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Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents

Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents
Downslope and Alongslope Processes and Deposits

by G. Shanmugam

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-11-02
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN : 0128225742
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mass Transport, Gravity Flows, and Bottom Currents: Downslope and Alongslope Processes and Deposits focuses solely on important downslope and alongslope processes. The book provides clear definitions and characteristics based on soil mechanics, fluid mechanics and sediment concentration by volume. It addresses Slides, Slumps, and Debris Flows, Grain Flows, Liquefied/Fluidized Flows, and Turbidity Currents, Density plumes, Hyperpycnal Flows, the Triggering Mechanisms of Downslope Processes, Bottom Currents, and Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures. The mechanics of each process are described in detail and used to provide empirically-driven categories to help recognize these deposits it the rock record. Case studies clearly illustrate of the problems inherent in recognizing these processes in the rock record, and potential solutions are provided alongside future avenues of research. An appendix also provides step-by-step guidance in describing and interpreting sediments. Comprehensively addresses modern downslope and alongslope processes, including definitions and mechanisms Provides key criteria for the recognition of depositional facies in the rock record Includes case studies to illustrate each downslope and alongslope process Identifies key problems and potential solutions for future research Uses pragmatic, empirical, data-driven interpretations to revise conventional facies models

The Influence of Bottom Currents on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Alboran Sea During the Pliocene and Quaternary

The Influence of Bottom Currents on the Sedimentary Evolution of the Alboran Sea During the Pliocene and Quaternary
A Book

by Carmen Juan Valenzuela

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 351
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"An interdisciplinary study of the geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy and physical oceanography of the deep-sea environments of the Alboran Sea (south-western Mediterranean Sea) has been carried out with the purpose of evidencing and understanding the role of bottom currents in the sedimentary evolution of the Spanish and Moroccan continental margins and adjacent basins during the Pliocene and Quaternary. This study was conducted using swath bathymetry data, more than 1900 profiles consisting of parametric, single- and multi-channel seismic records, scientific and commercial wells, sediment cores, and hydrographic data comprising: Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) profiles, Acoustic Doppler Current (ADCP) profiles, and EK60 echograms. Here, for the first time, a morphosedimentary scenario with a wide spectrum of depositional (plastered, sheeted, channel-related, mounded confined, elongated and separated drifts) and erosional (terraces, escarpments, moats, channels and furrows) contourite features are described in the Alboran Sea, from the shelf break to the basin floor. Hydrographic data offers new insights into the distribution of the Mediterranean water masses, and reveals that the bottom circulation of the Western Intermediate Water (WIW) and the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) interact with the Spanish slope, and the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) with the Moroccan slope, Spanish base- of-slope and deep basins. The integration of distinct datasets and approaches allow a new sedimentary model to be proposed for the Alboran Sea that underlines the significance of bottom current processes in shaping deep-sea morphology. This model suggests that the bottom circulation of water masses governs physiography that the interface positions of water-masses with contrasting densities sculpt terraces at a regional scale, and that morphological obstacles play an essential role in the local control of processes and water- mass distribution. An analysis of the seismic stratigraphy from the Pliocene and Quaternary sequences has enabled to update and rename the stratigraphic boundaries and establish a new seismic stratigraphy for the Alboran Sea, after relocating the base of the Quaternary from 1.8 to 2.6Ma. Additionally, the seismic analysis involves the presentation and discussion for the first time of the evidence for contourite features reaching the scale of the Alboran Basin. Contourite drifts (plastered, sheeted, elongated separated and confined mounded drifts) and erosive features (terraces, escarpments, moats, channels, furrows) were developed under the continuous influence of Mediterranean water masses after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar ( -5.33Ma). At least two primary factors have controlled the contourite features in this sea: i) tectonics, which has governed the relocation of the main Mediterranean flow pathways and their circulation patterns; and ii) climate, which has influenced both water-mass conditions (depth and density contrast of the interfaces) and hinterland sediment sources, conditioning the morphoseismic expression and growth pattern of drifts and terrace formation (dimensions). The distribution of contourite features through time and space allows to propose three main scenarios for ocean circulation since the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar: i) Atlantic Zanclean flooding; ii) the Pliocene sea, with two different stages for the dense circulation and characterised by poorly-defined and unstable interfaces for the Atlantic Waters (AW), light and dense Mediterranean waters and the presence of a strong countercurrent in the Western Basin; and iii) the Quaternary sea, characterised by tabular Mediterranean water masses with multiple current dynamics, increasingly important density contrasts, and climate shifts causing major vertical and horizontal displacement of the interfaces. These stages reflect variability in the bottom current regimes and related alongslope efficiency in terms of transport, deposition and erosion. The detailed seismic analysis of the units making up the Pliocene and Quaternary sequences allows for the first time, to make an in-depth analysis of the contourite features, turbidite systems and mass-movement deposits, and map them through time. These maps are enormously helpful when it comes to understanding the sedimentary architecture of the Spanish and Moroccan continental margins and basins, as well as for decoding the palaeoceanographic processes from a geological perspective. Two main contourite depositional systems are defined: the Intermediate Mediterranean Contourite System (IMCS), formed under the action of the Light Mediterranean Waters (LMW) on the Spanish margin, and the Deep Mediterranean Contourite System (DMCS), formed under the action of the Dense Mediterranean Waters (DMW) mainly on the Moroccan margin and basins. The characterisation of the terraces as contourite features that form under the combination of two water masses, has also led to the definition of the Atlantic Contourite System (ACS). The occurrence of several contourite depositional systems has led to the suggestion of a new term, not heretofore considered in the literature: Multiple Contourite Depositional System (MCDS), which refers to the set of different CDSs that occurs in the same area and evolving under the action of multiple water masses. In addition, twenty turbidite systems have been characterised, revealing that they are responsible for the different sedimentary architecture of the Spanish margin, where they coexist with contourites, as on the Moroccan margin the turbidite systems are less well developed. The mass-movement deposits are mainly related to the reworking of the contourites draping the highs. Mainly contourites but also turbidites, allowed to define from a geological perspective the basic oceanographic processes and to determine their occurrence, relative magnitude and energy, and time of action. This PhD thesis also explains the uneven development of the turbidite systems in the Alboran Sea, which is interpreted to be conditioned by the interaction of alongslope with downslope processes. Several morphological and sedimentary signatures produced by the interaction between both processes have been identified in the Pliocene and Quaternary records, as well as on the present-day seafloor of the Alboran Sea. The interaction scenarios move between two-end-members: from bottom currents dominating gravity flows to gravity flows dominating contour currents. In between these extreme cases, the alternation and mutual influence of both processes can occur. Two different conceptual models of interaction are proposed for the Spanish and Moroccan margins. i) On the Spanish margin, the alongslope and downslope interaction is especially complex and varied, with both regional and local effects on the turbidite systems. This is because here the turbidite systems are influenced at different water depths by Atlantic and

Encyclopedia of Geology

Encyclopedia of Geology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-12-16
  • Pages : 5622
  • ISBN : 0081029098
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Encyclopedia of Geology, Second Edition presents in six volumes state-of-the-art reviews on the various aspects of geologic research, all of which have moved on considerably since the writing of the first edition. New areas of discussion include extinctions, origins of life, plate tectonics and its influence on faunal provinces, new types of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, new methods of dating rocks, and geological processes. Users will find this to be a fundamental resource for teachers and students of geology, as well as researchers and non-geology professionals seeking up-to-date reviews of geologic research. Provides a comprehensive and accessible one-stop shop for information on the subject of geology, explaining methodologies and technical jargon used in the field Highlights connections between geology and other physical and biological sciences, tackling research problems that span multiple fields Fills a critical gap of information in a field that has seen significant progress in past years Presents an ideal reference for a wide range of scientists in earth and environmental areas of study

New Perspectives on Deep-water Sandstones

New Perspectives on Deep-water Sandstones
Origin, Recognition, Initiation, and Reservoir Quality

by G. Shanmugam

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 0444563350
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This handbook is vital for understanding the origin of deep-water sandstones, emphasizing sandy-mass transport deposits (SMTDs) and bottom-current reworked sands (BCRSs) in petroleum reservoirs. This cutting-edge perspective, a pragmatic alternative to the conventional turbidite concepts, is crucial because the turbidite paradigm is built on a dubious foundation without empirical data on sandy turbidity currents in modern oceans. In the absence of evidence for sandy turbidity currents in natural environments, elegant theoretical models and experimental observations of turbidity currents are irrelevant substitutes for explaining the origin of sandy deposits as "turbidites." In documenting modern and ancient SMTDs (sandy slides, sandy slumps, and sandy debrites) and BCRSs (deposits of thermohaline [contour] currents, wind-driven currents, and tidal currents), the author describes and interprets core and outcrop (1:20 to 1:50 scale) from 35 case studies worldwide (which include 32 petroleum reservoirs), totaling more than 10,000 m in cumulative thickness, carried out during the past 36 years (1974-2010). The book dispels myths about the importance of sea level lowstand and provides much-needed clarity on the triggering of sediment failures by earthquakes, meteorite impacts, tsunamis, and cyclones with implications for the distribution of deep-water sandstone petroleum reservoirs. Promotes pragmatic interpretation of deep-water sands using alternative possibilities Validates the economic importance of SMTDs and BCRS in deep-water exploration and production Rich in empirical data and timely new perspectives

Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts

Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts
Ocean technology, policy and non-living resources

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1992
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-04-12
  • Pages : 4306
  • ISBN : 0128130822
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference. Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches

Sedimentation in Submarine Canyons, Fans, and Trenches

Sedimentation in Submarine Canyons, Fans, and Trenches
A Book

by Daniel J. Stanley,Gilbert Kelling

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1978
  • Pages : 395
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks

Microfacies of Carbonate Rocks
Analysis, Interpretation and Application

by Erik Flügel

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 976
  • ISBN : 366208726X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This unparelleled reference synthesizes the methods used in microfacies analysis and details the potential of microfacies in evaluating depositional environments and diagenetic history, and, in particular, the application of microfacies data in the study of carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs and the provenance of archaeological materials. Nearly 230 instructive plates (30 in color) showing thin-section photographs with detailed explanations form a central part of the content. Helpful teaching-learning aids include detailed captions for hundreds of microphotographs, boxed summaries of technical terms, many case studies, guidelines for the determination and evaluation of microfacies criteria, for enclosed CD with 14000 references, self-testing exercises for recognition and characterization skills, and more

Basin Evolution and Petroleum Prospectivity of the Continental Margins of India

Basin Evolution and Petroleum Prospectivity of the Continental Margins of India
A Book

by Rabi Bastia,M. Radhakrishna

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2012-12-31
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0444536051
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During the past 10 years, the Oil industry in India has seen a tremendous rise in exploration activity with several major E&P companies generating vast amount of new geological and geophysical data. The availability of such integrated data sets (gravity, magnetic, seismic, drilled wells), especially in the deep offshore basins, has led the authors to revisit earlier concepts and models in order to redefine the tectonic framework of major offshore basins along the Indian continental margins. The book covers the stratigraphic evolution, play types and the classification of major offshore basins both in shallow and deepwater environments. Incorporation of latest dataset (specially the seismic, gravity and magnetic) Analogy of global offshore basins with India Sedimentation and depositional history of Bengal fan and Indus fan Redefinition of major tectonic framework of the margins Exceleent high quality graphics that include: seismic sections, gravity-magnetic maps, conceptual geological models and new revised tectonic elements

Selected Water Resources Abstracts

Selected Water Resources Abstracts
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1988
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Northern North Atlantic

The Northern North Atlantic
A Changing Environment

by Priska Schafer,Priska Schäfer,Will Ritzrau,Michael Schlüter,Jörn Thiede

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2001-04-02
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN : 9783540672319
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The northern North Atlantic is one of the regions most sensitive to past and present global changes. This book integrates the results of an interdisciplinary project studying the properties of the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas and the processes of pelagic and benthic particle formation, particle transport, and deposition in the deep-sea sediments. Ice-related and biogeochemical processes have been investigated to decipher the spatial and temporal variability of the production and fate of organic carbon in this region. Isotopic stratigraphy, microfossil assemblages and paleotemperatures are combined to reconstruct paleoceanographic conditions and to model past climatic changes in the Late Quaternary. The Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian Seas can now be considered one of the best studied subbasins of the world`s oceans.

Provenance of Arenites

Provenance of Arenites
A Book

by G.G. Zuffa

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 9401728097
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Reading Provenance from Arenites, Cetraro, Cosenza, Italy, June 3-11, 1984

Submarine Mass Movements and their Consequences

Submarine Mass Movements and their Consequences
7th International Symposium

by Geoffroy Lamarche,Joshu Mountjoy,Suzanne Bull,Tom Hubble,Sebastian Krastel,Emily Lane,Aaron Micallef,Lorena Moscardelli,Christof Mueller,Ingo Pecher,Susanne Woelz

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-10-02
  • Pages : 621
  • ISBN : 3319209795
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a comprehensive collection of state-of-the-art studies of seafloor slope instability and their societal implications. The volume captures the most recent and exciting scientific progress made in this research field. As the world’s climate and energy needs change, the conditions under which slope instability occurs and needs to be considered, are also changing. The science and engineering of submarine – or more widely subaqueous – mass movements is greatly benefiting from advances in seafloor and sub-seafloor surveying technologies. Ultra-high-resolution seafloor mapping and 3D seismic reflection cubes are becoming commonly available datasets that are dramatically increasing our knowledge of the mechanisms and controls of subaqueous slope failure. Monitoring of slope deformation, repeat surveying and deep drilling, on the other hand, are emerging as important new techniques for understanding the temporal scales of slope instability. In essence, rapid advances in technology are being readily incorporated into scientific research and as a result, our understanding of submarine mass movements is increasing at a very fast rate. The volume also marks the beginning of the third IGCP project for the submarine mass movement research community, IGCP-640 S4SLIDE (Significance of Modern and Ancient Submarine Slope LandSLIDEs). The Submarine Mass Movements and Their Consequences symposium is the biannual meeting under the IGCP umbrella.

Sedimentary Basins

Sedimentary Basins
Evolution, Facies, and Sediment Budget

by Gerhard Einsele

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 792
  • ISBN : 3662040298
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This completely revised and enlarged second edition provides an up-to-date overview of all major topics in sedimentary geology. It is unique in its quantitative approach to denudation-accumulation systems and basin fillings, including dynamic aspects. The relationship between tectonism and basin evolution as well as the concepts of sequence cycle and event stratigraphy in various depositional environments are extensively discussed. Numerous, often composite figures, a well-structured text, brief summaries in boxes, and several examples from all continents make the book an invaluable source of information for students, researchers and professors in academia as well as for professionals in the oil industry.

Contourites

Contourites
A Book

by M. Rebesco,A. Camerlenghi

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-11-25
  • Pages : 688
  • ISBN : 9780080931869
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Contourites are sediments deposited or substantially reworked by bottom currents. The study of contourites is crucial for several fields of fundamental and applied research: paleoclimatology and paleo-oceanography, since these fairly continuous and relatively high-resolution sediments hold the key for priceless information on the variability in circulation patter, current velocity, oceanographic history and basin interconnectivity; hydrocarbon exploration, since accumulation of source rocks may be favored by weak bottom currents, whereas "clean" deep-sea sands may be formed by robust flows; and slope stability, since low-permeability fine-grained contourites facilitate the formation of overpressurized gliding planes when fresh contourites with a high pore-water content becomes rapidly loaded, or when their rigid biosiliceous microfabric collapses due to diagenetic conditions. Despite its significance, this group of sediments is poorly known by the majority of non-specialists. Notwithstanding the growing interest and the intensified research in contourites, a textbook that might also serve as a reference book on contourites was missing until now. This book addresses all aspects of the knowledge in the field of contourites and provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the subject. It also can serve as a standard reference work for non-specialists, and in particular postgraduate students, university teachers and lecturers, researchers and professionals who are seeking an authoritative source of information about contourites. * reviews both theoretical topics and case histories * provides practical advice on multidisciplinary research techniques * provides also nonspecialist users with an intuitively-accessible, cross-referenced, and comprehensive coverage of the knowledge in the field. * provides a helpful tool for research in the preparation of classroom lectures

Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program

Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program
Initial report

by Ocean Drilling Program

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1992
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Deep Marine Systems

Deep Marine Systems
Processes, Deposits, Environments, Tectonic and Sedimentation

by Kevin Pickering,Richard Hiscott

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-03-23
  • Pages : 696
  • ISBN : 1405125780
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae

Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbonate Depositional Environments

Carbonate Depositional Environments
AAPG Memoir 33

by Peter A. Scholle,Don G. Bebout,Clyde H. Moore

  • Publisher : AAPG
  • Release : 1983-01
  • Pages : 708
  • ISBN : 0891813101
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Selected Water Resources Abstracts

Selected Water Resources Abstracts
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1989
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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