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Introduction to Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Physics

Introduction to Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Physics
A Book

by Taiju Tsuboi

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2021-08-15
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 9780128213872
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction to Organic Light Emitting Diode Physics explains the underlying material and device physics that impact the performance of organic materials for OLED applications. The author details the mechanisms involved in OLED operation and the importance of OLED physics. The author provides the logic of key formulas and concepts necessary to interpret and analyze experimental results in OLED research. There is also discussion of emerging opportunities and remaining challenges to the advancement of OLED research. Introduction to Organic Light Emitting Diode Physics provides the fundamental concepts of OLED physics and light emitting materials including carrier mobility (which is vital for enhancing the efficiency of OLED technologies). Remaining challenges to improving the performance of OLEDs, including attention to device fabrication, are investigated. The author systematically compares the most relevant materials utilized for OLED applications and provides details on their differences. The book is suitable for new entrants and experienced researchers in the disciplines of materials science and engineering and physics working in academia and industry. Explains underlying material and device physics that impact the performance of organic materials for OLED applications Reviews and compares Organic LEDs to inorganic LEDs, polymer LEDs, and metallic OLED and non-metallic LEDs Discusses emerging topics and remaining challenges for OLED research, particularly ones that impact OLED efficiency and performance

OLED Fundamentals

OLED Fundamentals
Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

by Daniel J. Gaspar,Evgueni Polikarpov

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-05-15
  • Pages : 494
  • ISBN : 9781466515185
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Comprehensive Source for Taking on the Next Stage of OLED R&D OLED Fundamentals: Materials, Devices, and Processing of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes brings together key topics across the field of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), from fundamental chemistry and physics to practical materials science and engineering aspects to design and manufacturing factors. Experts from top academic institutions, industry, and national laboratories provide thorough, up-to-date coverage on the most useful materials, devices, and design and fabrication methods for high-efficiency lighting. The first part of the book covers all the construction materials of OLED devices, from substrate to encapsulation. For the first time in book form, the second part addresses challenges in devices and processing, including architectures and methods for new OLED lighting and display technologies. The book is suitable for a broad audience, including materials scientists, device physicists, synthetic chemists, and electrical engineers. It can also serve as an introduction for graduate students interested in applied aspects of photophysics and electrochemistry in organic thin films.

Air-Stable Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Air-Stable Inverted Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
A Book

by Katsuyuki Morii,Hirohiko Fukagawa

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-04-03
  • Pages : 48
  • ISBN : 3030185141
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This concise volume provides an introduction to the working principles, design, and construction of air-stable inverted organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which lead to the realization of practical flexible electronics. The first part of the book reviews the history of the three generations of inverted OLEDs: hybrid organic inorganic light-emitting diodes (HOILEDs), metal oxides and organic electron injection layer, describing the materials, fabrication techniques, device structure, applications, and technological challenges involved in each case. The second part of the book focuses on the carrier injection mechanism in OLEDs. The book will be of interest to students and researchers working on organic optoelectronics.

Handbook of Digital Imaging

Handbook of Digital Imaging
A Book

by Michael Kriss

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-02-23
  • Pages : 1824
  • ISBN : 0470510595
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A comprehensive and practical analysis and overview of the imaging chain through acquisition, processing and displayThe Handbook of Digital Imaging provides a coherent overview of the imaging science amalgam, focusing on the capture, storage and display of images. The volumes are arranged thematically to provide a seamless analysis of the imaging chain from source (image acquisition) to destination (image print/display). The coverage is planned to have a very practical orientation to provide a comprehensive source of information for practicing engineers designing and developing modern digital imaging systems. The content will be drawn from all aspects of digital imaging including optics, sensors, quality, control, colour encoding and decoding, compression, projection and display.• Contains approximately 50, highly illustrated articles (ranging from 20-40 pages), printed in full colour throughoutComprehensive 3-volume set, also available on Wiley Online Library. • Over 50 Contributors, with contributors from Europe, US and Asia. Contributors are both and from academia and industryThe 3 volumes will be organized thematically for enhanced usability:Volume 1: Image Capture and Storage• Image Capture and Storage Volume 2: Image Display and Reproduction• Image Display and Projection• Hardcopy Technology• Halftoning and Physical Evaluation• Models for Halftone ReproductionVolume 3: Imaging System Applications• Media Imaging• Remote Imaging• Medical and Forensic ImagingIdeal for engineers and designers in the dynamic global imaging and display industries

Clinical Imaging Physics

Clinical Imaging Physics
Current and Emergency Practice

by Ehsan Samei,Douglas E. Pfeiffer

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-04-20
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 1118753607
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Clinical Medical Imaging Physics: Current and Emerging Practice is the first text of its kind—a comprehensive reference work covering all imaging modalities in use in clinical medicine today. Destined to become a classic in the field, this book provides state-of-practice descriptions for each imaging modality, followed by special sections on new and emerging applications, technologies, and practices. Authored by luminaries in the field of medical physics, this resource is a sophisticated, one-volume handbook to a fast-advancing field that is becoming ever more central to contemporary clinical medicine. Summarizes the current state of clinical medical imaging physics in one volume, with a focus on emerging technologies and applications Provides comprehensive coverage of all key clinical imaging modalities, taking into account the new realities in healthcare practice Features a strong focus on clinical application of principles and technology, now and in the future Contains authoritative text compiled by world-renowned editors and contributors responsible for guiding the development of the field Practicing radiologists and medical physicists will appreciate Clinical Medical Imaging Physics as a peerless everyday reference work. Additionally, graduate students and residents in medical physics and radiology will find this book essential as they study for their board exams.

Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials

Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials
A Book

by Robert J. Naumann

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2008-12-22
  • Pages : 533
  • ISBN : 1420061348
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discusses the Structure and Properties of Materials and How These Materials Are Used in Diverse Applications Building on undergraduate students’ backgrounds in mathematics, science, and engineering, Introduction to the Physics and Chemistry of Materials provides the foundation needed for more advanced work in materials science. Ideal for a two-semester course, the text focuses on chemical bonding, crystal structure, mechanical properties, phase transformations, and materials processing for the first semester. The material for the second semester covers thermal, electronic, photonic, optical, and magnetic properties of materials. Requiring no prior experience in modern physics and quantum mechanics, the book introduces quantum concepts and wave mechanics through a simple derivation of the Schrödinger equation, the electron-in-a-box problem, and the wave functions of the hydrogen atom. The author also presents a historical perspective on the development of the materials science field. He discusses the Bose–Einstein, Maxwell–Boltzmann, Planck, and Fermi–Dirac distribution functions, before moving on to the various properties and applications of materials. With detailed derivations of important equations, this applications-oriented text examines the structure and properties of materials, such as heavy metal glasses and superconductors. It also explores recent developments in organics electronics, polymer light-emitting diodes, superconductivity, and more.

Physics of Organic Semiconductors

Physics of Organic Semiconductors
A Book

by Wolfgang Brütting

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2006-05-12
  • Pages : 554
  • ISBN : 3527606793
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents: * Excitation Dynamics in Organic Semiconductors * Organic Field-Effect Transistors * Spectroscopy of Organic Semiconductors * Interfaces between Organic Semiconductors and Metals * Analysis and Modeling of Devices * Exciton Formation and Energy Transfer in Organic Light Emitting Diodes * Deposition and Characterization

Organic Light Emitting Diode

Organic Light Emitting Diode
Material, Process and Devices

by Seung Hwan Ko

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2011-07-27
  • Pages : 334
  • ISBN : 9533072733
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book contains a collection of latest research developments on Organic light emitting diodes (OLED). It is a promising new research area that has received a lot of attention in recent years. Here you will find interesting reports on cutting-edge science and technology related to materials, fabrication processes, and real device applications of OLEDs. I hope that the book will lead to systematization of OLED study, creation of new research field and further promotion of OLED technology for the bright future of our society.

Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (TADF-OLEDs)

Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (TADF-OLEDs)
A Book

by Lian Duan

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2021-10-15
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 0128227737
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (TADF-OLEDs) comprehensively introduces the history of TADF, along with a review of fundamental concepts. Then, TADF emitters with different colors, such as blue, green, red and NIR as well as white OLEDs are discussed in detail. Other sections cover exciplex-type TADF materials, emerging application of TADF emitters as a host in OLEDs, and applications of TADF materials in organic lasers and biosensing. Discusses green, blue, red, NIR and white TADF emitters and their design strategies for improved performance for light-emitting diode applications Addresses emerging materials, such as molecular and exciplex-based TADF materials Includes emerging applications like lasers and biosensors

Hendee's Physics of Medical Imaging

Hendee's Physics of Medical Imaging
A Book

by Ehsan Samei,Donald J. Peck

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2019-02-08
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 1118671066
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An up-to-date edition of the authoritative text on the physics of medical imaging, written in an accessible format The extensively revised fifth edition of Hendee's Medical Imaging Physics, offers a guide to the principles, technologies, and procedures of medical imaging. Comprehensive in scope, the text contains coverage of all aspects of image formation in modern medical imaging modalities including radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. Since the publication of the fourth edition, there have been major advances in the techniques and instrumentation used in the ever-changing field of medical imaging. The fifth edition offers a comprehensive reflection of these advances including digital projection imaging techniques, nuclear imaging technologies, new CT and MR imaging methods, and ultrasound applications. The new edition also takes a radical strategy in organization of the content, offering the fundamentals common to most imaging methods in Part I of the book, and application of those fundamentals in specific imaging modalities in Part II. These fundamentals also include notable updates and new content including radiobiology, anatomy and physiology relevant to medical imaging, imaging science, image processing, image display, and information technologies. The book makes an attempt to make complex content in accessible format with limited mathematical formulation. The book is aimed to be accessible by most professionals with lay readers interested in the subject. The book is also designed to be of utility for imaging physicians and residents, medical physics students, and medical physicists and radiologic technologists perpetrating for certification examinations. The revised fifth edition of Hendee's Medical Imaging Physics continues to offer the essential information and insights needed to understand the principles, the technologies, and procedures used in medical imaging.

Handbook of Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications

Handbook of Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications
A Book

by Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2018-07-19
  • Pages : 1142
  • ISBN : 012813352X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Nanomaterials for Industrial Applications explores the use of novel nanomaterials in the industrial arena. The book covers nanomaterials and the techniques that can play vital roles in many industrial procedures, such as increasing sensitivity, magnifying precision and improving production limits. In addition, the book stresses that these approaches tend to provide green, sustainable solutions for industrial developments. Finally, the legal, economical and toxicity aspects of nanomaterials are covered in detail, making this is a comprehensive, important resource for anyone wanting to learn more about how nanomaterials are changing the way we create products in modern industry. Demonstrates how cutting-edge developments in nanomaterials translate into real-world innovations in a range of industry sectors Explores how using nanomaterials can help engineers to create innovative consumer products Discusses the legal, economical and toxicity issues arising from the industrial applications of nanomaterials

Optoelectronics

Optoelectronics
Devices and Applications

by P. Predeep

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2011-10-05
  • Pages : 644
  • ISBN : 9533075767
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Optoelectronics - Devices and Applications is the second part of an edited anthology on the multifaced areas of optoelectronics by a selected group of authors including promising novices to experts in the field. Photonics and optoelectronics are making an impact multiple times as the semiconductor revolution made on the quality of our life. In telecommunication, entertainment devices, computational techniques, clean energy harvesting, medical instrumentation, materials and device characterization and scores of other areas of R

Introduction to Microdisplays

Introduction to Microdisplays
A Book

by David Armitage,Ian Underwood,Shin-Tson Wu

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2006-11-02
  • Pages : 396
  • ISBN : 9780470057070
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microdisplays are tiny, high-resolution electronic displays, designed for use in magnifying optical systems such as HDTV projectors and near-eye personal viewers. As a result of research and development into this field, Microdisplays are incorporated in a variety of visual electronics, notably new 3G portable communications devices, digital camera technologies, wireless internet applications, portable DVD viewers and wearable PCs. Introduction to Microdisplays encapsulates this market through describing in detail the theory, structure, fabrication and applications of Microdisplays. In particular this book: Provides excellent reference material for the Microdisplay industry through including an overview of current applications alongside a guide to future developments in the field Covers all current technologies and devices such as Silicon Wafer Backplane Technology, Liquid Crystal Devices, Micromechanical Devices, and the emerging area of Organic Light Emitting Diodes Presents guidance on the design of applications of Microdisplays, including Microdisplays for defence and telecoms, from basic principles through to their performance limitations Introduction to Microdisplays is a thorough and comprehensive reference on this emerging topic. It is essential reading for display technology manufacturers, developers, and system integrators, as well as practising electrical engineers, physicists, chemists and specialists in the display field. Graduate students, researchers, and developers working in optics, material science, and telecommunications will also find this a valuable resource. The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics

Materials for Solid State Lighting and Displays

Materials for Solid State Lighting and Displays
A Book

by Adrian Kitai

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-03-06
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 1119140587
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cover -- Title Page -- Copyright -- Contents -- List of Contributors -- Series Preface -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- About the Editor -- Chapter 1 Principles of Solid State Luminescence -- 1.1 Introduction to Radiation from an Accelerating Charge -- 1.2 Radiation from an Oscillating Dipole -- 1.3 Quantum Description of an Electron during a Radiation Event -- 1.4 The Exciton -- 1.5 Two-Electron Atoms -- 1.6 Molecular Excitons -- 1.7 Band-to-Band Transitions -- 1.8 Photometric Units -- 1.9 The Light Emitting Diode -- References -- Chapter 2 Quantum Dots for Displays and Solid State Lighting -- 2.1 Introduction -- 2.2 Nanostructured Materials -- 2.3 Quantum Dots -- 2.3.1 History of Quantum Dots -- 2.3.2 Structure and Properties Relationship -- 2.3.3 Quantum Confinement Effects on Band Gap -- 2.4 Relaxation Process of Excitons -- 2.4.1 Radiative Relaxation -- 2.4.2 Nonradiative Relaxation Process -- 2.5 Blinking Effect -- 2.6 Surface Passivation -- 2.6.1 Organically Capped QDs -- 2.6.2 Inorganically Passivated QDs -- 2.7 Synthesis Processes -- 2.7.1 Top-Down Synthesis -- 2.7.2 Bottom-Up Approach -- 2.8 Optical Properties and Applications -- 2.8.1 Displays -- 2.8.2 Solid State Lighting -- 2.8.3 Biological Applications -- 2.9 Perspective -- Acknowledgments -- References -- Chapter 3 Color Conversion Phosphors for Light Emitting Diodes -- 3.1 Introduction -- 3.2 Disadvantages of Using LEDs Without Color Conversion Phosphors -- 3.3 Phosphors for Converting the Color of Light Emitted by LEDs -- 3.3.1 General Considerations -- 3.3.2 Requirements of Color Conversion Phosphors -- 3.3.3 Commonly Used Activators in Color Conversion Phosphors -- 3.3.4 Strategies for Generating White Light from LEDs -- 3.3.5 Outstanding Problems with Color Conversion Phosphors for LEDs

Physics and Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, including the 4th Symposium on Persistent Phosphors

Physics and Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, including the 4th Symposium on Persistent Phosphors
A Book

by U. Happek

  • Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
  • Release : 2009-03-01
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 1566777062
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The papers included in this issue of ECS Transactions were originally presented in the symposium ¿Physics and Chemistry of Luminescent Materials, including the 4th Symposium on Persistent Phosphors¿, held during the PRiME 2008 joint international meeting of The Electrochemical Society and The Electrochemical Society of Japan, with the technical cosponsorship of the Japan Society of Applied Physics, the Korean Electrochemical Society, the Electrochemistry Division of the Royal Australian Chemical Institute, and the Chinese Society of Electrochemistry. This meeting was held in Honolulu, Hawaii, from October 12 to 17, 2008.

Active-Matrix Organic Light- Emitting Display Technologies

Active-Matrix Organic Light- Emitting Display Technologies
A Book

by Shuming Chen,Jianning Yu,Yibin Jiang,Rongsheng Chen,Tsz Kin Ho

  • Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
  • Release : 2015-10-14
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN : 1681081202
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Frontiers in Electrical Engineering is a book series dedicated to publishing current research in the field of electrical engineering and electronics. The vast amount of publications concerning these fields are summarized in each series volumes with a key focus on device structures and fabrication techniques that are pertinent to the practical production processes and electronic applications. This volume presents an introduction to the subject of Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Display (AMOLED) technology. AMOLEDs are generally integrated into electronic applications and production processes, including understanding basic optical LED (OLED) working principles and the fabrication and characterization of electronic and semiconductor devices. Other applications of AMOLEDs include white OLEDs, light outcoupling, encapsulation, thin film transistor backplanes, driving schemes, and circuit and layout design technologies. This volume will be helpful to novice scientists and engineers working on the development of practical OLED display and OLED lighting technology. Researchers studying organic electronics and advanced undergraduate and graduate students and professionals involved in the OLED industry will also benefit from the information given in this monograph.

Organic Light Emitting Diode

Organic Light Emitting Diode
A Book

by Marco Mazzeo

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2010-08-18
  • Pages : 234
  • ISBN : 9533071400
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted enormous attention in the recent years because of their potential for flat panel displays and solid state lighting. This potential lies in the amazing flexibility offered by the synthesis of new organic compounds and by low-cost fabrication techniques, making these devices very promising for the market. The idea that flexible devices will replace standard objects such as television screens and lighting sources opens, indeed, a new scenario, where the research is very exciting and multidisciplinary. The aim of the present book is to give a comprehensive and up-to-date collection of contributions from leading experts in OLEDs. The subjects cover fields ranging from molecular and nanomaterials, used to increase the efficiency of the devices, to new technological perspectives in the realization of structures for high contrast organic displays and low-cost organic white light sources. The volume therefore presents a wide survey on the status and relevant trends in OLEDs research, thus being of interest to anyone active in this field. In addition, the present volume could also be used as a state-of-the-art introduction for young scientists.

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths
Including Actinides

by Jean-Claude G. Bunzli,Vitalij K. Pecharsky

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-08-02
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 0323850960
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths: Including Actinides, Volume 59, presents the latest release in this continuous series that covers all aspects of rare earth science, including chemistry, life sciences, materials science and physics. Presents up-to-date overviews and new developments in the field of rare earths, covering both their physics and chemistry Contains individual chapters that are comprehensive and broad, along with critical reviews Provides contributions from highly experienced, invited experts

The Physics of Semiconductors

The Physics of Semiconductors
An Introduction Including Nanophysics and Applications

by Marius Grundmann

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-12-24
  • Pages : 989
  • ISBN : 3319238809
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The 3rd edition of this successful textbook contains ample material for a comprehensive upper-level undergraduate or beginning graduate course, guiding readers to the point where they can choose a special topic and begin supervised research. The textbook provides a balance between essential aspects of solid-state and semiconductor physics, on the one hand, and the principles of various semiconductor devices and their applications in electronic and photonic devices, on the other. It highlights many practical aspects of semiconductors such as alloys, strain, heterostructures, nanostructures, that are necessary in modern semiconductor research but typically omitted in textbooks. Coverage also includes additional advanced topics, such as Bragg mirrors, resonators, polarized and magnetic semiconductors, nanowires, quantum dots, multi-junction solar cells, thin film transistors, carbon-based nanostructures and transparent conductive oxides. The text derives explicit formulas for many results to support better understanding of the topics. The Physics of Semiconductors requires little or no prior knowledge of solid-state physics and evolved from a highly regarded two-semester course. In the third edition several topics are extended and treated in more depth including surfaces, disordered materials, amorphous semiconductors, polarons, thermopower and noise. More than 1800 references guide the reader to historic and current literature including original and review papers and books.

Physics and Technology of Crystalline Oxide Semiconductor CAAC-IGZO

Physics and Technology of Crystalline Oxide Semiconductor CAAC-IGZO
Application to Displays

by Shunpei Yamazaki,Tetsuo Tsutsui

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-02-06
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 1119247454
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book highlights the display applications of c-axis aligned crystalline indium–gallium–zinc oxide (CAAC-IGZO), a new class of oxide material that challenges the dominance of silicon in the field of thin film semiconductor devices. It is an enabler for displays with high resolution and low power consumption, as well as high-productivity manufacturing. The applications of CAAC-IGZO focus on liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with extremely low power consumption for mobile applications, and high-resolution and flexible organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays, and present a large number of prototypes developed at the Semiconductor Energy Laboratory. In particular, the description of LCDs includes how CAAC-IGZO enables LCDs with extremely low refresh rate that provides ultra-low power consumption in a wide range of use cases. Moreover, this book also offers the latest data of IGZO. The IGZO has recently achieved a mobility of 65.5 cm2?}V-s, and it is expected to potentially exceed 100 cm2?}V-s as high as that of LTPS. A further two books in the series will describe the fundamentals of CAAC-IGZO, and the application to LSI devices. Key features: • Introduces different oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor designs and their impact on the reliability and performance of LCDs and OLED displays, both in pixel and panel-integrated driving circuits. • Reviews fundamentals and presents device architectures for high-performance and flexible OLED displays, their circuit designs, and oxide semiconductors as an enabling technology. • Explains how oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors drastically can improve resolution and lower power consumption of LCDs.