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Lithium-Ion Battery Chemistries

Lithium-Ion Battery Chemistries
A Primer

by John T. Warner

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-05-15
  • Pages : 266
  • ISBN : 9780128147788
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lithium-Ion Battery Chemistries: A Primer offers a simple description on how different lithium-ion battery chemistries work, along with their differences. It includes a refresher on the basics of electrochemistry and thermodynamics, and an understanding of the fundamental processes that occur in the lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, it reviews each of the major chemistries that are in use today, including Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LFP), Lithium-Cobalt Oxide (LCO), Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO), Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC), Lithium-Nickel Cobalt Aluminium (NCA), and Lithium-Titanate Oxide (LTO) and outlines the different types of anodes, including carbon (graphite, hard carbon, soft carbon, graphene), silicon, and tin. In addition, the book offers performance comparisons of different chemistries to help users select the right battery for the right application and provides explanations on why different chemistries have different performances and capabilities. Finally, it offers a brief look at emerging and beyond-lithium chemistries, including lithium-air, zinc-air, aluminum air, solid-state, lithium-sulfur, lithium-glass, and lithium-metal. Presents a refresher on the basics of electrochemistry and thermodynamics, along with simple graphics and images of complex concepts Provides a clear-and-concise description of lithium-ion chemistries and how they operate Covers the fundamental processes that occur in lithium-ion batteries Includes a detailed review of current and future chemistries

Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries
A Book

by T. Richard Jow,Kang Xu,Oleg Borodin,Makoto Ue

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-05-06
  • Pages : 476
  • ISBN : 1493903020
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries provides a comprehensive overview of the scientific understanding and technological development of electrolyte materials in the last several years. This book covers key electrolytes such as LiPF6 salt in mixed-carbonate solvents with additives for the state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries as well as new electrolyte materials developed recently that lay the foundation for future advances. This book also reviews the characterization of electrolyte materials for their transport properties, structures, phase relationships, stabilities, and impurities. The book discusses in-depth the electrode-electrolyte interactions and interphasial chemistries that are key for the successful use of the electrolyte in practical devices. The Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Dynamical calculations that has proved to be so powerful in understanding and predicating behavior and properties of materials is also reviewed in this book. Electrolytes for Lithium and Lithium-ion Batteries is ideal for electrochemists, engineers, researchers interested in energy science and technology, material scientists, and physicists working on energy.

Lithium Batteries

Lithium Batteries
Advanced Technologies and Applications

by Bruno Scrosati,K. M. Abraham,Walter A. van Schalkwijk,Jusef Hassoun

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-06-18
  • Pages : 392
  • ISBN : 1118615395
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Explains the current state of the science and points the wayto technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries nowpower everything from tablet computers to power tools to electriccars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in theengineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they arecurrently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many newand emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the developmentof a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeablelithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry andidentifying new electrode and electrolyte materials. The first chapter of Lithium Batteries sets thefoundation for the rest of the book with a brief account of thehistory of lithium-ion battery development. Next, the book coverssuch topics as: Advanced organic and ionic liquid electrolytes for batteryapplications Advanced cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries Metal fluorosulphates capable of doubling the energy density oflithium-ion batteries Efforts to develop lithium-air batteries Alternative anode rechargeable batteries such as magnesium andsodium anode systems Each of the sixteen chapters has been contributed by one or moreleading experts in electrochemistry and lithium battery technology.Their contributions are based on the latest published findings aswell as their own firsthand laboratory experience. Figuresthroughout the book help readers understand the concepts underlyingthe latest efforts to advance the science of batteries and developnew materials. Readers will also find a bibliography at the end ofeach chapter to facilitate further research into individualtopics. Lithium Batteries provides electrochemistry students andresearchers with a snapshot of current efforts to improve batteryperformance as well as the tools needed to advance their ownresearch efforts.

Lithium-ion Battery Materials and Engineering

Lithium-ion Battery Materials and Engineering
Current Topics and Problems from the Manufacturing Perspective

by Malgorzata K. Gulbinska

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-09-06
  • Pages : 205
  • ISBN : 1447165489
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Gaining public attention due, in part, to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batteries gather to share their view on where lithium-ion technology stands now, what are the main challenges, and their possible solutions. The book contains real-life examples of how a subtle change in cell components can have a considerable effect on cell’s performance. Examples are supported with approachable basic science commentaries. Providing a unique combination of practical know-how with an in-depth perspective, this book will appeal to graduate students, young faculty members, or others interested in the current research and development trends in lithium-ion technology.

Lithium-Ion Battery Chemistries

Lithium-Ion Battery Chemistries
A Primer

by John T. Warner

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-05-10
  • Pages : 353
  • ISBN : 0128147792
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lithium-Ion Battery Chemistries: A Primer offers a simple description on how different lithium-ion battery chemistries work, along with their differences. It includes a refresher on the basics of electrochemistry and thermodynamics, and an understanding of the fundamental processes that occur in the lithium-ion battery. Furthermore, it reviews each of the major chemistries that are in use today, including Lithium-Iron Phosphate (LFP), Lithium-Cobalt Oxide (LCO), Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO), Lithium-Nickel Manganese Cobalt (NMC), Lithium-Nickel Cobalt Aluminium (NCA), and Lithium-Titanate Oxide (LTO) and outlines the different types of anodes, including carbon (graphite, hard carbon, soft carbon, graphene), silicon, and tin. In addition, the book offers performance comparisons of different chemistries to help users select the right battery for the right application and provides explanations on why different chemistries have different performances and capabilities. Finally, it offers a brief look at emerging and beyond-lithium chemistries, including lithium-air, zinc-air, aluminum air, solid-state, lithium-sulfur, lithium-glass, and lithium-metal. Presents a refresher on the basics of electrochemistry and thermodynamics, along with simple graphics and images of complex concepts Provides a clear-and-concise description of lithium-ion chemistries and how they operate Covers the fundamental processes that occur in lithium-ion batteries Includes a detailed review of current and future chemistries

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries
Science and Technologies

by Masaki Yoshio,Ralph J. Brodd,Akiya Kozawa

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2010-07-17
  • Pages : 452
  • ISBN : 0387344454
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Here in a single source is an up-to-date description of the technology associated with the Li-Ion battery industry. It will be useful as a text for researchers interested in energy conversion for the direct conversion of chemical energy into electrical energy.

The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design

The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design
Chemistry, Components, Types and Terminology

by John T Warner

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-05-23
  • Pages : 262
  • ISBN : 012801668X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design: Chemistry, Components, Types and Terminology offers to the reader a clear and concise explanation of how Li-ion batteries are designed from the perspective of a manager, sales person, product manager or entry level engineer who is not already an expert in Li-ion battery design. It will offer a layman’s explanation of the history of vehicle electrification, what the various terminology means, and how to do some simple calculations that can be used in determining basic battery sizing, capacity, voltage and energy. By the end of this book the reader has a solid understanding of all of the terminology around Li-ion batteries and is able to do some simple battery calculations. The book is immensely useful to beginning and experienced engineer alike who are moving into the battery field. Li-ion batteries are one of the most unique systems in automobiles today in that they combine multiple engineering disciplines, yet most engineering programs focus on only a single engineering field. This book provides you with a reference to the history, terminology and design criteria needed to understand the Li-ion battery and to successfully lay out a new battery concept. Whether you are an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer or a chemist this book helps you better appreciate the inter-relationships between the various battery engineering fields that are required to understand the battery as an Energy Storage System. Offers an easy explanation of battery terminology and enables better understanding of batteries, their components and the market place. Demonstrates simple battery scaling calculations in an easy to understand description of the formulas Describes clearly the various components of a Li-ion battery and their importance Explains the differences between various Li-ion cell types and chemistries and enables the determination which chemistry and cell type is appropriate for which application Outlines the differences between battery types, e.g., power vs energy battery Presents graphically different vehicle configurations: BEV, PHEV, HEV Includes brief history of vehicle electrification and its future

Future Lithium-ion Batteries

Future Lithium-ion Batteries
A Book

by Ali Eftekhari

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2019-03-14
  • Pages : 361
  • ISBN : 1788014189
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lithium-ion batteries are an established technology with recent large-scale batteries finding emerging markets for electric vehicles and household energy storage. Battery research during the past two decades has focussed on practical improvements to available batteries, such as cell design to enhance energy density, which are currently nearing their maximum potential. We must now consider alternative avenues of research in pursuit of a new breakthrough in this technology. This book collects authoritative perspectives from leading researchers to project the emerging opportunities in the field of lithium-ion batteries. Covering topics including anode and cathode materials, electrolytes, emerging markets and the challenges and opportunities of lithium-ion battery supply, it will provide researchers with cutting-edge leads to advance the next generation of materials. Edited by a pioneer in the field, and with contributions from experts from across the globe, this book will be of use to graduate students and researchers in academia and industry interested in lithium-ion batteries and energy storage.

Lithium Process Chemistry

Lithium Process Chemistry
Resources, Extraction, Batteries, and Recycling

by Alexandre Chagnes,Jolanta Swiatowska

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-06-14
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 0128016868
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lithium Process Chemistry: Resources, Extraction, Batteries and Recycling presents, for the first time, the most recent developments and state-of-the-art of lithium production, lithium-ion batteries, and their recycling. The book provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries, including terminology related to these two fields. It is of particular interest to electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries. It is also useful for both teachers and students, presenting an overview on Li production, Li-ion battery technologies, and lithium battery recycling processes that is accompanied by numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances. The book represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. Provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries Represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. Ideal for both electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries Presents recent developments, as well as challenges in lithium production and lithium-ion battery technologies and their recycling Covers examples of Li processes production with schematics, also including numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries
Advanced Materials and Technologies

by Xianxia Yuan,Hansan Liu,Jiujun Zhang

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 428
  • ISBN : 1439841292
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Written by a group of top scientists and engineers in academic and industrial R&D, Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advanced Materials and Technologies gives a clear picture of the current status of these highly efficient batteries. Leading international specialists from universities, government laboratories, and the lithium-ion battery industry share th

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries
A Machine-Generated Summary of Current Research

by Beta Writer

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-04-15
  • Pages : 247
  • ISBN : 9783030167998
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is the first machine-generated scientific book in chemistry published by Springer Nature. Serving as an innovative prototype defining the current status of the technology, it also provides an overview about the latest trends of lithium-ion batteries research. This book explores future ways of informing researchers and professionals. State-of-the-art computer algorithms were applied to: select relevant sources from Springer Nature publications, arrange these in a topical order, and provide succinct summaries of these articles. The result is a cross-corpora auto-summarization of current texts, organized by means of a similarity-based clustering routine in coherent chapters and sections. This book summarizes more than 150 research articles published from 2016 to 2018 and provides an informative and concise overview of recent research into anode and cathode materials as well as further aspects such as separators, polymer electrolytes, thermal behavior and modelling. With this prototype, Springer Nature has begun an innovative journey to explore the field of machine-generated content and to find answers to the manifold questions on this fascinating topic. Therefore it was intentionally decided not to manually polish or copy-edit any of the texts so as to highlight the current status and remaining boundaries of machine-generated content. Our goal is to initiate a broad discussion, together with the research community and domain experts, about the future opportunities, challenges and limitations of this technology.

Nanostructured Materials for Next-Generation Energy Storage and Conversion

Nanostructured Materials for Next-Generation Energy Storage and Conversion
Advanced Battery and Supercapacitors

by Qiang Zhen,Sajid Bashir,Jingbo Louise Liu

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-10-10
  • Pages : 472
  • ISBN : 3662586754
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volume 3 of a 4-volume series is a concise, authoritative and an eminently readable and enjoyable experience related to lithium ion battery design, characterization and usage for portable and stationary power. Although the major focus is on lithium metal oxides or transition metal oxide as alloys, the discussion of fossil fuels is also presented where appropriate. This monograph is written by recognized experts in the field, and is both timely and appropriate as this decade will see application of lithium as an energy carrier, for example in the transportation sector. This Volume focuses on the fundamentals related to batteries using the latest research in the field of battery physics, chemistry, and electrochemistry. The research summarised in this book by leading experts is laid out in an easy-to-understand format to enable the layperson to grasp the essence of the technology, its pitfalls and current challenges in high-power Lithium battery research. After introductory remarks on policy and battery safety, a series of monographs are offered related to fundamentals of lithium batteries, including, theoretical modeling, simulation and experimental techniques used to characterize electrode materials, both at the material composition, and also at the device level. The different properties specific to each component of the batteries are discussed in order to offer tradeoffs between power and energy density, energy cycling, safety and where appropriate end-of-life disposal. Parameters affecting battery performance and cost, longevity using newer metal oxides, different electrolytes are also reviewed in the context of safety concerns and in relation to the solid-electrolyte interface. Separators, membranes, solid-state electrolytes, and electrolyte additives are also reviewed in light of safety, recycling, and high energy endurance issues. The book is intended for a wide audience, such as scientists who are new to the field, practitioners, as well as students in the STEM and STEP fields, as well as students working on batteries. The sections on safety and policy would be of great interest to engineers and technologists who want to obtain a solid grounding in the fundamentals of battery science arising from the interaction of electrochemistry, solid-state materials science, surfaces, and interfaces.

Used Battery Collection and Recycling

Used Battery Collection and Recycling
A Book

by G. Pistoia,J.-P. Wiaux,S.P. Wolsky

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2001-11-08
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 9780080543475
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution.

Challenges of a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery

Challenges of a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery
A Guide to the Viability of this Post Lithium-Ion Battery

by Claudiu B. Bucur

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-10-03
  • Pages : 67
  • ISBN : 331965067X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This expert volume addresses the practical challenges which have so far inhibited the commercial realization of a rechargeable magnesium battery, placing the discussion within the context of the already established lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion batteries are becoming commonplace in most power applications, starting with portable electronics and expanding to motor vehicles, stationary storage, and backup power. Since their introduction 25 years ago, they have slowly been replacing all other battery chemistries. As the technology has matured, it is nearing its theoretical limits in terms of energy density, so research and development worldwide is quickly shifting towards the study of new battery chemistries with cheaper components and higher energy densities. A very popular battery candidate which has generated a lot of recent interest is the magnesium rechargeable battery. Magnesium is five orders of magnitude more abundant than lithium, can move two electrons per cation, and is known to plate smoothly without any evidence of dendritic growth. However, many challenges remain to be overcome. This essential volume presents an unfiltered view on both the realistic promises and significant obstacles for this technology, providing key insights and proposed solutions.

Design and Analysis of Large Lithium-Ion Battery Systems

Design and Analysis of Large Lithium-Ion Battery Systems
A Book

by Shriram Santhanagopalan,Kandler Smith,Jeremy Neubauer,Gi-Heon Kim,Ahmad Pesaran,Matthew Keyser

  • Publisher : Artech House
  • Release : 2014-12-01
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 1608077144
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This new resource provides you with an introduction to battery design and test considerations for large-scale automotive, aerospace, and grid applications. It details the logistics of designing a professional, large, Lithium-ion battery pack, primarily for the automotive industry, but also for non-automotive applications. Topics such as thermal management for such high-energy and high-power units are covered extensively, including detailed design examples. Every aspect of battery design and analysis is presented from a hands-on perspective. The authors work extensively with engineers in the field and this book is a direct response to frequently-received queries. With the authors’ unique expertise in areas such as battery thermal evaluation and design, physics-based modeling, and life and reliability assessment and prediction, this book is sure to provide you with essential, practical information on understanding, designing, and building large format Lithium-ion battery management systems.

Battery

Battery
For Energy Storage

by Fouzia Begum

  • Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
  • Release : 2018-02-16
  • Pages : 42
  • ISBN : 1543480381
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Smart Storage Search (3S Intermingled) Being a science student, I came to know about energy cell when I first tried to memorize the electrochemical seriesECE in short. Use of sign in mathematical conversions was trickier for a while. But that did not deter me at all in any way. Later, I mastered on ECE series skilfully and studied elaborately on Lithium chemistry, which guided me to produce this energy cell book specifically on Lithium Ion Battery (LIB). My hand on experience on energy cells like Zn-Cu, or Pb-Sulfuric acid, or DRY cell perfected me to rewrite energy cell reactions here to use for demonstration.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries
Latest Advances and Prospects

by Mohammad (Mim) Rahimi

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2021-05-04
  • Pages : 230
  • ISBN : 3036505849
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), as a key part of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, have become increasingly important in recent years, owing to their potential impact on building a more sustainable future. Compared with other batteries developed, LIBs offer high energy density, high discharge power, and a long service life. These characteristics have facilitated a remarkable advance of LIBs in many frontiers, including electric vehicles, portable and flexible electronics, and stationary applications. Since the field of LIBs is advancing rapidly and attracting an increasing number of researchers, it is necessary to often provide the community with the latest updates. Therefore, this book was designed to focus on updating the electrochemical community with the latest advances and prospects on various aspects of LIBs. The materials presented in this book cover advances in several fronts of the technology, ranging from detailed fundamental studies of the electrochemical cell to investigations to better improve parameters related to battery packs.

Batteries

Batteries
Present and Future Energy Storage Challenges

by Stefano Passerini,Dominic Bresser,Arianna Moretti,Alberto Varzi

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-07-24
  • Pages : 960
  • ISBN : 3527827315
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Part of the Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry, this comprehensive, two-volume handbook offers an up-to-date and in-depth review of the battery technologies in use today. It also includes information on the most likely candidates that hold the potential for further enhanced energy and power densities. It contains contributions from a renowned panel of international experts in the field. Batteries are extremely commonplace in modern day life. They provide electrochemically stored energy in the form of electricity to automobiles, aircrafts, electronic devices and to smart power grids. Comprehensive in scope, 'Batteries' covers information on well-established battery technologies such as charge-carrier-based lead acid and lithium ion batteries. The contributors also explore current developments on new technologies such as lithium-sulfur and -oxygen, sodium ion, and full organic batteries. Written for electrochemists, physical chemists, and materials scientists, 'Batteries' is an accessible compendium that offers a thorough review of the most relevant current battery technologies and explores the technology in the years to come.

Lithium-Ion Batteries and Applications: A Practical and Comprehensive Guide to Lithium-Ion Batteries and Arrays, from Toys to Towns, Volume 1, Batteries

Lithium-Ion Batteries and Applications: A Practical and Comprehensive Guide to Lithium-Ion Batteries and Arrays, from Toys to Towns, Volume 1, Batteries
A Book

by Davide Andrea

  • Publisher : Artech House
  • Release : 2020-05-31
  • Pages : 554
  • ISBN : 1630817686
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This comprehensive, two-volume resource provides a thorough introduction to lithium ion (Li-ion) technology. Readers get a hands-on understanding of Li-ion technology, are guided through the design and assembly of a battery, through deployment, configuration and testing. The book covers dozens of applications, with solutions for each application provided. Volume One focuses on the Li-ion cell and its types, formats, and chemistries. Cell arrangements and issues, including series (balance) and parallel (fusing, inrush current) are also discussed. Li-ion Battery Management Systems are explored, focusing on types and topologies, functions, and selection. Battery design, assembly, deployment, troubleshooting and repair are also discussed, along with modular batteries, split batteries and battery arrays. Written by a prominent expert in the field and packed with over 500 illustrations, these volumes contain solutions to practical problems, making it useful for both the novice and experienced practitioners.

Low-cost Flexible Packaging for High-power Li-Ion HEV Batteries

Low-cost Flexible Packaging for High-power Li-Ion HEV Batteries
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 56
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Batteries with various types of chemistries are typically sold in rigid hermetically sealed containers that, at the simplest level, must contain the electrolyte while keeping out the exterior atmosphere. However, such rigid containers can have limitations in packaging situations where the form of the battery is important, such as in hand-held electronics like personal digital assistants (PDAs), laptops, and cell phones. Other limitations exist as well. At least one of the electrode leads must be insulated from the metal can, which necessitates the inclusion of an insulated metal feed-through in the containment hardware. Another limitation may be in hardware and assembly cost, such as exists for the lithium-ion batteries that are being developed for use in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The large size (typically 10-100 Ah) of these batteries usually results in electric beam or laser welding of the metal cap to the metal can. The non-aqueous electrolyte used in these batteries are usually based on flammable solvents and therefore require the incorporation of a safety rupture vent to relieve pressure in the event of overcharging or overheating. Both of these features add cost to the battery. Flexible packaging provides an alternative to the rigid container. A common example of this is the multi-layered laminates used in the food packaging industry, such as for vacuum-sealed coffee bags. However, flexible packaging for batteries does not come without concerns. One of the main concerns is the slow egress of the electrolyte solvent through the face of the inner laminate layer and at the sealant edge. Also, moisture and air could enter from the outside via the same method. These exchanges may be acceptable for brief periods of time, but for the long lifetimes required for batteries in electric/hybrid electric vehicles, batteries in remote locations, and those in satellites, these exchanges are unacceptable. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), in collaboration with several industrial partners, is working on low-cost flexible packaging as an alternative to the packaging currently being used for lithium-ion batteries [1,2]. This program is funded by the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy. (It was originally funded under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, or PNGV, Program, which had as one of its mandates to develop a power-assist hybrid electric vehicle with triple the fuel economy of a typical sedan.) The goal in this packaging effort is to reduce the cost associated with the packaging of each cell several-fold to less than $1 per cell ((almost equal to) 50 cells are required per battery, 1 battery per vehicle), while maintaining the integrity of the cell contents for a 15-year lifetime. Even though the battery chemistry of main interest is the lithium-ion system, the methodology used to develop the most appropriate laminate structure will be very similar for other battery chemistries.