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Macromolecules in Solution and Brownian Relativity

Macromolecules in Solution and Brownian Relativity
A Book

by Stefano Antonio Mezzasalma

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2008-07-22
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 9780080557984
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Macromolecules in Solution and Brownian Relativity illustrates the recent picture of statistical physics of polymers and polymer solutions that emerges from some paradigms of contemporary science joint together. Among its principal aims are discussing the consequences of a novel self-diffusion theory, which benefits from an extension towards relativistic-like principles, and the generalization of usual concepts met in polymer science in terms of geometry alone. The monograph gives the whole fundamentals necessary to handle the view proposed, which is set in the final chapters. All the formers see about to provide the reader with a comprehensive treatation of the necessary fundamentals of classical, relativistic, quantum and statistical mechanics. Among the most important mechanical theories ever developed, a chapter on the Brownian movement and another on macromolecules prepare the ground that is specific to face universality and scaling behaviors in polymer solutions. The scope of the book is therefore two-fold: On the one hand, it wishes to involve the readers and scholars into a new research on polymer physics and chemistry. On the other, to get close chemical physicists and physical chemists to disciplines which, traditionally, are far from their direct fields of interest. Cross-disciplinarity Novelty Potentiality

Interface Science and Technology

Interface Science and Technology
Macromolecules in solution and Brownian relativity. Volume 15

by Stefano A. Mezzasalma

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Universality and Diversity in Science

Universality and Diversity in Science
'Festschrift in Honor of Naseem K Rahman''s 60th Birthday'

by W Becker,M V Fedorov

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2004-09-13
  • Pages : 176
  • ISBN : 9814481882
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This festschrift collects contributions from renowned experts in atomic and molecular physics, chemistry, and related fields dedicated to Professor Dr Naseem K Rahman on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The book includes topics at the forefront of research in these fields and captures insights of experts rarely found in other publications. Most of all, it reflects Rahman's wide interests in physics, chemistry and the life sciences. This book has been selected for coverage in: • CC / Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences • Index to Scientific Book Contents® (ISBC) Contents:The Simple Rahman's Theory (P Agostini)Supersymmetry in Molecular Time-Dependent Quantum Mechanics (A D Bandrauk)Atomic Dynamics with Chirped Ultra-Short Intense Laser Pulses (K Batra et al.)Wormhole Core, Extra Dimensions, and Physical Universe (A L Choudhury)The Maximum Entropy Principle in the Treatment of Structural Data from Liquid Crystal NMR Spectroscopy (G Cinacchi & C A Veracini)Cause-Effect Relationships Concerning Period-Doubling Bifurcations: Step-by-Step Analysis of a Complex System (C Dejak)Harmonic Generation by a Simple Degenerate Three-Level Atom (E Fiordilino et al.)Laser Physics and the Brain: Are There Analogies? (H Haken)Laser Control of Molecular Processes by Weak Fields (A Lami & F Santoro)Confined Electron Assemblies in Intense Electric and Magnetic Fields and a Generalization Emden's Equation (N H March)The Complex Picture of Statistics, Relativity, and Geometrical Scaling Suggested by Polymers and Polymer Solutions (S A Mezzasalma)The Role of the Zwitterionic Chromophore in the Photophysics of Green Fluorescent Proteins (R Nifosi et al.)Quantum Effects in the Collective Light Scattering from a Bose-Einstein Condensate (N Piovella)Facts and Fallacies in Strong-Field Physics (H R Reiss) Readership: Researchers and academics in atomic physics, molecular physics, condensed matter physics, high energy physics, biophysics and theoretical chemistry. Keywords:Intense-Laser Atom and Molecular Physics;Supersymmetry in Nonrelativistic Quantum Mechanics;Coherent Control;Laser-Brain Analogies;Relativity;Maximum Entropy Principle;Collective Light Scattering;Complex SystemsKey Features:Unique and highly personal collection of diverse topics covered by outstanding contributorsForemost interest to the colleagues, students and friends of Prof Rahman

Particles at Interfaces

Particles at Interfaces
Interactions, Deposition, Structure

by Zbigniew Adamczyk

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-10-27
  • Pages : 700
  • ISBN : 0081012691
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Particles and Interfaces: Interaction, Deposition, Structure, Volume 20, Second Edition unifies particle and protein adsorption phenomena by presenting recent developments in this growing field of nanoscience. While experimental data is available in vast quantities, there is a deficit in quality interpretation of that data. This title provides such information, emphasizing the basic physics behind practical problems, thus empowering the reader to estimate relevant effects. The book includes solved problems of particle transport under non-linear conditions and their relevance to predicting protein adsorption, including an entirely new chapter devoted to polyelectrolyte and protein adsorption at solid/liquid and solid/gas interfaces. Unifies information from various fields, such as electrostatics, hydrodynamic, colloid science and biophysics Presents information in a user-friendly manner, including computer aided graphics and schematic drawings Applies a phenomenological approach to the content and provides readily accessible reference data

Advanced Low-Cost Separation Techniques in Interface Science

Advanced Low-Cost Separation Techniques in Interface Science
A Book

by George Z. Kyzas,Athanasios C. Mitropoulos

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-08-24
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 0128141794
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced Low-Cost Separation Techniques in Interface Science, Volume 30 helps scientists and researchers in academia and industry gain expert knowledge on how to use separation techniques at minimal cost and energy usage. It handles a broad range of highly relevant topics, including modern flotation techniques, low-cost materials in liquid-and gas-phase adsorption, new trends in molecular imprinting, graphenes in separation, nanobubbles and biopolymers in interface science, the reuse of biomaterials, green techniques for wastewaters, and modeling in environmental interfaces. The book shows that these techniques can be both attractive for both research and industrial purposes. It is intended for chemical engineers working in wastewater treatment industries, membrane industries, pharmaceutical industries, textile or tanneries industries, hybrid-topic industries and energy industries. Focuses on cost and energy saving separation techniques in interface science Discusses multiple techniques, including flotation, adsorption, materials synthesis, and more Combines, in a single source, separation techniques, advanced methodologies, and the low-cost potential of the techniques Describes techniques that are attractive for both research and industrial purposes

Adsorption: Fundamental Processes and Applications

Adsorption: Fundamental Processes and Applications
A Book

by Mehrorang Ghaedi

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-03-19
  • Pages : 728
  • ISBN : 0128188081
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adsorption: Fundamental Processes and Applications, Volume 33 in the Interface Science and Technology Series, discusses the great technological importance of adsorption and describes how adsorbents are used on a large scale as desiccants, catalysts, catalyst supports, in the separation of gases, the purification of liquids, pollution control, and in respiratory protection. Finally, it explores how adsorption phenomena play a vital role in many solid-state reactions and biological mechanisms, as well as stressing the importance of the widespread use of adsorption techniques in the characterization of surface properties and the texture of fine powders. Covers the fundamental aspects of adsorption process engineering Reviews the environmental impact of key aquatic pollutants Discusses and analyzes the importance of adsorption processes for water treatment Highlights opportunity areas for adsorption process intensification Edited by a world-leading researcher in interface science

Interface Science and Composites

Interface Science and Composites
A Book

by Soo-Jin Park,Min-Kang Seo

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 834
  • ISBN : 0123750490
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The goal of Interface Science and Composites is to facilitate the manufacture of technological materials with optimized properties on the basis of a comprehensive understanding of the molecular structure of interfaces and their resulting influence on composite materials processes. From the early development of composites of various natures, the optimization of the interface has been of major importance. While there are many reference books available on composites, few deal specifically with the science and mechanics of the interface of materials and composites. Further, many recent advances in composite interfaces are scattered across the literature and are here assembled in a readily accessible form, bringing together recent developments in the field, both from the materials science and mechanics perspective, in a single convenient volume. The central theme of the book is tailoring the interface science of composites to optimize the basic physical principles rather than on the use of materials and the mechanical performance and structural integrity of composites with enhanced strength/stiffness and fracture toughness (or specific fracture resistance). It also deals mainly with interfaces in advanced composites made from high-performance fibers, such as glass, carbon, aramid, and some inorganic fibers, and matrix materials encompassing polymers, carbon, metals/alloys, and ceramics. Includes chapter on the development of a nanolevel dispersion of graphene particles in a polymer matrix Focus on tailoring the interface science of composites to optimize the basic physical principles Covers mainly interfaces in advanced composites made from high performance fibers

Theory of Electrophoresis and Diffusiophoresis of Highly Charged Colloidal Particles

Theory of Electrophoresis and Diffusiophoresis of Highly Charged Colloidal Particles
A Book

by Eric Lee

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-11-30
  • Pages : 436
  • ISBN : 0128052651
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Theory of Electrophoresis and Diffusiophoresis of Highly Charged Colloidal Particles discusses the electrophoretic and diffusiophoretic motions of various colloidal entities, such as rigid particles, liquid droplets, gas bubbles, and porous particles, focusing on the motion-deterring double-layer polarization effect pertinent to highly charged particles, with the lowly charged ones serving as the limiting cases. Boundary effects such as those from a cylindrical pore, a solid plane, or an air-water interface are analyzed as well for the electrophoretic motion of the various particles considered. Dynamic electrophoresis is also explored and treated. The contents are suitable for researchers, graduate students, or senior college students with some basic background of colloid science and transport phenomena. As there is no closed-form analytical formula in general for the situation of highly charged particles, the results are presented with extensive figures and plots as well as tables under various electrokinetic situations of interest to facilitate the possible use of interested readers. Provides a reliable quantitative prediction of highly charged particles motion with easy-to-apply charts and in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms Offers an extensive treatment of direct quantitative predication for non-rigid systems, such as porous particles, liquid drops, and gels, which is especially valuable in proteins and DNA research Discusses highly charged systems with a nearby boundary of practical interests, such as a pore, a solid plane, or an air-water interface, which is of vital interest in fields such as microfluidic operations and biomedical engineering Affords special attention to the polarization effect

Chemistry on Modified Oxide and Phosphate Surfaces: Fundamentals and Applications

Chemistry on Modified Oxide and Phosphate Surfaces: Fundamentals and Applications
A Book

by Robson Fernandes de Farias

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2009-01-10
  • Pages : 214
  • ISBN : 9780080919843
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chemistry on Modified Oxide and Phosphate Surfaces: Fundamentals and Applications is in the authoritative Interface Science and Technology Series and presents the key features and applications of modified oxide and phosphate surfaces. Examines both basic and applied aspects Incorporates examples from recent publications

Nanoparticle Technologies

Nanoparticle Technologies
From Lab to Market

by Farid Bensebaa

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2012-12-31
  • Pages : 560
  • ISBN : 0080919278
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a good introductory work to nanoparticle technology. It consists of nine complementary chapters that can be read independently. This book covers promising nanoparticles fabrication technologies with a focus on scalable processes. Integration of nanoparticles into 2D and 3D structures are covered in detail. The most promising applications of nanoparticles in the energy, optoelectronic and biomedical sectors are summarized and discussed. Current issues and challenges related to nanoparticles production and utilisation are also discussed in the book. Complete and simple overview of the field Contains practical examples that makes the book also accessible for industrialists, engineers and managers Chapters can be read relatively independently so experienced researchers can go directly to the them of interest Advantages, drawbacks and challenges are described with practical examples

Emerging Natural and Tailored Nanomaterials for Radioactive Waste Treatment and Environmental Remediation

Emerging Natural and Tailored Nanomaterials for Radioactive Waste Treatment and Environmental Remediation
Principles and Methodologies

by Changlun Chen

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-04-25
  • Pages : 347
  • ISBN : 0081027761
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Emerging Natural and Tailored Nanomaterials for Radioactive Waste Treatment and Environmental Remediation: Principles and Methodologies, Volume 29 provides an overview of the most important radionuclide sources in the environment, their interaction with environmental media, and appropriate remediation techniques. The book focuses on the assessment of radionuclide sorption behavior in contaminated sites and the synthesis of new materials for radionuclides remediation through sorption concepts. Chapters investigate the main interaction mechanisms between toxic/radioactive metal ions with natural and manmade materials, natural clay minerals and oxides, and novel nanomaterials, such as ordered mesoporous silicas, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metal-organic framework-based materials. Techniques and models discussed include kinetics analysis, thermodynamic analysis, surface complexation models, spectroscopic techniques, and theoretical calculations. Provides a systemic discussion on the interactions between toxic and radioactive metal ions and natural and manmade materials Helps to select the best approach to remove toxic/radioactive metal ions from a surface Edited by a scientific authority in toxic/radioactive metal ion interactions

Photocatalysis: Fundamental Processes and Applications

Photocatalysis: Fundamental Processes and Applications
A Book

by Mehrorang Ghaedi

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-03-26
  • Pages : 952
  • ISBN : 0128188073
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Photocatalysis: Fundamental Processes and Applications, Volume 32 in the Interface Science and Technology Series, discusses the fundamental aspects of photocatalysis and its process and applications to the decontamination of wastewater, hydrogen production via water splitting, and photo reduction of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbon. The book discusses the fundamental aspects of all applications together with their proper mechanisms, thus providing essential information for deep research in the area of clean environment and green energy production. Provides background on the fundamental and experimental processes of photocatalysis Covers photocatalysis and its impact on creating a clean environment and energy sources Applies photocatalysis to the decontamination of wastewater, hydrogen production via water splitting, and photo reduction of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbon Edited by a world-leading researcher in interface science

The Properties of Water and their Role in Colloidal and Biological Systems

The Properties of Water and their Role in Colloidal and Biological Systems
A Book

by Carel Jan van Oss

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2008-09-16
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 9780080921570
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book treats the different current as well as unusual and hitherto often unstudied physico-chemical and surface-thermodynamic properties of water that govern all polar interactions occurring in it. These properties include the hyper-hydrophobicity of the water-air interface, the cluster formation of water molecules in the liquid state and the concomitant variability of the ratio of the electron-accepticity to electron-donicity of liquid water as a function of temperature, T. The increase of that ratio with T is the cause of the increase in hydration repulsion (“hydration pressure ) between polar surfaces upon heating, when they are immersed in water. The book also treats the surface properties of apolar and polar molecules, polymers, particles and cells, as well as their mutual interaction energies, when immersed in water, under the influence of the three prevailing non-covalent forces, i.e., Lewis acid-base (AB), Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) and electrical double layer (EL) interactions. The polar AB interactions, be they attractive or repulsive, typically represent up to 90% of the total interaction energies occurring in water. Thus the addition of AB energies to the LW + EL energies of the classical DLVO theory of energy vs. distance analysis makes this powerful tool (the Extended DLVO theory) applicable to the quantitative study of the stability of particle suspensions in water. The influence of AB forces on the interfacial tension between water and other condensed-phase materials is stressed and serves, inter alia, to explain, measure and calculate the driving force of the hydrophobic attraction between such materials (the “hydrophobic effect ), when immersed in water. These phenomena, which are typical for liquid water, influence all polar interactions that take place in it. All of these are treated from the viewpoint of the properties of liquid water itself, including the properties of advancing freezing fronts and the surface properties of ice at 0o C. - Explains and allows the quantitative measurement of hydrophobic attraction and hydrophilic repulsion in water - Measures the degree of cluster formation of water molecules - Discusses the influence of temperature on the cluster size of water molecules - Treats the multitudinous effects of the hyper-hydrophobicity of the water-air interface

Tailored Thin Coatings for Corrosion Inhibition Using a Molecular Approach

Tailored Thin Coatings for Corrosion Inhibition Using a Molecular Approach
A Book

by Simo Olavi Pehkonen,Shaojun Yuan

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-08-25
  • Pages : 414
  • ISBN : 0128135859
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Tailored Thin Coatings for Corrosion Inhibition Using a Molecular Approach discusses the fundamentals and applications of various thin coatings for the inhibition of fouling and corrosion from a molecular perspective. It provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of why certain coatings perform better than others in a given environment. Surface analytical and electrochemical techniques in understanding the coating performance are emphasized throughout the book, providing readers with a useful reference on how to pursue a systematic corrosion inhibitor R&D program that involves the testing of coating performance using various, currently available, state-of-the-art laboratory techniques. Wherever relevant, environmental considerations of the discussed coatings’ technologies are highlighted and discussed, with current and upcoming regulatory trends put forth by different governmental organizations. Provides atomic and molecular level understanding of tailored thin coatings for corrosion inhibition Discusses key steps in corrosion, including the attachment of harmful substances to surfaces, the fouling of surfaces, and the initiation and propagation of corrosion on surfaces Written by leading experts in the field

Graphene Surfaces

Graphene Surfaces
Particles and Catalysts

by Karim Kakaei,Mehdi D. Esrafili,Ali Ehsani

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-10-09
  • Pages : 456
  • ISBN : 0128145242
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Graphene Surfaces: Particles and Catalysts focuses on the surface chemistry and modification of graphene and its derivatives from a theoretical and electrochemical point-of-view. It provides a comprehensive overview of their electronic structure, synthesis, properties and general applications in catalysis science, including their relevance in alcohols and their derivatives oxidation, oxygen reduction, hydrogen evolution, energy storage, corrosion protection and supercapacitors. The book also covers emerging research on graphene chemistry and its impact. Chemical engineers, materials scientists, electrochemists and engineers will find information that will answer their most pressing questions on the surface aspects of graphene and its effect on catalysis. Serves as a time-saving reference for researchers, graduated students and chemical engineers Equips the reader with catalysis knowledge for practical applications Discusses the physical and electrochemical properties of graphene Provides the most important applications of graphene in electrochemical systems Highlights both experimental and theoretical aspects of graphene

Rheology of Emulsions

Rheology of Emulsions
Electrohydrodynamics Principles

by Aleksandar M. M. Spasic

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-04-26
  • Pages : 188
  • ISBN : 0128138378
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rheology of Emulsions, Volume 22: Electrohydrodynamics Principles studies phenomena at liquid-liquid interfaces, including finely dispersed particles or structures, in particular emulsions, double emulsions and biological cells. The book considers the forces of electrical origin that participate in the physical events at liquid-liquid interfaces, taking into account electron transfer phenomenon and electrodynamics principles. Topics covered are of interest to a broad range of scientists, researchers and graduate students with a basic knowledge of physical chemistry, electromagnetism, fluid mechanics, classical and quantum electrodynamics. The implications and applications of the material presented in the book contribute to the advanced fundamental, applied and engineering research of interfacial electroviscoelastic phenomena. Features a multidisciplinary approach to electron transfer phenomena Introduces a new constitutive model of liquids and a theory of electroviscoelasticity Addresses a broad range of subject field examples that make it useful to various research communities

Surface Science of Photocatalysis

Surface Science of Photocatalysis
A Book

by Jiaguo Yu,Mietek Jaroniec,Chuanjia Jiang

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-03-28
  • Pages : 602
  • ISBN : 0081028911
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Surface Science of Photocatalysis, Volume 32, summarizes significant findings on the surface science behind various classic and novel photocatalysts for energy and environmental applications, with special emphasis on important surface/interface processes in photocatalysis, such as interfacial charge transfer, function of co-catalysts, and adsorption over photocatalyst surface. This book timely and systematically reviews the state-of-the-art of the surface science in semiconductor-based photocatalysis, serving as a useful reference book for both new and experienced researchers in this field. Provides timely reviews on cutting-edge research on surface science and photocatalysts Comprehensively discusses novel photocatalysts, such as metal oxides, metal sulphides, graphitic carbon nitrides, graphene and metal-organics Presents important surface/interface processes in photocatalysis, like Z-scheme system and surface heterojunctions Investigates the function of co-catalysts and the adsorption on photocatalyst surfaces Edited by world-leading researchers in interface science

Self-Assembly Processes at Interfaces

Self-Assembly Processes at Interfaces
Multiscale Phenomena

by Vincent Ball

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-02-13
  • Pages : 478
  • ISBN : 0128019727
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Self-Assembly Processes at Interfaces: Multiscale Phenomena provides the conceptual and unifying view of adsorption, self-assembly, and grafting processes at solid–liquid and liquid–gas interfaces, also describing experimental methods where applicable. An invaluable resource for (post)-graduate students looking to bridge the gap between acquiring the field’s existing knowledge and the creation of new insights, the book recalls fundamental concepts, giving rigorous, but first-principle-based, calculations and exercises, and showing how these concepts have been used in recent research articles. Readers will find guidelines on how best to start research in the field of surface chemistry with biological macromolecules and molecules able to undergo self-assembly process at interfaces in the presence of a liquid, along with discussions on the very fundamental aspects and applications using concepts of biomimetic chemistry. By highlighting the interdisciplinary aspects of the field of self-assembly at interfaces, the book is an ideal resource for chemical engineers, chemists, physicists, and biologists. In addition, important equations are demonstrated on the basis of fundamental concepts, and overly complex mathematical developments are avoided. Presents an interdisciplinary work that is ideal for chemical engineers, chemists, physicists, and biologists Provides a unifying view of the field, from fundamentals, to methods and applications Includes concepts applicable at both solid–liquid and liquid–gas interfaces

Charge and Energy Storage in Electrical Double Layers

Charge and Energy Storage in Electrical Double Layers
A Book

by Silvia Ahualli,Angel V. Delgado

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-11-28
  • Pages : 215
  • ISBN : 0128113995
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Charge and Energy Storage in Electrical Double Layers presents the basic scientific concepts and implementation of procedures devised to obtain capacitive energy from changes in the potential of electrical double layers when the salinity of solutions is changed. Capacitive deionization— the closely connected reciprocal process—is also considered. The book covers the fundamentals of electrical double layers and ions transport in porous media, the description of promising techniques of energy extraction, and the practical problems involved in each. It is written for scientists in academia and industry, and for graduate students working in supercapacitors, capacitive mixing and deionization. Provides a didactic presentation of the fundamentals of interface science involved in charge and energy storage processes Presents a pioneering overview of the application of the properties of solid/solution interfaces to desalination and energy extraction Edited by leading specialists with vast experience in the theory and experimental characterization of charged interfaces

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Membranes

Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Membranes
Smart Polymeric Membranes

by Mihir Kumar Purkait,Manish Kumar Sinha,Piyal Mondal,Randeep Singh

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-09-11
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN : 0128139625
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Stimuli Responsive Polymeric Membranes: Smart Polymeric Membranes explains the fundamentals and advances in topics relating to the field of membrane science. It elaborately explains concepts relating to stimuli responsive membranes, with special importance given down to minute details. Material selection, preparation, characterization and applications of various stimuli responsive membranes are extensively addressed, and their relevance (including examples) is included. The book covers history and development, merits and demerits, mechanisms of transport and fouling, applicability of membranes to various diverse areas, and preparation and characterization techniques of membranes. Next, the concept of fouling and its remedial actions is discussed. Finally, promising fields of research in the membrane science and future perspectives of membrane science field are explored. Provides basic and advanced knowledge of smart membranes, considering their morphological, physicochemical and separation characteristics Written in a clear and lucid style, keeping a diverse audience in mind Based on the state-of-art research of the authors