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Lignin Chemistry and Applications

Lignin Chemistry and Applications
A Book

by Jin Huang,Shiyu Fu,Lin Gan

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-02-07
  • Pages : 276
  • ISBN : 0128139633
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lignin Chemistry and Application systematically discusses the structure, physical and chemical modification of lignin, along with its application in the field of chemicals and materials. It presents the history of lignin chemistry and lignin-modified materials, describes recent progresses, applications and studies, and prospects the development direction of high value applications of lignin in the field of material science. In addition to covering the basic theories and technologies relating to the research and application of lignin in polymer chemistry and materials science, the book also summarizes the latest applications in rubber, engineering plastics, adhesives, films and hydrogels. Systematically discusses the structure, physical and chemical modification of lignin and its application in materials Presents the latest research results in the field of lignin Indicates the development direction of high value applications of lignin in a range of fields, including petrochemicals, household applications, medicine, agriculture, and more

Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials

Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials
Chemistry, Technology and Applications

by Calvo-flores,José A. Dobado,JoaquÃn Isac-GarcÃa,Francisco J. MartÃn-MartÃnez

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-09-28
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 1118597869
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As naturally occurring and abundant sources of non–fossil carbon, lignin and lignans offer exciting possibilities as a source of commercially valuable products, moving away from petrochemical–based feedstocks in favour of renewable raw materials. Lignin can be used directly in fields such as agriculture, livestock, soil rehabilitation, bioremediation and the polymer industry, or it can be chemically modified for the fabrication of specialty and high–value chemicals such as resins, adhesives, fuels and greases. Lignin and Lignans as Renewable Raw Materials presents a multidisciplinary overview of the state–of–the–art and future prospects of lignin and lignans. The book discusses the origin, structure, function and applications of both types of compounds, describing the main resources and values of these products as carbon raw materials. Topics covered include: Structure and physicochemical properties Lignin detection methods Biosynthesis of lignin Isolation methods Characterization and modification of lignins Applications of modified and unmodified lignins Lignans: structure, chemical and biological properties Future perspectives This book is a comprehensive resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in academia and industry working on new possibilities for the application of renewable raw materials. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs

Lignin

Lignin
Trends and Applications

by Matheus Poletto

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-03-21
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 9535139010
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lignin - Trends and Applications consists of 11 chapters related to the lignin structure, modification, depolymerization, degradation process, computational modeling, and applications. This is a useful book for readers from diverse areas, such as physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and engineering. It is expected that this book may expand the reader's knowledge about this complex natural polymer.

Wood Chemistry

Wood Chemistry
Fundamentals and Applications

by Eero Sjostrom

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • Pages : 293
  • ISBN : 0080925898
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Wood Chemistry, Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition, examines the basic principles of wood chemistry and its potential applications to pulping and papermaking, wood and wood waste utilization, pulping by-products for production of chemicals and energy, and biomass conversion.

Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, Chemistry, and Potential Applications

Lignin Biodegradation: Microbiology, Chemistry, and Potential Applications
A Book

by T.Kent. Kirk

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-07-23
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 1351082507
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lignin is a generic name for the complex aromatic polymers that are major components of vascular plant tissues. Lignin is abundant; in terms of weight it is probably second only to cellulose among renewable organic materials, and in terms of energy content it might well be the single most abundant. an international seminar on lignin biodegradation was organized and was held May 9 to 11, 1978, at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin. This book records the proceedings of that seminar and is meant to provide a summary of research. Each speaker/author was asked to summarize his research, including his latest unpublished results, and to describe how his work fits into the overall picture. Following two orientation chapters, one a review of lignin structure and morphological distribution in plant cell walls, and the second a review of the microbial catabolism of relevant aromatics, the book is comprised of chapters in the three subject areas given by the book's title. It does, as intended, provide comprehensive coverage of research to date (August 1978).

Lignin Valorization

Lignin Valorization
Emerging Approaches

by Gregg T. Beckham

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2018-03-29
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 1782625542
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A comprehensive, interdisciplinary picture of how lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially employ lignin valorization technologies.

Chemical Technology and Informatics in Chemistry with Applications

Chemical Technology and Informatics in Chemistry with Applications
A Book

by Alexander V. Vakhrushev,Omari V. Mukbaniani,Heru Susanto

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-01-15
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 1351247441
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume reflects the huge breadth and diversity in research and the application of industrial and engineering chemistry and cheminformatics. The book presents cutting-edge research developments and new insights that emphasize the vibrancy of industrial and engineering chemistry and cheminformatics today. The first section of the book focuses on new insights in engineering chemistry while the second part looks at the promising future and novel approaches in chemical informatics, which has vast implications for industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Several chapters examine various industrial processes for emerging materials and determine practical use under a wide range of conditions, helping to establish what is needed to produce a new generation of materials.

Sustainable Lignin for Carbon Fibers: Principles, Techniques, and Applications

Sustainable Lignin for Carbon Fibers: Principles, Techniques, and Applications
A Book

by Emmanuel Isaac Akpan,Samson Oluropo Adeosun

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-07-17
  • Pages : 454
  • ISBN : 3030187926
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is designed to provide wide understanding of lignin carbon fiber processes, chemistry, mechanisms, and techniques that will help in further development of lignin carbon fiber for automobile, aerospace, marine, and sports equipment applications. Each step in the processing of lignin carbon fibers is presented as a separate chapter so that issues concerning the processes are exhaustively discussed. Basic scientific principles governing each stage of lignin carbon fiber processing, current state of research and mechanisms behind the processes are illustrated for better understanding. This is the first book to address the entire scope of lignin carbon fiber processing including; extraction, quantification, purification, melt processing, stabilization, carbonization, optimization of processes, and characterization. Presents detailed information on the chemistry, processing, principles and properties of bio-sourced lignin for carbon fiber production; Highlights techniques of recovery and properties of lignin from agricultural waste sources; Addresses applications in automobile, aircraft, marine, and sport industries; Provides insight into the lignin complex macromolecular system, the role of lignin chemistry as it relates to carbon fiber production and the evolution of lignin carbon fiber structure during processing.

Lignin Chemistry

Lignin Chemistry
A Book

by Luis Serrano,Rafael Luque,Bert F. Sels

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2020-05-19
  • Pages : 271
  • ISBN : 9783030005894
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The series Topics in Current Chemistry Collections presents critical reviews from the journal Topics in Current Chemistry organized in topical volumes. The scope of coverage is all areas of chemical science including the interfaces with related disciplines such as biology, medicine and materials science. The goal of each thematic volume is to give the non-specialist reader, whether in academia or industry, a comprehensive insight into an area where new research is emerging which is of interest to a larger scientific audience. Each review within the volume critically surveys one aspect of that topic and places it within the context of the volume as a whole. The most significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years are presented using selected examples to illustrate the principles discussed. The coverage is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of the field or include large quantities of data, but should rather be conceptual, concentrating on the methodological thinking that will allow the non-specialist reader to understand the information presented. Contributions also offer an outlook on potential future developments in the field. The chapter "Lignin‐Based Composite Materials for Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics" is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 License via link.springer.com.

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals from Lignin

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals from Lignin
A Book

by Zhen Fang,Richard L. Smith, Jr.

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-09-28
  • Pages : 435
  • ISBN : 9811019657
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides state-of-the-art reviews, current research on and the prospects of lignin production, biological, thermal and chemical conversion methods, and lignin technoeconomics. Fundamental topics related to lignin chemistry, properties, analysis, characterization, and depolymerization mechanisms, as well as enzymatic, fungal and bacterial degradation methods are covered. The book also examines practical topics related to technologies for lignin and ultra-pure lignin recovery, activated carbon, carbon fiber production and materials, and addresses the biological conversion of lignin with fungi, bacteria or enzymes to produce chemicals, along with chemical, catalytic, thermochemical and solvolysis conversion methods. Lastly, it presents a case study on practical polyurethane foam production using lignin. Lignin has a bright future and will be an essential feedstock for producing renewable chemicals, biofuels and value-added products. Offering comprehensive information on this promising material, the book represents a valuable resource for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in the field of biochemistry and energy.

Lignin in Polymer Composites

Lignin in Polymer Composites
A Book

by Omar Faruk,Mohini Sain

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2015-10-24
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 0323355668
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lignin in Polymer Composites presents the latest information on lignin, a natural polymer derived from renewable resources that has great potential as a reinforcement material in composites because it is non-toxic, inexpensive, available in large amounts, and is starting to be deployed in various materials applications due to its advantages over more traditional oil-based materials. This book reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites. In addition, the book covers critical assessments on the economics of lignin, including a cost-performance analysis that discusses its strengths and weaknesses as a reinforcement material. Finally, the huge potential applications of lignin in industry are explored with respect to its low cost, recyclable properties, and fully biodegradable composites, and the way they apply to the automotive, construction, and packaging industries. Reviews the state-of-the-art on the topic and their applications to composites, including thermoplastic, thermosets, rubber, foams, bioplastics, nanocomposites, and lignin-based carbon fiber composites Presents the essential processing and properties information for engineers and materials scientists, enabling the use of lignin in composites Provides critical insight into the applications and future trends of lignin-based composites, including advantages, shortcomings, and economics Includes a thorough coverage of extraction, modification, processing, and applications of the material

Lignin

Lignin
Biosynthesis and Transformation for Industrial Applications

by Swati Sharma,Ashok Kumar

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-04-13
  • Pages : 298
  • ISBN : 3030406636
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents a comprehensive overview on origin, structure, properties, modification strategies and applications of the biopolymer lignin. It is organized into four themed parts. The first part focuses on the analysis and characterization of the second most abundant biopolymer. The following part is devoted to the biological aspects of lignin such as biosynthesis and degradation. In the third part, chemical modification strategies and the preparation of composites as well as nano- and microparticles are discussed.The final part addresses the industrial application of lignin and its derivatives, as well as lignin materials. The usage for synthesis of biofuels, fine chemicals and in agriculture and food industry is covered. This book is a comprehensive source for researchers, scientists and engineers working in the field of biopolymers as well as renewable materials and sources.

Functional Materials from Lignin

Functional Materials from Lignin
Methods and Advances

by Xian Jun Loh,Dan Kai

  • Publisher : World Scientific Publishing
  • Release : 2018-06-12
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN : 1786345226
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lignin is one of the most abundant plant-derived feedstock on earth and qualifies as a renewable material. However, lignin is widely recognized as waste byproduct of the cellulosic ethanol and pulp and paper industry. How to properly modify lignin and develop it into functional polymers is a huge challenge, but an attractive research topic in both industry and academia. This book brings together leading engineering approaches to address the challenges of lignin valorization. It presents the chemistry and properties of different types of lignin, and explores the cutting-edge approaches of lignin modifications. Unlike any existing texts, this book not only summarizes the traditional ways of using lignin, but also presents various potential applications of lignin materials together with advanced processing techniques. The basis of lignin (its chemistry, types and properties) is described, as are different approaches to modify it. The features of lignin and its copolymers are explored and aligned with their potential applications. In addition to the carbon materials from lignin, the advanced fabrication approaches to engineer lignin-based micro/nano-structural materials are summarized.

Chemical Modification, Properties, and Usage of Lignin

Chemical Modification, Properties, and Usage of Lignin
A Book

by Thomas Q. Hu

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2002-03-31
  • Pages : 291
  • ISBN : 9780306467691
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume covers recent developments in chemical modification and utilization of lignin as a component of polymeric materials such as starch films, conducting polymers, polyurethanes and thermoplastics, and as a key building block to make carbon fibers, soil conditioners, nitrogenous fertilizers, and pulping catalysts. It also describes recent advances in chemical modification of lignin aimed at the photostabilization and upgrading of lignin-rich mechanical wood pulp and paper.

Methods in Lignin Chemistry

Methods in Lignin Chemistry
A Book

by Stephen Y. Lin,Carlton W. Dence

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 578
  • ISBN : 3642740650
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An up-to-date compilation of the theoretical background and practical procedures involved in lignin characterization. Whenever possible, the procedures are presented in sufficient detail to enable the reader to perform the analysis solely by following the step-by-step description. The advantages and limitations of individual methods are discussed and, more importantly, illustrated by typical analytical data in comparison to results obtained from other methods. This handbook serves the need of researchers and other professionals in academia, the pulp and paper industry as well as allied industries. It is equally useful for those with no previous experience in lignin or lignocellulosics.

Lignin and Lignans

Lignin and Lignans
Advances in Chemistry

by Cyril Heitner,Don Dimmel,John Schmidt

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 683
  • ISBN : 9781420015805
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the past four decades, there has been immense progress in every area of lignin science, ranging from the enzymology of lignin biodegradation, to the delignification of wood fiber during pulping and bleaching, to advances in spectroscopy. Lignin and Lignans: Advances in Chemistry captures the developments that have been achieved by world-class scientists in the most critical aspects of this burgeoning field. Tools for the characterization of lignin and lignans After an overview of the topic, the book discusses the significance and comparative performances of the most commonly used chemical degradation methods and presents lignin structural information based on the use of these methods. Next, the book explores spectroscopic methods, including UV-visible absorption, fluorescence, Raman, infra red (IR), near-infrared (NIR), nuclear magenetic resonance (NMR), and heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. It then compares the results of studies of lignin in situ with studies of isolated lignins. Predicting reactivity The authors discuss polymer properties related to thermal stability and molecular motion of lignin in the solid state. They describe applications of electronic structure calculations to the chemistry of lignin, and they explore lignin reactions that occur during the chemical pulping of wood by soda, kraft, AQ, and polysulfide processes. Chemistry associated with industrial processes The book describes chemical pulp bleaching, oxidative and reductive lignin-retaining bleaching, and lignin biodegradation. It also examines the application of microorganisms and the enzymes they produce in the manufacturing of chemical and mechanical pulp. The book closes with chapters on photodegradation and chromophore formation and the pharmacological properties of lignans. Highlighting significant developments on selected topics, this essential reference for those in industry and academia is designed to fuel further research and discovery in this specialized area, especially in the emerging field of biorefining.

Methods in Lignin Chemistry

Methods in Lignin Chemistry
A Book

by Stephen Y. Lin,Carlton W. Dence

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 578
  • ISBN : 3642740650
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An up-to-date compilation of the theoretical background and practical procedures involved in lignin characterization. Whenever possible, the procedures are presented in sufficient detail to enable the reader to perform the analysis solely by following the step-by-step description. The advantages and limitations of individual methods are discussed and, more importantly, illustrated by typical analytical data in comparison to results obtained from other methods. This handbook serves the need of researchers and other professionals in academia, the pulp and paper industry as well as allied industries. It is equally useful for those with no previous experience in lignin or lignocellulosics.

Conversion of Lignin into Bio-Based Chemicals and Materials

Conversion of Lignin into Bio-Based Chemicals and Materials
A Book

by Chunbao Xu,Fatemeh Ferdosian

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-06-05
  • Pages : 156
  • ISBN : 366254959X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents an overview of various types of lignin and their unique structures and properties, as well as utilizations of crude or modified technical lignin for high-value bioproducts such as lignin-based PF resins/adhesives, epoxy resins, PF foams, PU foams, rubber reinforcement and carbon fibers and as dispersants in drilling fluids in the oil and gas industry. It subsequently discusses various thermal/chemical modification techniques (pyrolysis, direct liquefaction and de-polymerization) for converting lignin into oils and chemical feedstocks, and the utilization of crude lignin, lignin-derived oils or depolymerized lignins (DLs) of reduced molecular weights and improved reactivity to produce lignin-based PF resins/adhesives, PF/PU foams and epoxy resins. The book will interest and benefit a broad readership (graduate students, academic researchers, industrial researchers and practitioners) in various fields of science and technology (chemical engineering, biotechnology, chemistry, material science, forestry, etc.). Chunbao (Charles) Xu, PhD, is currently a Professor of Chemical Engineering and NSERC/FPInnovations Industrial Research Chair in Forest Biorefinery at the University of Western Ontario, Canada. Fatemeh Ferdosian, PhD, is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Waterloo, Canada.

Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels

Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels
Chemistry, Extractives, Lignins, Hemicelluloses and Cellulose

by RunCang Sun

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2010-01-18
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 9780080932675
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Materials from renewable resources are receiving increased attention, as leading industries and manufacturers attempt to replace declining petrochemical-based feedstocks with products derived from natural biomass, such as cereal straws. Cereal straws are expected to play an important role in the shift toward a sustainable economy, and a basic knowledge of the composition and structure of cereal straw is the key to using it wisely. Cereal Straw as a Resource for Sustainable Biomaterials and Biofuels: Chemistry, Extractives, Lignins, Hemicelluloses and Cellulose provides an introduction to straw chemistry. Topics discussed include the structure, ultrastructure, and chemical composition of straw; the structure and isolation of extractives from the straw; the three main components of straw: cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins; and chemical modifications of straw for industrial applications. This book will be helpful to scientists interested in the areas of natural resource management, environmental chemistry, plant chemistry, material science, polysaccharide chemistry, and lignin chemistry. It will also be of interest to academic and industrial scientists/researchers interested in novel applications of agricultural residues for industrial and/or recycling technologies. Provides the basics of straw composition and the structure of its cell walls Details the procedures required to fractionate straw components to produce chemical derivatives from straw cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignins Elucidates new techniques for the production of biodegradable materials for the energy sector, chemical industry, and pulp and paper business

Chemistry of Lignocellulosics

Chemistry of Lignocellulosics
Current Trends

by Tatjana Stevanovic

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-08-14
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 1351650793
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents the chemical properties of lignocellulosic fibers, knowledge of which is essential for innovation and sustainable development of their transformation. Thermochemical transformation of wood and other lignocellulosics is presented to highlight its volatile, liquid and solid products and their novel applications. Forest biorefinery is described to emphasize the new products from lignocellulosic constituents, both structural (cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignins) and those extraneous to cell walls-extractives. New developments in cellulose technology related to nanocellulose are discussed in relation to new applications. Industrial lignins are presented in detail, both in terms of extraction procedures from spent liquors and structural characterization of the isolated lignins. Application of lignocellulosic biopolymers in new composite materials, or in biomaterials for medicinal purposes, and in solid wood preservation, are described. The example of an industrial biorefinery installed in southwestern France more than 40 years ago is presented.