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Macrophages in the Human Body

Macrophages in the Human Body
A Tissue Level Approach

by Niels Olson Saraiva Camara,Tarcio Teodoro Braga

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-09-15
  • Pages : 341
  • ISBN : 9780128213858
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Through recent researches, there has been a significant number of findings involving the biology of macrophages. Beyond the 1st line of defense, macrophages have several specific characteristics across different tissues, organs, and systems. Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes, and tissue-specific functions, such as bone resorption, extracellular matrix production, red blood cells and bacteria removal, among others. Through innate immune receptors macrophages can modulate several pathways that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, oxygen reactive species, and lipid mediators which ultimately altered the behavior of other cells. Moreover, environment signals modify and induce metabolic reprograming that it alters phenotype and functions Macrophages in the Human Body: A Tissue Level Approach presents a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics. It covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate the therapeutic potential. Covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate potential therapeutic potential Aims at presenting a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics Introduces Macrophages generally and dive into the organ/tissue/specific representations covering their phenotype, function, and metabolic characteristics Brings updated aspects of macrophages biology

The Human Body

The Human Body
Linking Structure and Function

by Bruce M. Carlson

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-10-19
  • Pages : 436
  • ISBN : 0128043326
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Human Body: Linking Structure and Function provides knowledge on the human body's unique structure and how it works. Each chapter is designed to be easily understood, making the reading interesting and approachable. Organized by organ system, this succinct publication presents the functional relevance of developmental studies and integrates anatomical function with structure. Focuses on bodily functions and the human body's unique structure Offers insights into disease and disorders and their likely anatomical origin Explains how developmental lineage influences the integration of organ systems

The Incredible Human Body

The Incredible Human Body
A Book of Discovery & Learning

by Frances R. Balkwill,Mic Rolph

  • Publisher : Sterling Publishing Company Incorporated
  • Release : 1998-08
  • Pages : 128
  • ISBN : 9780806986913
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides information on evolution, cells, and DNA, and describes how the various body systems work

Characteristics of Extracts from Prunella Vulgaris on the Immune Response of Monocytes/Macrophages

Characteristics of Extracts from Prunella Vulgaris on the Immune Response of Monocytes/Macrophages
A Book

by Xuya Fang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017-01-26
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9781361204221
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This dissertation, "Characteristics of extracts from Prunella vulgaris on the immune response of monocytes/macrophages" by Xuya, Fang, 方旭亞, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRACTS FROM PRUNELLA VULGARIS ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE OF MONOCYTES/MACROPHAGES Submitted by Fang Xuya for the degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in August 2004 Prunella vulgaris L. (夏枯草) has earned its name as anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-tumoral, and some anti-viral mechanisms of this herb have been reported. However, there is little information available on the anti-bacterial and anti-tumoral mechanisms of this herb. It is well known that innate immunity is the first line of host defense against various infectious diseases and tumors. Hence, we hypothesized that certain immune stimulatory factor(s) may be present in Prunella vulgaris which could enhance immune responses in human body, thereby contributing to the therapeutic effects. As anti-microbial and anti-tumoral functions of the immune system of the human body are largely related to monocyte/macrophage activities, the aim of this study is to examine how extracts isolated from Prunella vulgaris can modulate directly or indirectly the immune responses of monocytes/macrophages. We employed two cell lines, namely murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and brain macrophage BV2 cells to investigate the immune modulatory effects of Prunella vulgaris. Four fractions, referred to as PV1, PV2, PV3 and PV4, were first isolated from the herb. Then PV2 was further fractionated to yield four additional fractions: PV21, PV22, PV23 and PV24. All these fractions were evaluated for their modulatory effects on the activities of monocytes/macrophages. PV24 markedly stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) & TNF-α gene in the macrophage cell lines. PV24 can at the same time effectively regulate the immune stimulatory effect by decreasing the number of viable macrophages, which can be regarded as a type of activation induced cell death (AICD), to prevent the harmful overloading of cytotoxic factors. The results clearly indicated that PV24 could exert a more potent immune stimulatory effect than the other fractions. The evidence provided in this study showed for the first time that the extracts from Prunella vulgaris, especially fraction PV24, not only could effectively stimulate immune responses but also prevent monocytes/macrophages from harmful over-activation. We believe that this is also one of the important effects of Prunella vulgaris responsible for the anti-microbial and anti-tumoral activities. DOI: 10.5353/th_b3132510 Subjects: Prunella vulgaris Monocytes Macrophages

Human Body

Human Body
A Book

by Linda Calabresi

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2008-03-04
  • Pages : 64
  • ISBN : 1416938613
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An overview of the human body discusses how the systems and organs work and includes detailed three-dimensional illustrations.

Impact of Pulmonary Surfactant on Human Macrophage Suspectibility to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Impact of Pulmonary Surfactant on Human Macrophage Suspectibility to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
A Book

by Claire Elizabeth Dodd

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 197
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is an extremely salient pathogen and causes a human death every twenty seconds. M.tb is also capable of enduring for decades inside of the human body and therefore a substantial reservoir of latently infected individuals exists as a lurking threat to global health. A historical scourge of the human species, M.tb is now highly adapted to the lung environment and is capable of intracellular survival within alveolar macrophages (AMs). As the immunological guardians of the alveolar airspace, AMs not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in the catabolism of lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex which lines the tissue. Macrophage phenotype and behavior is regulated by surfactant and M.tb can utilize host lipids as a carbon source during infection. We therefore investigated which receptor(s) contribute to surfactant uptake and whether the presence of those surfactant lipids within human macrophages prior to infection with M.tb enhances bacterial survival. We show that preformed scavenger receptor CD36 is redistributed from an intracellular pool to the cell membrane following exposure to lipids and proteins found in lung surfactant. Over days in culture with surfactant components, CD36 transcript and protein levels are increased relative to resting macrophages. siRNA knockdown of CD36 inhibits the ability of human macrophages to acquire the most abundant lipid species in surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). DPPC uptake is specifically mediated by CD36, as acquisition of another surfactant lipid, phophatidylglycerol, is unaffected by CD36 knockdown. Furthermore, Scavenger Receptor-A knockdown macrophages retain the ability to acquire DPPC. When human macrophages are cultured in surfactant lipids prior to infection with M.tb, bacterial growth is increased significantly. This surfactant-mediated growth advantage does not occur if CD36 is knocked down prior to culturing macrophages in surfactant. Finally, pre-exposure of macrophages to surfactant lipids results in decreased production of TNFa and a delay in the switching time to a host-protective macrophage metabolic program. We conclude that CD36 contributes to surfactant lipid uptake by human macrophages and that M.tb is able to exploit this function, resulting in enhanced M.tb growth in the first few days of infection.

Macrophages in Liver Disease

Macrophages in Liver Disease
A Book

by Ruchi Bansal,Pranoti Mandrekar,Sujit K. Mohanty,Ralf Weiskirchen

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2020-10-08
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889660389
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Encyclopedia of Human Body Systems

Encyclopedia of Human Body Systems
A Book

by Julie McDowell

  • Publisher : ABC-CLIO
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 697
  • ISBN : 0313391750
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduces each of the eleven organ systems of the human body, noting the physiological processes, cell and tissue types, and the role each organ plays within the larger system.

The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Body Pathologies

The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Body Pathologies
A Book

by Francesco Travascio

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2017-12-20
  • Pages : 200
  • ISBN : 9535137174
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic zinc-containing enzymes involved in physiological as well as in pathological processes in the human organism. MMPs play a key role in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Such a process may occur because of tissue homeostasis, morphogenesis, and tissue repair. However, remodeling could also be a part of many pathological states such as arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, or impaired development in congenital anomalies. This book overviews the role of MMPs in different pathologies affecting the human body.

The Role of Nitrogen Monoxide in Macrophage and Reticulocyte Iron Metabolism

The Role of Nitrogen Monoxide in Macrophage and Reticulocyte Iron Metabolism
A Book

by Marc Raymond Mikhael

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Concise Human Body Book

The Concise Human Body Book
An illustrated guide to its structure, function and disorders

by DK

  • Publisher : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
  • Release : 2019-06-06
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0241445612
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discover all there is to know about human anatomy in DK's latest concise visual guide to the human body. Fully updated to reflect the latest medical information, The Concise Human Body Book is illustrated throughout with colourful and comprehensive diagrams, photographs, scans, and 3D artworks, which take you right into the cells and fibres that are responsible for keeping your body ticking. The Concise Human Body Book provides full coverage of the body, function by function, system by system. In the opening chapter, colourful medical scans, illustrations, and easy-to-understand diagrams show you how the different parts of the body work together to produce a living whole. Eleven main body systems - including the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system - are then covered in intricate detail in the following chapters, with each section ending on common diseases and disorders that can affect that system. From bones and muscles to systems and processes, this in-depth, pocket-sized guide to the body's physical structure, chemical workings, and potential problems is the must-have reference manual for trainee medical professionals, students, or anyone interested in finding out more about how the human body works.

Macrophages: Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases

Macrophages: Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases
A Book

by Subhra K. Biswas,Alberto Mantovani

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-11-12
  • Pages : 615
  • ISBN : 1493913115
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Macrophages are a key component of the innate immune system and play an integral role in host defense and homeostasis. On one hand, these cells contribute to host defence by triggering inflammation, displaying microbicidal/tumoricidal properties, regulating the activation of adaptive immunity and promoting resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, they contribute to essential trophic functions such as neural patterning, bone morphogenesis and ductal branching in mammary glands. Thus, macrophages are extremely versatile cells that can respond efficiently to tissue micro environmental cues by polarizing to distinct phenotypes, depending on the functions they need to perform. Indeed, functional diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of these cells. Macrophages may also play a detrimental role. An overwhelming body of literature has indicated their crucial role in pathogenesis. The list includes sepsis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, immunodeficiency, auto-immune disease-virtually impacting every major pathology that we know. These observations have suggested macrophages and their related molecules as potential targets in therapeutic applications. Available evidence proclaims macrophages as a key player in homeostasis, host defense and disease. Crucial developments in the past few years call for a re-evaluation and update of our understanding of macrophages. The present book is an endeavour that attempts provide state-of-the art knowledge of these cells in health and disease.

The Dynamic Behavior of Macrophages in Wound Healing

The Dynamic Behavior of Macrophages in Wound Healing
A Book

by Michael Kwaku Boateng,Youngstown State University. Department of Mathematics and Statistics

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 82
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The first line of protection against infection for the human body is the skin. A break in this line of defense is called a wound. After the protective barrier is broken, the process of wound healing starts without delay. Wound healing is complex and dynamic. Most of the time wounds progress through phases depending upon the internal and external forces at work within the patient. Wound healing progresses through four phases. They are hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. This study describes a mathematical model which gives a possible explanation to the role and importance of macrophage phenotypes M1: inflammatory macrophages, M2: repair macrophages and MR: regulatory macrophages during the inflammatory phase of wound healing. Six differential equations were formulated and solved numerically. The model results suggest that M1 macrophages are the first macrophage phenotype to enter into the wound and the decrease in the amount of these macrophages after inflammatory phase is a good sign that the wound is healing normally. Also, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory macrophages and repair macrophages is not damaging to the wound provided there is sufficient interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the wound. The model result also indicates that MR macrophage phenotype is very important during the inflammatory phase of wound repair since they secrete IL-10 which inhibits pro-inflammatory macrophages. As a result, a possible explanation is offered as to how wounds can be stalled at the inflammatory phase of wound healing.

Amoebae as Host Models to Study the Interaction with Pathogens

Amoebae as Host Models to Study the Interaction with Pathogens
A Book

by Sascha Thewes,Thierry Soldati,Ludwig Eichinger

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-08-27
  • Pages : 169
  • ISBN : 2889459357
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The human body is constantly faced with microorganisms. Most of these bacteria, fungi, and viruses are harmless, many of them are beneficial, and a small fraction is pathogenic. For humans, infection with pathogenic microorganisms can be very serious or even fatal, ranging from mild transient or chronic infections to death. The first line of defence against pathogens is our innate immune system. Beside chemical and physical defence mechanisms of the innate immune system, phagocytic cells such as macrophages play a crucial role in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms. However, phagocytic cells and pathogens are in a constant evolutionary arms race, inventing new strategies to successfully kill pathogens and learning how to resist phagocytosis and intracellular killing, respectively. If pathogens are not obligatory adapted to the human body or other animals, they also have to face environmental phagocytes in the form of amoebae. Many aspects of phagocytosis and intracellular killing are surprisingly well conserved between amoebae and macrophages. Therefore, pathogens that have evolved with environmental amoebae as their “training grounds” can also be successful during infection of macrophages and other animal phagocytic cells. In this Research Topic, we provide the latest knowledge about the potential of using amoebae as host models to study the interaction with pathogens. The Research Topic covers the interaction of amoebae with bacteria, fungi, and viruses and also illustrates the similarities and differences between amoebae and macrophages. Investigation of evolutionary conserved pathways of amoebae and macrophages furthers our understanding of the biology of host-pathogen interactions and helps to develop new anti-infection therapies.

Vitamins

Vitamins
Their Role in the Human Body

by George F. M. Ball

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-04-15
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 1405148101
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This single-source reference draws together the current knowledgeof the vitamins' biological properties in the context of humannutrition. Vitamins are co-enzymes, antioxidants or precursors ofhormones and are therefore involved in a great many biochemical andphysiological processes. They play a vital role in the maintenanceof health, and there is evidence that dietary sources of vitaminshave beneficial effects in the prevention of heart-relateddiseases, bone diseases and possibly cancer. Following introductory chapters on historical and nutritionalaspects of vitamins, the next four chapters cover relevant anddetailed aspects of physiology and functional anatomy,biochemistry, immunology and the regulation of protein synthesis bynuclear hormone receptors. These background chapters, supported bya glossary of terms, provide the scientific principles upon whichvitamin functions are based. The following thirteen chapters dealwith each vitamin in turn. Subject areas include chemicalstructure, intestinal absorption, transport, metabolism,biochemical and physiological actions, immunoregulatory properties,deficiency-related diseases and potential toxicity. An extensivebibliography refers the reader to the original researchliterature. Vitamins is aimed at nutritionists, biochemists, physiologists andphysicians whether they be researchers, teachers or students. Foodscientists, food technologists and many others working in thehealth professions will also find much of use and interest in thebook. The inclusion of the theoretical principles in the backgroundchapters makes the book an ideal starting point for those workingoutside the area who need a solid overview of the subject.

Me and My Body

Me and My Body
A Book

by DK

  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release : 2018-02-20
  • Pages : 32
  • ISBN : 146547630X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Amazing facts come together with fun, easy-to-do crafts in this STEAM-centric celebration of the human body. Learn amazing facts like how germs can make you sick, why you have a belly button, and how your senses work. Then create wonderful crafts, like a beautiful family tree, a homemade stethoscope, and gingerbread skeletons, combining reading skills, STEAM concepts, and hands-on family fun. Discover what a family tree is, then create one yourself. Explore your amazing fingerprints, then decorate a beautiful picture frame with them. Make a paper skeleton or play a game about digestion. This is a perfect package for a little learner who wants to know all about what's going on inside their body!

Dr Frankenstein's Human Body Book

Dr Frankenstein's Human Body Book
A Book

by Richard Walker

  • Publisher : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
  • Release : 2008-09-01
  • Pages : 96
  • ISBN : 1405347872
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Join Dr Frankenstein in his laboratory and see how the human body works! Take your child on an incredible journey into Dr Frankenstein’s laboratory as he binds bones, organizes organs, sets up systems and creates a living, breathing human body. Watch as they open the holographic cover and join him as his trusty assistant to learn all about how our bodies work. From skeleton to skin they’ll be with him every step of the way, helping to assemble the body and learning all about the parts and processes involved. It's an eye-popping around the body experience!

Study Guide for Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

Study Guide for Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
A Book

by Lois A. Ball

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2015-10-13
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 0323239285
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ball's Study Guide for Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology, 4th Edition is a comprehensive learning tool designed to help you better understand the terminology and concepts presented in Solomon's text. Its Table of Contents mirrors that of the text's, and its new matching exercises and jumble games, fill-in-the-blank study questions, labeling exercises, crossword puzzles, and more give you a fun way to test your mastery of the material. Updated with new content and art, this engaging Study Guide provides you with the tools you need to learn the language of anatomy and physiology. Labeling exercises, consisting of art from the textbook, reinforce understanding of where the structures of the body are located. Multiple choice end-of-chapter tests immediately let you know if you have mastered the content of that chapter, and better prepare you for multiple choice quizzes and exams in class. Chapter outlines and learning objectives from the textbook highlight essential content and the objectives you should master before beginning the exercises. Crossword puzzle activities encourage the use of new vocabulary words and emphasize the proper spelling of terms. Fill-in-the-blank exercises help you master and retain information in a fun and engaging way. Answers to exercises on Evolve so you can use this Study Guide to test your knowledge. NEW! All-new matching exercises and jumble games, mixed with traditional fill-in-the-blank questions, create more variety and give you more options for study. NEW! Updated content and art reflects changes made to the new edition of the text - and provides you with the tools you need to learn and master the concepts presented in the text.

Amazing Human Body

Amazing Human Body
A Book

by DK

  • Publisher : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
  • Release : 2010-02-01
  • Pages : 64
  • ISBN : 1405360062
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Everything you never knew about the human body, in ebook format From what makes blood red to why a haircut is painless, help your child discover all about the human body. Fantastic facts and far-out photos answer a multitude of quirky questions and tell the head-to-toe story of what makes our bodies tick. They'll take a look at our circulation system and discover how blood travels around the body and why our heart beats faster when we run. Find out where thoughts come from and how we can see, smell, touch, taste and follow what happens to food as it travels through the digestive system. From eyes that can see a million different colours to a liver that performs more than 500 functions, help your child discover why their body is such an amazing machine.

Between Pathogenicity and Commensalism

Between Pathogenicity and Commensalism
A Book

by Ulrich Dobrindt,Jörg H. Hacker,Catharina Svanborg

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2014-07-08
  • Pages : 354
  • ISBN : 3642365604
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This comprehensive, interdisciplinary book covers different aspects of relevant human pathogens and commensals. The ongoing development of (meta-)genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and their host interaction provides a comprehensive introduction to the microbiological analysis of host-microbe interplay and its consequences for infection or commensalism.