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Integrated Lasers on Silicon

Integrated Lasers on Silicon
A Book

by Charles Cornet,Yoan Léger,Cédric Robert

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2016-07-14
  • Pages : 178
  • ISBN : 0081010761
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Integrated Lasers on Silicon provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art use of lasers on silicon for photonic integration. The authors demonstrate the need for efficient laser sources on silicon, motivated by the development of on-board/on-chip optical interconnects and the different integration schemes available. The authors include detailed descriptions of Group IV-based lasers, followed by a presentation of the results obtained through the bonding approach (hybrid III-V lasers). The monolithic integration of III-V semiconductor lasers are explored, concluding with a discussion of the different kinds of cavity geometries benchmarked with respect to their potential integration on silicon in an industrial environment. Features a clear description of the advantages, drawbacks, and challenges of laser integration on silicon Serves as a staple reference in the general field of silicon photonics Focuses on the promising developments of hybrid and monolithic III-V lasers on silicon, previously unreviewed Discusses the different kinds of cavity geometries benchmarked with respect to their potential integration on silicon in an industrial environment

CMOS Integration of High Performance Quantum Dot Lasers for Silicon Photonics

CMOS Integration of High Performance Quantum Dot Lasers for Silicon Photonics
A Book

by Zihao Wang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 131
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Integration of III-V components on Si substrates is required for realizing the promise of Silicon Photonic systems. Specifically, the direct bandgap of many III-V materials is required for light sources, efficient modulators and photodetectors. Several different approaches have been taken to integrate III-V lasers into the silicon photonic platform, such as wafer bonding, direct growth, butt coupling, etc. Here, we have devised a novel laser design that overcomes the above limitations. In our approach, we use InAs quantum dot (QD) lasers monolithically integrated with silicon waveguides and other Si photonic passive components. Due to their unique structures, the QD lasers have been proven by several groups to have the combination of high temperature stability, large modulation bandwidth and low power consumption compared with their quantum well counterparts, which makes it an ideal candidate for Si photonic applications. The first section of this dissertation introduces the theory and novelty of QD lasers, the DC and RF characterization methods of QD lasers are also discussed. The second section is focused on the growth of QD gain chip which a broadband gain chip based on QD inhomogeneous broadening properties was demonstrated. In third section, the lasers devices are built on Si substrate by Pd wafer bonding technology. Firstly, a ridge waveguide QD laser is demonstrated in this section which have better heat dissipation and lower threshold current compared to the unbonded lasers. In section four, a on Si comb laser is also developed. Due to inhomogeneous broadening and ultrafast carrier dynamics, InAs quantum dots have key advantages that make them well suited for Mode-locked lasers (MLLs). In section five, a passively mode-locked InAs quantum dots laser on Si is achieved at a repetition rate of ~7.3 GHz under appropriate bias conditions. In section six, a butt-joint integration configuration based on QD lasers and silicon photonics ring resonator is tested by using to translation stage. In order to achieve the on chip butt-joint integration, an on chip laser facet was created in section seven. A novel facet etching method is developed by using Br-ion beam assist etching (Br-IBAE). In section eight, a Pd-GaAs butt-joint integration platform was proposed, a hybrid tunable QD laser which consist of a QD SOA gain chip butt joint coupled with a passive Si3N4 photonic integrated circuit is proof of concept by using an external booster SOA coupled with a Si3N4 ring reflector feedback circuit. The final section summarized the work discussed in this thesis and also discussed some future approaches by using QD lasers integrated with silicon photonics integrated circuits based on the Pd-GaAs wafer bonding butt-joint coupled platform."--Abstract.

Integrated Erbium Lasers in Silicon Photonics

Integrated Erbium Lasers in Silicon Photonics
A Book

by Purnawirman

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 114
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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We present results on the development of integrated erbium-doped aluminum oxide lasers on a silicon photonics platform. A key achievement in this work is a scalable laser design for high output power and ultra-narrow linewidth performance. Using a novel wavelength-insensitive design, a CMOS compatible waveguide structure is proposed to achieve high confinement factor and intensity overlap for both the pump (980 nm) and signal (1550 nm) wavelengths. Laser operation in the C- and L- bands of the erbium gain spectrum is obtained with both a distributed Bragg reflector and a distributed feedback structure. We demonstrate power scaling with output power greater than 75 mW and obtain an ultra-narrow linewidth of 5.3 t 0.3 kHz. We investigate the influence of gain film thickness uniformity in distributed feedback laser performance and show a compensation scheme based on a curved cavity design. We then consider the application in optical communications by demonstrating a multiwavelength cascaded laser to generate wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) light sources. Finally, we propose an integration scheme of laser in full silicon photonics platform by using an erbium trench. The approach is alignment free and allows the erbium-doped film deposition to be the last backend process, providing a pathway to a scalable CMOS compatible laser device.

Silicon Photonics

Silicon Photonics
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-10-08
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 0128155191
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Silicon Photonics, Volume 99 in the Semiconductors and Semimetals series, highlights new advances in the field, with this updated volume presenting interesting chapters on Transfer printing in Silicon Photonics, Epitaxial integration of antimonide-based semiconductor lasers on Si, Photonic crystal lasers and nanolasers on Si, the Evolution of monolithic quantum-dot light source for silicon photonics, III-V on Si nanocomposites, the Heterogeneous integration of III-V on Si by bonding, the Growth of III-V on Silicon compliant substrates and lasers by MOCVD, Photonic Integrated Circuits on Si, Integrated Photonics for Bio- and Environmental sensing, Membrane Lasers/Photodiodes on Si, and more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Represents the latest release in the Semiconductors and Semimetals series Updated release includes the latest information on Silicon Photonics

IIIV/Si Nanoscale Lasers and Their Integration with Silicon Photonics

IIIV/Si Nanoscale Lasers and Their Integration with Silicon Photonics
A Book

by Olesya Bondarenko

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 119
  • ISBN : 9781321649000
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The rapidly evolving global information infrastructure requires ever faster data transfer within computer networks and stations. Integrated chip scale photonics can pave the way to accelerated signal manipulation and boost bandwidth capacity of optical interconnects in a compact and ergonomic arrangement. A key building block for integrated photonic circuits is an on-chip laser. In this dissertation we explore ways to reduce the physical footprint of semiconductor lasers and make them suitable for high density integration on silicon, a standard material platform for today's integrated circuits. We demonstrated the first room temperature metalo-dielectric nanolaser, sub-wavelength in all three dimensions. Next, we demonstrated a nanolaser on silicon, showing the feasibility of its integration with this platform. We also designed and realized an ultracompact feedback laser with edge-emitting structure, amenable for in-plane coupling with a standard silicon waveguide. Finally, we discuss the challenges and propose solutions for improvement of the device performance and practicality.

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIA

Optical Fiber Telecommunications VIA
Chapter 13. Hybrid Silicon Lasers

by Brian R. Koch,Sudharsanan Srinivasan,John E. Bowers

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-05-03
  • Pages : 794
  • ISBN : 0128060670
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The term “hybrid silicon laser” refers to a laser that has a silicon waveguide and a III–V material that are in close optical contact. In this structure the optical confinement can be easily transferred from one material to the other and intermediate modes exist for which the light is contained in both materials simultaneously. In hybrid silicon lasers, the optical gain is provided by the electrically pumped III–V material and the optical cavity is ultimately formed by the silicon waveguide. This type of laser can be heterogeneously integrated with silicon components that have superior performance compared to III–V components. These lasers can be fabricated in high volumes as components of complex photonic integrated circuits, largely with CMOS-compatible processes. These traits are expected to allow for highly complex, non-traditional photonic integrated circuits with very high yields and relatively low cost of manufacturing. In this chapter we discuss the theory of hybrid silicon lasers, wafer bonding techniques, examples of experimental results, examples of system demonstrations based on hybrid silicon lasers, and prospects for future devices.

III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers on Silicon

III-V Semiconductor Nanowire Lasers on Silicon
A Book

by Hyunseok Kim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 132
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chip-scale integrated light sources are a crucial component in a broad range of photonics applications. III-V semiconductor nanowire emitters have gained attention as a fascinating approach due to their superior material properties, extremely compact size, and capability to grow directly on lattice-mismatched substrates including silicon. However, their practical applications are still in the early stages due to the difficulties in achieving high-performance nanowire emitters and integrating nanowire emitters with photonic platforms. In this dissertation, we demonstrate III-V nanowire-based lasers monolithically integrated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platforms, which can be potentially employed for chip-scale optical communications and photonic integrated circuits. For this, selective-area epitaxy of InGaAs nanowires on 3D structured SOI platforms is developed by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Nanowires are precisely positioned on 3D structures, including waveguides and gratings, with nearly 100 % nanowire growth yield and wide bandgap tuning ranges. Next, nanowire array-based bottom-up photonic crystal cavities are demonstrated on SOI substrates. InGaAs/InGaP core/shell nanowire arrays form 1D and 2D photonic crystal cavities on SOI layers, and single-mode room-temperature lasing from these bottom-up cavities is achieved by optically pumping the nanowire arrays. We also show that the nanowire array lasers are effectively coupled with SOI waveguides, which is achieved by integrating bottom-up nanowires on pre-patterned SOI platforms. The lasing wavelengths of nanowire array lasers are in the ranges of 1,100-1,440 nm, which covers telecommunication wavelengths, all operating at room temperature. It is also shown that arrays of proposed lasers with individually tunable wavelengths can be integrated on a single chip by lithographically tuning the cavity geometries. In summary, the III-V nanowire lasers on silicon demonstrated in this dissertation represent a new platform for ultracompact and energy-efficient light sources for silicon photonics and unambiguously point the way toward practical and functional nanowire lasers.

Silicon Photonics IV

Silicon Photonics IV
Innovative Frontiers

by David J. Lockwood,Lorenzo Pavesi

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-06-08
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 3030682226
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This fourth book in the series Silicon Photonics gathers together reviews of recent advances in the field of silicon photonics that go beyond already established and applied concepts in this technology. The field of research and development in silicon photonics has moved beyond improvements of integrated circuits fabricated with complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology to applications in engineering, physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. The chapters provided in this book by experts in their fields thus cover not only new research into the highly desired goal of light production in Group IV materials, but also new measurement regimes and novel technologies, particularly in information processing and telecommunication. The book is suited for graduate students, established scientists, and research engineers who want to update their knowledge in these new topics.

Highly Integrated Germanium Photo-detectors and III-V Hybrid Lasers for Silicon Photonic Applications

Highly Integrated Germanium Photo-detectors and III-V Hybrid Lasers for Silicon Photonic Applications
A Book

by Subal Sahni

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2007
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Photonic Integration and Photonics-Electronics Convergence on Silicon Platform

Photonic Integration and Photonics-Electronics Convergence on Silicon Platform

by Koji Yamada,Jifeng Liu,Toshihiko Baba,Laurent Vivien, Dan-Xia Xu

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-11-10
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889196933
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Silicon photonics technology, which has the DNA of silicon electronics technology, promises to provide a compact photonic integration platform with high integration density, mass-producibility, and excellent cost performance. This technology has been used to develop and to integrate various photonic functions on silicon substrate. Moreover, photonics-electronics convergence based on silicon substrate is now being pursued. Thanks to these features, silicon photonics will have the potential to be a superior technology used in the construction of energy-efficient cost-effective apparatuses for various applications, such as communications, information processing, and sensing. Considering the material characteristics of silicon and difficulties in microfabrication technology, however, silicon by itself is not necessarily an ideal material. For example, silicon is not suitable for light emitting devices because it is an indirect transition material. The resolution and dynamic range of silicon-based interference devices, such as wavelength filters, are significantly limited by fabrication errors in microfabrication processes. For further performance improvement, therefore, various assisting materials, such as indium-phosphide, silicon-nitride, germanium-tin, are now being imported into silicon photonics by using various heterogeneous integration technologies, such as low-temperature film deposition and wafer/die bonding. These assisting materials and heterogeneous integration technologies would also expand the application field of silicon photonics technology. Fortunately, silicon photonics technology has superior flexibility and robustness for heterogeneous integration. Moreover, along with photonic functions, silicon photonics technology has an ability of integration of electronic functions. In other words, we are on the verge of obtaining an ultimate technology that can integrate all photonic and electronic functions on a single Si chip. This e-Book aims at covering recent developments of the silicon photonic platform and novel functionalities with heterogeneous material integrations on this platform.

Growth of III-V Semiconductor Lasers on Silicon

Growth of III-V Semiconductor Lasers on Silicon
A Book

by William Edward Plano

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1990
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The growth of reliable III-V semiconductor lasers on Si would be a significant step toward the fabrication of an opto-electronic integrated circuit, but reliable III-V semiconductor lasers grown on Si have yet to be reported. Many problems not encountered when growing III-V lasers on III-V substrates must be overcome before III-V lasers grown on Si become reliable. In the experiments described here many different methods are used to try to improve the reliability of III-V lasers grown on Si. Data are presented showing that impurity induced layer disordering (IILD) can be greatly accelerated when an abundance of dislocations are present. The high dislocation density of III-V materials grown on Si makes this a problem that cannot be overlooked. This problem can be minimized but it puts limits on the kind of thermal processing that can be done to a III-V laser grown on Si. Perhaps the most difficult problem encountered when growing III-V lasers on Si is dislocations. If the dislocation density can be reduced, then lasers grown on Si should become more reliable. Several methods of reducing the dislocation density of III-V lasers grown on Si have been tried. Data are presented showing the Zn diffusions, strained layer superlattices, and lattice matched buffer layers are all somewhat effective at lowering the dislocation density. The high dislocation density of III-V lasers grown on Si makes InGaAs strained layer active lasers on Si an unlikely possibility because the dislocations tend to accumulate at the active region of these structures where dislocations are the most damaging. Growth of III-V lasers on patterned GaAs-on-Si wafers has also been investigated. Growing over a selective area should reduce some strain and possibly lower the dislocation density. Data are presented showing that the dislocation density can be reduced by selective area epitaxy. But other problems arise when growing over a selective area and make device fabrication more difficult.

Monolithic Heteroepitaxial Integration of III-V Semiconductor Lasers on Si Substrates

Monolithic Heteroepitaxial Integration of III-V Semiconductor Lasers on Si Substrates
A Book

by Michael Groenert

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 188
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Monolithic optoelectronic integration on silicon-based integrated circuits has to date been limited to date by the large material differences between silicon (Si) and the direct-bandgap GaAs compounds from which optoelectronic components are fabricated. Graded Ge/GeSi buffer layers grown on standard Si substrates have been shown to produce near-lattice matched virtual substrates for GaAs integration on Si. This study investigated the crystal growth conditions and device fabrication techniques necessary for successful GaAs-based laser integration on Ge/GeSi buffer layers on Si substrates. The nucleation conditions for GaAs on Ge/GeSi/Si substrates have been comprehensively examined. High-temperature (2 700° C) initiation with properly chosen V/III gas flow ratio yields high-quality, stacking fault-free GaAs films on Ge/GeSi/Si substrates, but also encourages the vapor-phase transport of Ge from the substrate into the active regions of integrated GaAs devices. A new two-step GaAs nucleation process was developed that enabled the first demonstration of high-quality Ge-free GaAs light-emitting diodes on Ge/GeSi/Si substrates. The large thermal expansion mismatch between Si, Ge, and GaAs introduces additional strain to integrated device layers on Ge/GeSi/Si substrates grown at high temperatures. This study conclusively demonstrated the link between thermal mismatch strain and increased misfit dislocation formation in InxGa(lx)As/GaAs quantum well structures integrated on Ge/GeSi/Si substrates.

Silicon-Organic Hybrid Platform for Photonic Integrated Circuits

Silicon-Organic Hybrid Platform for Photonic Integrated Circuits

by Korn, Dietmar

  • Publisher : KIT Scientific Publishing
  • Release : 2015-09-29
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN : 3731504308
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Silicon Compatible Materials, Processes, and Technologies for Advanced Integrated Circuits and Emerging Applications 6

Silicon Compatible Materials, Processes, and Technologies for Advanced Integrated Circuits and Emerging Applications 6
A Book

by Fred Roozeboom,Paul Timans,Evgeni Gusev,Vijay Narayanan,Kuniyuki Kakushima,Zia Karim,Stefan De Gendt

  • Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
  • Release : 2022
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 1607687143
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Micro-cleaved Ridge Lasers for Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon

Micro-cleaved Ridge Lasers for Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon
A Book

by Joseph John Rumpler

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 245
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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(Cont.) These lasers have output powers as high as 26.8 mW (at T = 10.3 oC), differential efficiencies as high as 81% (at T = 10.3 oC), and threshold currents as low as 18 mA (at T = 10.3 oC). The characteristic temperatures, To and T1, of the lasers on silicon were measured to be 43 K and 85 K, respectively. To put the performance of these integrated micro-cleaved ridge lasers on silicon in perspective, conventionally cleaved multiple quantum well (MQW) ridge lasers on their native InP substrate were also fabricated and tested. The thin micro-cleaved ridge platelet lasers integrated onto silicon outperformed the conventional lasers on InP in terms of thermal characteristics (maximum operating temperature, To, and T1), output power, and differential efficiency. The structure of this thesis is as follows. First, the motivation for this work and the historical evolution of the optoelectronics field are briefly described. Next, the various optoelectronic integration techniques that have been pursued over the years and their limits are presented. The novel fabrication processes developed to manufacture these platelet lasers is then described in detail. Specifics on the characterization methods and measurement results of both the micro-cleaved ridge lasers on silicon and the conventionally cleaved ridge lasers on native InP substrates are presented. A technique, Magnetically Assisted Statistical Assembly, that could be potentially used to scale the integration technology to ultra-high densities of optoelectronic components is then theoretically described. Finally, the thesis concludes with a comparison with other state of the art results in the literature and proposes further directions for this research effort.

Compact Semiconductor Lasers

Compact Semiconductor Lasers
A Book

by Richard De La Rue,Jean-Michel Lourtioz,Siyuan Yu

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-04-03
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 3527655360
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

Silicon Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits

Silicon Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits
A Book

by Horst Zimmermann

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-01-30
  • Pages : 441
  • ISBN : 3030058220
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Explains the circuit design of silicon optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), which are central to advances in wireless and wired telecommunications. The essential features of optical absorption are summarized, as is the device physics of photodetectors and their integration in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies. This information provides the basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the OEICs described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, Silicon Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits presents detailed descriptions of many OEICs for a wide variety of applications from various optical sensors, smart sensors, 3D-cameras, and optical storage systems (DVD) to fiber receivers in deep-sub-μm CMOS. Numerous detailed illustrations help to elucidate the material.

Silicon Photonics Design

Silicon Photonics Design
A Book

by Lukas Chrostowski,Michael Hochberg

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2015-03-12
  • Pages : 437
  • ISBN : 1107085454
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This hands-on introduction to silicon photonics engineering equips students with everything they need to begin creating foundry-ready designs.

Coaxial Recess Integration of InGaAs Edge Emitting Laser Diodes with Waveguides on Silicon Substrates

Coaxial Recess Integration of InGaAs Edge Emitting Laser Diodes with Waveguides on Silicon Substrates
A Complete Solution to Laser Integration on ICs

by Shaya Famenini,Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 289
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this thesis, the first demonstration of the full integration of 1.55[mu]m InGaAs/InP edge emitting platelet laser diodes with SiON/SiO2 dielectric waveguides on a silicon substrate is presented. Small footprint laser platelets (300[mu]m long by 150[mu mwide and 6.3[mu]m high), are integrated and bonded in recesses etched in SiO2 deposited on a Si substrate, and are coaxially coupled to the dielectric waveguides fabricated on the same wafer. Lasers assembled in 6.5[mu]m deep recesses are securely solder-bonded in place with a thin film Al/In bonding layer, which also brings the laser platelet back side n-contact to the wafer front side for measurements. The Al/In bonding layer composition and thickness are carefully optimized to provide highly reproducible vertical alignment to maximize the coupling of the laser output beam to the dielectric waveguide. Lasers are bonded into the recesses with this solder-bonding layer during a pressure assisted temperature cycle at 220°C. The low temperature nature of the bonding phase makes this integration technique CMOS compatible. The integrated lasers show lasing operation with threshold currents of Ith=17mA and Ith=19mA for pulsed and continuous wave drives respectively, at T=15°C. The output spectrum shows single mode lasing near 1550[mu]m, and a side mode suppression ratio of 25dB which is significantly higher than typical Fabry Perot cavity laser diodes. Furthermore, the integrated lasers have a characteristic temperature, T0, of 76K which is improved from 60K for non-integrated lasers. Also the integrated lasers consistently show lower threshold currents compared to their non-integrated counterparts. The coupling loss between the laser and dielectric waveguide is extracted to be as low as 1dB, a value that can be further reduced by improved horizontal alignment and better matching the widths of laser stripe and dielectric waveguide. Overall, this recess integration approach is CMOS compatible, is highly modular, compact and flexible, permits testing and selection of devices prior to integration, and allows integration of lasers emitting at different wavelengths on the same chip. It eliminates the need for wafer bonding III/V substrates to the host Si IC along with added complexity and cost it involves, and can be implemented using easily accessible technologies.

Monolithically Integrated InP-on-silicon Quantum Dot Lasers and On-chip Photonic Circuits

Monolithically Integrated InP-on-silicon Quantum Dot Lasers and On-chip Photonic Circuits
A Book

by Si Zhu

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 188
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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