with regards to their ecological effects. However, in recent decades global research focused on marine disease ecology has expanded at an accelerating rate. This is due in part to increases in disease emergence across many taxa, but can also be attributed to a broader realization that the parasites responsible for disease are themselves important members of marine communities. Understanding their ecological relationships with the environment and their hosts is critical to understanding, conserving, and managing natural and exploited populations, communities, and ecosystems. Courses on marine disease ecology are now starting to emerge and this first textbook in the field will be ideally placed to serve them. Marine Disease Ecology is suitable for graduate students and researchers in the fields of marine disease ecology, aquaculture, fisheries, veterinary science, evolution and conservation. It will also be of relevance and use to a broader interdisciplinary audience of government agencies, NGOs, and marine resource managers.

Control of Infectious Diseases

Control of Infectious Diseases
Catalogue of Research Projects in the Fifth Framework Programme: Infectious Diseases of Livestock and Aquaculture Animals

by European Commission. Directorate General for Research,European Commission. Directorate-General for Research. Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources. Key Action 2 - Control of Infectious Diseases,Office for Official Publications of the European Communities

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 98
  • ISBN : 9789289496964
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aquaculture Health Management

Aquaculture Health Management
Design and Operation Approaches

by Frederick S. B. Kibenge,Mark D. Powell

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-06-13
  • Pages : 394
  • ISBN : 0128133600
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aquaculture Health Management: Design and Operation Approaches is an essential reference for the diverse aquaculture community. With the steadily increasing importance of healthy fish production and the expansion of the animal aquaculture industry to new geographic areas, new microbial and parasitic species with pathogenic potential continue to emerge. The book covers the broad spectrum of fish and shellfish health, the functional roles of pathogen emergence, and the impacts of nutrition and preventative medicine such as pre- and probiotics, as well as chemical treatments, relevant legislation and more. This reference takes a comprehensive approach to understanding overall fish health management, making it valuable to aquaculturists, practitioners in aquatic animal health, veterinarians and all those in industry, government or academia who are interested in aquaculture and fisheries and their sustainable futures. Presents the biosecurity measures used to prevent the spread of disease Discusses fish immunology to help readers understand preventive medicine for a healthy fish production Examines the latest scientific methods and technologies to maximize efficiencies for healthy fish production for farming Includes the most commonly researched fish, crustaceans and mollusks in aquaculture

Modeling the Transmission and Prevention of Infectious Disease

Modeling the Transmission and Prevention of Infectious Disease
A Book

by Christon J. Hurst

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-08-31
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 3319606166
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume focuses on blocking disease transmission and the ecological perspective of pathogens and pathogenic processes. The chapters on blocking transmission cover the environmental safety of space flight, biocides and biocide resistance, as well as infection control in healthcare facilities. The book also offers insights into the ecological aspects of infectious disease, introducing the reader to the role of indigenous gut microbiota in maintaining human health and current discussions on environmentally encountered bacterial and fungal pathogens including species that variously cause the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer and coccidioidomycosis. Further, it explores the influenza A virus as an example for understanding zoonosis. It is a valuable resource for microbiologists and biomedical scientists alike.