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Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy
Principles and Applications

by Valeri V. Afanas'ev

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2010-07-07
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 9780080555898
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The monographic book addresses the basics of the charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another - the internal photoemission, (IPE) - and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This is the first book in the field of IPE, which complements the conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analysing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. IPE is providing the most straightforward and, therefore, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method provides the unique capability of analysing the heterostructures relevant to the modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. In addition to the discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications, several “hot topics are addressed. These include development of new insulating materials for advances Si MOS technology (both high-k gate insulators and low-k dielectrics for interconnect insulation), metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, etc. Thanks to a considerable activity in this field over the last few years, the recent results concerning band structure of most important interfaces involving novel materials can now be documented. - First complete description of the internal photoemission phenomena - A practical guide to internal photoemission measurements - Describes reliable energy barrier determination procedures - Surveys trap spectroscopy methods applicable to thin insulating layers - Provides an overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces - Contains a complete collection of reference data on interface band alignment for wide-bandgap insulating materials in contact with metals and semiconductors

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy
Principles and Applications

by V. V. Afanasʹev

  • Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 295
  • ISBN : 9780080451459
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The monographic book addresses the basics of the charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another - the internal photoemission, (IPE) - and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This is the first book in the field of IPE, which complements the conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analysing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. IPE is providing the most straightforward and, therefore, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method provides the unique capability of analysing the heterostructures relevant to the modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. In addition to the discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications, several "hot" topics are addressed. These include development of new insulating materials for advances Si MOS technology (both high-k gate insulators and low-k dielectrics for interconnect insulation), metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, etc. Thanks to a considerable activity in this field over the last few years, the recent results concerning band structure of most important interfaces involving novel materials can now be documented. - First complete description of the internal photoemission phenomena - A practical guide to internal photoemission measurements - Describes reliable energy barrier determination procedures - Surveys trap spectroscopy methods applicable to thin insulating layers - Provides an overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces - Contains a complete collection of reference data on interface band alignment for wide-bandgap insulating materials in contact with metals and semiconductors

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy
Fundamentals and Recent Advances

by Valeri V. Afanas'ev

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-02-22
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 0080999301
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The second edition of Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy thoroughly updates this vital, practical guide to internal photoemission (IPE) phenomena and measurements. The book's discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications is supplemented by an extended overview of recent experimental results in swiftly advancing research fields. These include the development of insulating materials for advanced SiMOS technology, metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, and more. Recent results concerning the band structure of important interfaces in novel materials are covered as well. Internal photoemission involves the physics of charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another, and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This technique complements conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analyzing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. Internal photoemission provides the most straightforward, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method enables the analysis of heterostructures relevant to modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. First complete model description of the internal photoemission phenomena Overview of the most reliable energy barrier determination procedures and trap characterization methods Overview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces with semiconductors and metals

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy: Principles and Applications
A Book

by Valeri V. Afanas'ev

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-11-13
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9780081015315
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The second edition of "Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy" thoroughly updates this vital, practical guide to internal photoemission (IPE) phenomena and measurements. The book's discussion of fundamental physical and technical aspects of IPE spectroscopic applications is supplemented by an extended overview of recent experimental results in swiftly advancing research fields. These include the development of insulating materials for advanced SiMOS technology, metal gate materials, development of heterostructures based on high-mobility semiconductors, and more. Recent results concerning the band structure of important interfaces in novel materials are covered as well. Internal photoemission involves the physics of charge carrier photoemission from one solid to another, and different spectroscopic applications of this phenomenon to solid state heterojunctions. This technique complements conventional external photoemission spectroscopy by analyzing interfaces separated from the sample surface by a layer of a different solid or liquid. Internal photoemission provides the most straightforward, reliable information regarding the energy spectrum of electron states at interfaces. At the same time, the method enables the analysis of heterostructures relevant to modern micro- and nano-electronic devices as well as new materials involved in their design and fabrication. First complete model description of the internal photoemission phenomenaOverview of the most reliable energy barrier determination procedures and trap characterization methodsOverview of the most recent results on band structure of high-permittivity insulating materials and their interfaces with semiconductors and metals

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Semiconductor-insulator Interfaces

Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy of Semiconductor-insulator Interfaces
A Book

by V. K. Adamchuk,V. V. Afanasʹev

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1992
  • Pages : 101
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Assessment of Barrier Heights Between ZrCuAlNi Amorphous Metal and SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2 Using Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy

Assessment of Barrier Heights Between ZrCuAlNi Amorphous Metal and SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2 Using Internal Photoemission Spectroscopy
A Book

by Tyler D. Klarr

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 80
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As scaling of silicon (Si) based devices approaches fundamental limits, thin film metal-insulator-metal (MIM) tunnel diodes are attracting interest due to their potential for high speed operation. Because operation of these devices is based on tunneling, electrode / interfacial roughness is critical. Recently, it was shown that combining ultra-smooth bottom electrodes with insulators deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) enables reproducible fabrication of MIM diodes with stable I-V behavior. Key performance parameters of MIM diodes include high I-V asymmetry and low turn-on voltage. The standard way to achieve asymmetry relies on the use of non-equivalent work function metal electrodes to induce a built-in field that creates polarity dependent electron tunneling barrier. Thus the electrical performance of MIM diodes are directly impacted by the nature of the energy barriers at the interfaces. In this work, we report the first use of internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) to measure barrier heights between an amorphous zirconium copper aluminum nickel (ZCAN) metal alloy bottom electrode and several high-k dielectrics deposited via ALD. In IPE, the conduction band offset between two materials is characterized by measuring the additional current created by photo-excitation of carriers under an applied bias (V[subscript app]). Devices were tested in a custom built IPE system.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Principles and Applications

by Stephan Hüfner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-03-09
  • Pages : 662
  • ISBN : 3662092808
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The author, S. Hüfner, presents an authoritative and up-to-date introduction to the field by comprehensively treating the electronic structures of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. Brief descriptions are given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron diffraction. Experimental aspects are considered throughout the third edition book and the results are carefully interpreted in terms of the theory. A wealth of measured data is presented in tabulator form for easy use by experimentalists. The reader will learn about the basic technique of photoemission spectroscopy and obtain the necessary background for work based on this book.

Advanced Gate Stacks for High-Mobility Semiconductors

Advanced Gate Stacks for High-Mobility Semiconductors
A Book

by Athanasios Dimoulas,Evgeni Gusev,Paul C. McIntyre,Marc Heyns

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-01-01
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 354071491X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive monograph on gate stacks in semiconductor technology. It covers the major latest developments and basics and will be useful as a reference work for researchers, engineers and graduate students alike. The reader will get a clear view of what has been done so far, what is the state-of-the-art and which are the main challenges ahead before we come any closer to a viable Ge and III-V MOS technology.

Metrology and Diagnostic Techniques for Nanoelectronics

Metrology and Diagnostic Techniques for Nanoelectronics
A Book

by Zhiyong Ma,David G. Seiler

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-03-27
  • Pages : 1454
  • ISBN : 135173394X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanoelectronics is changing the way the world communicates, and is transforming our daily lives. Continuing Moore’s law and miniaturization of low-power semiconductor chips with ever-increasing functionality have been relentlessly driving R&D of new devices, materials, and process capabilities to meet performance, power, and cost requirements. This book covers up-to-date advances in research and industry practices in nanometrology, critical for continuing technology scaling and product innovation. It holistically approaches the subject matter and addresses emerging and important topics in semiconductor R&D and manufacturing. It is a complete guide for metrology and diagnostic techniques essential for process technology, electronics packaging, and product development and debugging—a unique approach compared to other books. The authors are from academia, government labs, and industry and have vast experience and expertise in the topics presented. The book is intended for all those involved in IC manufacturing and nanoelectronics and for those studying nanoelectronics process and assembly technologies or working in device testing, characterization, and diagnostic techniques.

NBS Special Publication

NBS Special Publication
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1976
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Publications

Publications
A Book

by United States. National Bureau of Standards

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1973
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Publications of the National Bureau of Standards ... Catalog

Publications of the National Bureau of Standards ... Catalog
1966-1976

by United States. National Bureau of Standards

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1978
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High-k Gate Dielectrics for CMOS Technology

High-k Gate Dielectrics for CMOS Technology
A Book

by Gang He,Zhaoqi Sun

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-08-10
  • Pages : 590
  • ISBN : 3527646361
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A state-of-the-art overview of high-k dielectric materials for advanced field-effect transistors, from both a fundamental and a technological viewpoint, summarizing the latest research results and development solutions. As such, the book clearly discusses the advantages of these materials over conventional materials and also addresses the issues that accompany their integration into existing production technologies. Aimed at academia and industry alike, this monograph combines introductory parts for newcomers to the field as well as advanced sections with directly applicable solutions for experienced researchers and developers in materials science, physics and electrical engineering.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Principles and Applications

by Stefan Hüfner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 518
  • ISBN : 3662032090
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Photoelectron Spectroscopy presents an up-to-date introduction to the field by comprehensively treating the electronic structures of atoms, molecules, solids, and surfaces. Brief descriptions are given of inverse photoemission, spin-polarized photoemission and photoelectron diffraction. Experimental aspects are considered throughout the book and the results are carefully interpreted in terms of the theory. A wealth of measured data is presented in tabulator form for easy use by experimentalists.

Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications, 1966-1976

Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications, 1966-1976
A Book

by United States. National Bureau of Standards. Technical Information and Publications Division

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1978
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications, 1966-1976

Catalog of National Bureau of Standards Publications, 1966-1976
Consolidated Reprint of Citations and Abstracts from NBS SP305 and Its Supplements 1-8

by United States. National Bureau of Standards

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1978
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Silicon Carbide

Silicon Carbide
Recent Major Advances

by Wolfgang J. Choyke,Hiroyuki Matsunami,Gerhard Pensl

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-04-17
  • Pages : 899
  • ISBN : 3642188702
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since the 1997 publication of "Silicon Carbide - A Review of Fundamental Questions and Applications to Current Device Technology" edited by Choyke, et al., there has been impressive progress in both the fundamental and developmental aspects of the SiC field. So there is a growing need to update the scientific community on the important events in research and development since then. The editors have again gathered an outstanding team of the world's leading SiC researchers and design engineers to write on the most recent developments in SiC.

Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces

Electronic Properties of Semiconductor Interfaces
A Book

by Winfried Mönch

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-04-17
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 3662069458
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Using the continuum of interface-induced gap states (IFIGS) as a unifying theme, Mönch explains the band-structure lineup at all types of semiconductor interfaces. These intrinsic IFIGS are the wave-function tails of electron states, which overlap a semiconductor band-gap exactly at the interface, so they originate from the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. He shows that a more chemical view relates the IFIGS to the partial ionic character of the covalent interface-bonds and that the charge transfer across the interface may be modeled by generalizing Pauling?s electronegativity concept. The IFIGS-and-electronegativity theory is used to quantitatively explain the barrier heights and band offsets of well-characterized Schottky contacts and semiconductor heterostructures, respectively.

Electric Field Penetration in Au/Nb

Electric Field Penetration in Au/Nb
SrTiO3 Schottky Junctions Probed by Bias-Dependent Internal Photoemission

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Electric field penetration into the metallic side of a Schottky junction is in principle a universal phenomenon, the magnitude of which increases with the semiconductor permittivity. Here, we quantitatively probe this effect using bias-dependent internal photoemission spectroscopy at the Schottky junction between a large dielectric permittivity semiconductor SrTiO3 and gold. A clear linear reduction of the barrier height with increasing interface electric field was observed, highlighting the importance of field penetration into the gold. The interfacial permittivity of SrTiO3 at the interface is reduced from the bulk value, reflecting intrinsic suppression at the interface.

Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide

Transparent Conductive Zinc Oxide
Basics and Applications in Thin Film Solar Cells

by Klaus Ellmer,Andreas Klein,Bernd Rech

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-12-29
  • Pages : 446
  • ISBN : 3540736123
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Zinc oxide (ZnO) belongs to the class of transparent conducting oxides that can be used as transparent electrodes in electronic devices or heated windows. In this book the material properties of, the deposition technologies for, and applications of zinc oxide in thin film solar cells are described in a comprehensive manner. Structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of ZnO are treated in this review.