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Microgrids and Methods of Analysis

Microgrids and Methods of Analysis
A Book

by Gevork B. Garehpetian,Hamid Reza Baghaee,Masoud M. Shabestary

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-08-06
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 0128161728
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The increasing penetration of distributed energy resource (DER), distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) units in distribution grids leads to the emergence of the concepts of active distribution networks (ADNs), microgrids, and virtual power plants. Nowadays, the use of electronically-coupled distributed energy resources is of great interest that can provide the power of demand side alone or in a small electricity grid. A microgrid is a small-scale power grid in low voltage network that must be able to locally solve energy issues and enhance the flexibility and can operate either in grid-connected or islanded/autonomous mode of operation. To study them, researchers need an appropriate set of methods, software tools, analogous to those exist for large interconnected power systems. The book Microgrids and Methods of Analysis addresses systematic analysis, control/protection systems design, and optimal operation of a distribution system under high penetration of DERs analogous to those that exist for large interconnected power systems. Provides professional guidlines for system planners Explores further research, development, and optimization of existing and new microgrids Addresses analytical methods used for microgrid analysis using advanced research

Microgrids and Methods of Analysis

Microgrids and Methods of Analysis
A Book

by Gevork B. Garehpetian,Hamid Reza Baghaee,Masoud M. Shabestary

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-07-23
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 0128165855
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The increasing penetration of distributed energy resource (DER), distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) units in distribution grids leads to the emergence of the concepts of active distribution networks (ADNs), microgrids, and virtual power plants. Nowadays, the use of electronically-coupled distributed energy resources is of great interest that can provide the power of demand side alone or in a small electricity grid. A microgrid is a small-scale power grid in low voltage network that must be able to locally solve energy issues and enhance the flexibility and can operate either in grid-connected or islanded/autonomous mode of operation. To study them, researchers need an appropriate set of methods, software tools, analogous to those exist for large interconnected power systems. The book Microgrids and Methods of Analysis addresses systematic analysis, control/protection systems design, and optimal operation of a distribution system under high penetration of DERs analogous to those that exist for large interconnected power systems. Provides professional guidlines for system planners Explores further research, development, and optimization of existing and new microgrids Addresses analytical methods used for microgrid analysis using advanced research

Transient Characteristics, Modelling and Stability Analysis of Microgrid

Transient Characteristics, Modelling and Stability Analysis of Microgrid
A Book

by Zhikang Shuai

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-10-31
  • Pages : 290
  • ISBN : 9811584036
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book focuses on the transient modelling, stability analysis and control of power electronic systems, since these systems face severe safe operation problems the during transient period. It discusses both theoretical analysis and practical applications, highlighting the transient characteristics of converters with different control strategies, and proposes transient modelling and model reduction methods. Furthermore, it classifies the transient stability problems of the system to help the readers gain an understanding of the basic theoretical methods for analysing the power electronic system, at the same time providing sufficient detail to enable engineers to design such systems. Comprehensively describing theoretical analyses, ranging from system modelling and stability analysis to transient control, the book is a valuable resource for researchers, engineers and graduate students in fields of transient modelling, stability analysis and control of power electronic systems.

A Framework for Microgrid Analysis Using OpenDSS

A Framework for Microgrid Analysis Using OpenDSS
A Book

by Sryang Tera Sarena

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2014-02
  • Pages : 88
  • ISBN : 9783659461101
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In recent years, along with the rise of global warming issue, researches of renewable energy usage for producing electricity are sprung up. The penetration of renewable energy usage to microgrid brings new challenge as most of the renewable energy are unpredictable. In order to get optimal microgrid operation, integration of methods and softwares are needed in microgrid analysis. This study will use OpenDSS in cooperation with Matlab. Thus optimization algorithm implementation can be achieved by Matlab and simulations of microgrid performed in OpenDSS. The establishment constructs a flexible framework for microgrid analysis which is extensible for various practical studies.

Optimization of Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch in Microgrids Based on Genetic Algorithm and Mixed Integer Linear Programming

Optimization of Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch in Microgrids Based on Genetic Algorithm and Mixed Integer Linear Programming
A Book

by Mohsen Shiralizadeh Nemati

  • Publisher : kassel university press GmbH
  • Release : 2018-04-16
  • Pages : 187
  • ISBN : 3737604649
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Energy Management System (EMS) applications of modern power networks like microgrids have to respond to a number of stringent challenges due to current energy revolution. Optimal resource dispatch tasks must be handled with specific regard to the addition of new resource types and the adoption of novel modeling considerations. In addition, due to the comprehensive changes concerning the multi cell grid structure, new policies should be fulfilled via microgrids’ EMS. At the same time achieving a variety of conflicting goals in different microgrids requires a universal and a multi criteria optimization tool. In this work two dispatch-optimizers based on genetic algorithm and mixed integer linear programming for a centralized EMS are introduced which can schedule the unit commitment and economic dispatch of microgrid units. In the proposed methods, different network restrictions like voltages and equipment loadings and unit constraints have been considered.

Distributed Control Methods and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids

Distributed Control Methods and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids
A Book

by Wenchao Meng,Xiaoyu Wang,Shichao Liu

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-03-22
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 0128169478
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Distributed Control and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids presents a thorough treatment of distributed control methods and cyber security issues for power system researchers and engineers. With the help of mathematical tools, this reference gives a deep understanding of microgrids and new research directions, addressing emerging concepts, methodologies and applications of monitoring, control and protection in smart microgrids with large-scale renewables. With the integration of more distributed or aggregated renewables and the wide utilization of power electronic devices, the smart microgrid is facing new stability and security challenges. Includes global case studies to demonstrate distributed control success stories Offers detailed illustrations and flowcharts to address challenges and technical solutions for those working in power systems in utilities and industry Showcases new challenges faced in the stability and security of smart microgrids

Microgrid Architectures, Control and Protection Methods

Microgrid Architectures, Control and Protection Methods
A Book

by Naser Mahdavi Tabatabaei,Ersan Kabalci,Nicu Bizon

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-08-01
  • Pages : 781
  • ISBN : 3030237230
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents intuitive explanations of the principles of microgrids, including their structure and operation and their applications. It also discusses the latest research on microgrid control and protection technologies and the essentials of microgrids as well as enhanced communication systems. The book provides solutions to microgrid operation and planning issues using various methodologies including planning and modelling; AC and DC hybrid microgrids; energy storage systems in microgrids; and optimal microgrid operational planning. Written by specialists, it is filled in innovative solutions and research related to microgrid operation, making it a valuable resource for those interested in developing updated approaches in electric power analysis, design and operational strategies. Thanks to its in-depth explanations and clear, three-part structure, it is useful for electrical engineering students, researchers and technicians.

Linearized and Distributed Methods for Power Flow Analysis and Control in Smart Grids and Microgrids

Linearized and Distributed Methods for Power Flow Analysis and Control in Smart Grids and Microgrids
A Book

by Niannian Cai

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 148
  • ISBN : 9781321141184
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Modeling techniques and control strategies for inverter dominated microgrids

Modeling techniques and control strategies for inverter dominated microgrids

by Gkountaras, Aris

  • Publisher : Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin
  • Release : 2017-02-15
  • Pages : 169
  • ISBN : 3798328722
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The character of modern power systems is changing rapidly and inverters are taking over a considerable part of the energy generation. A future purely inverter-based grid could be a viable solution, if its technical feasibility can be first validated. The focus of this work lies on inverter dominated microgrids, which are also mentioned as 'hybrid' in several instances throughout the thesis. Hybrid, as far as the energy input of each generator is concerned. Conventional fossil fuel based generators are connected in parallel to renewable energy sources as well as battery systems. The main contributions of this work comprise of: The analysis of detailed models and control structures of grid inverters, synchronous generators and battery packs and the utilization of these models to formulate control strategies for distributed generators. The developed strategies accomplish objectives in a wide time scale, from maintaining stability during faults and synchronization transients as well as optimizing load flow through communication-free distributed control. Die Struktur der modernen Energieversorgung hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten massiv geändert. Dezentrale Generatoren, die auf Wechselrichtern basieren, übernehmen einen großen Teil der Energieerzeugung. Ein ausschließlich wechselrichterbasiertes Netz wäre ein realistischer Ansatz, wenn seine technische Machbarkeit verifiziert werden könnte. Die wichtigste Beiträge dieser Arbeit sind: Die Analyse von Modellen und Regelstrukturen von Netzwechselrichtern, Synchrongeneratoren und Batterieanlagen. Die entwickelten Modelle werden verwendet, um Regelstrategien für dezentrale Generatoren in Mittelspannungsinselnetzen zu formulieren. Die erste Strategie ist eine Synchronisationsmethode für netzbildende Wechselrichter. Zweitens wird die Leistungsaufteilung in Mittelspannungsinselnetzen mittels Droop Regelung analysiert. Weiterhin erfolgt die Untersuchung der transienten Lastaufteilung zwischen netzbildenden Einheiten mit unterschiedlichen Zeitkonstanten. Beim Betrieb mehrerer paralleler Wechselrichter wird der Einfluss der Netzimpedanz auf die transiente Lastaufteilung analysiert. Die dritte entworfene Regelstrategie umfasst die Integration der Sekundärregelung in die Primärregelung. Der Ladezustand von Batterien wird mit der Lastaufteilung gekoppelt, um die Autonomie des Netzes zu stärken. Abschließend wird eine Kurzschlussstrategie für netzbildende und netzspeisende Wechselrichter entwickelt. Ziel der Strategie ist die Maximierung des Kurzschlussstromes. Als zusätzliche Randbedingung soll keine Kommunikation zwischen Generatoren stattfinden.

Microgrids

Microgrids
The Path to Sustainability

by Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2021-05-21
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 3036506624
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microgrids are a growing segment of the energy industry, representing a paradigm shift from centralized structures toward more localized, autonomous, dynamic, and bi-directional energy networks, especially in cities and communities. The ability to isolate from the larger grid makes microgrids resilient, while their capability of forming scalable energy clusters permits the delivery of services that make the grid more sustainable and competitive. Through an optimal design and management process, microgrids could also provide efficient, low-cost, clean energy and help to improve the operation and stability of regional energy systems. This book covers these promising and dynamic areas of research and development and gathers contributions on different aspects of microgrids in an aim to impart higher degrees of sustainability and resilience to energy systems.

Design, Control, and Operation of Microgrids in Smart Grids

Design, Control, and Operation of Microgrids in Smart Grids
A Book

by Mehdi Rahmani-Andebili

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 3030646319
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microgrids

Microgrids
Advances in Operation, Control, and Protection

by Amjad Anvari-Moghaddam,Hamdi Abdi,Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo,Nikos Hatziargyriou

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-04-16
  • Pages : 643
  • ISBN : 3030597504
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive overview on the latest developments in the control, operation, and protection of microgrids. It provides readers with a solid approach to analyzing and understanding the salient features of modern control and operation management techniques applied to these systems, and presents practical methods with examples and case studies from actual and modeled microgrids. The book also discusses emerging concepts, key drivers and new players in microgrids, and local energy markets while addressing various aspects from day-ahead scheduling to real-time testing of microgrids. The book will be a valuable resource for researchers who are focused on control concepts, AC, DC, and AC/DC microgrids, as well as those working in the related areas of energy engineering, operations research and its applications to energy systems. Presents modern operation, control and protection techniques with applications to real world and emulated microgrids; Discusses emerging concepts, key drivers and new players in microgrids and local energy markets; Addresses various aspects from day-ahead scheduling to real-time testing of microgrids.

Microgrids

Microgrids
A Book

by Mònica Aragüés-Peñalba,Andreas Sumper

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2020-01-07
  • Pages : 108
  • ISBN : 3039218689
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Electrical power systems are evolving at the generation, transmission, and distribution levels. At distribution level, small generating and storage units—the so-called distributed energy sources (DERs)—are being installed close to consumption sites. The expansion of DERs is empowering renewable energy source integration and, as a consequence, new actors are appearing in electrical systems. Among them, the prosumer is a game-changer; the fruit of the behavior transformation of the consumer who has not only the ability to consume power but also to produce it. Microgrids can be understood as DER installations that have the capability of both grid-connected and grid-isolated operation. During the last decades, there has been a significant deployment of microgrids (e.g., in countries like the United States, Switzerland, and Denmark) and a consequent increase in renewable energy generation. This is contributing to the decarbonization of electrical power systems. However, the variability and intermittency of renewable sources introduce uncertainty, which implies a more complex operation and control. Taking into account that existing and future planned microgrids are being/going to be interconnected to the current electrical network, challenges in terms of design, operation, and control at power system level need to be addressed, considering existing regulations.

Modeling, Control, and Stability Analysis of an Islanded Microgrid

Modeling, Control, and Stability Analysis of an Islanded Microgrid
A Book

by Aboutaleb Haddadi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Economic, technical, and environmental incentives are deriving the energy sector towards a new era of smart distribution networks where coordinated clusters of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and local loads form a microgrid, which has a significant potential to serve as the building block of the next generation power distribution networks. This thesis focuses on modeling, control, and stability analysis of a microgrid which consists of multiple electronically interfaced DER units. An important feature of a microgrid is its capability to disconnect from the host power grid and operate in the islanded mode. In the islanded mode of operation, undesirable dynamic interactions could occur between loads and electronically interfaced DER units due to lack of rotational inertia; in the absence of appropriate controls, these dynamic interactions may result in poor transient performance or even instability of an islanded microgrid. To address these challenges, this thesis proposes a control strategy to enhance transient performance and stability of a droop-controlled microgrid and to enable it to ride through transients caused by such system disturbances as load change, DER unit switching, and change of network topology. The dependency of dynamics on the droop gains, steady-state power flow, and network/load is studied in a droop-controlled DER unit. These dependencies result in poor transient performance or even instability of the network in the event of a disturbance in the system. To eliminate these dependencies, a gain-scheduled decoupling control strategy is proposed which alters the dynamic coupling between the DER unit and the rest of microgrid for better stability and transient performance. The impact of the proposed control on the DER and network dynamics is studied by calculating the eigenvalues of a test microgrid assuming the proposed control. The proposed control is shown to stabilize the microgrid for a range of operating condition. Further, this thesis develops a stability analysis method to study dynamic interaction of loads with a DER units and its impact on small-signal stability of an islanded microgrid. The purpose of this study is to design controls that are insensitive to load dynamics. The proposed stability analysis method: i) is a frequency-domain approach which models the source-load dynamic interaction via a closed-loop system of impedances and admittances; ii) provides a less conservative stability condition compared to existing methods, in the sense of having less restriction on the control system; and iii) establishes a robust stability margin in terms of perturbations in load parameters. The proposed method is used to examine small-signal stability of a test islanded microgrid. The findings of the frequency domain analysis are illustrated through time-domain simulations around the operating point on the system under study. Next, based on the proposed stability analysis method, a controller design methodology has been proposed for a DER unit to design a controller which enhances robust stability against load dynamics.Extensive case studies, based on time-domain simulations in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment, are conducted to evaluate performance of the proposed controllers when the microgrid is subject to various disturbances such as load change, change in network topology, and DER unit outage. Real-time case studies, using OPAL-RT, are also conducted to demonstrate feasibility of hardware implementation and validate controller performance against real-world implementation issues." --

Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids

Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids
Integration, Developments and Control

by Hina Fathima,Prabaharan N,Palanisamy K,Akhtar Kalam,Saad Mekhilef,Jackson J. Justo

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2018-06-02
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 0081024940
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids: Integration, Developments and Control presents the most up-to-date research and developments on hybrid-renewable energy systems (HRES) in a single, comprehensive resource. With an enriched collection of topics pertaining to the control and management of hybrid renewable systems, this book presents recent innovations that are molding the future of power systems and their developing infrastructure. Topics of note include distinct integration solutions and control techniques being implemented into HRES that are illustrated through the analysis of various global case studies. With a focus on devices and methods to integrate different renewables, this book provides those researching and working in renewable energy solutions and power electronics with a firm understanding of the technologies available, converter and multi-level inverter considerations, and control and operation strategies. Includes significant case studies of control techniques and integration solutions which provide a deeper level of understanding and knowledge Combines existing research into a single informative resource on micro grids with HRES integration and control Includes architectural considerations and various control strategies for the operation of hybrid systems

Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids

Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids
Integration, Challenges and Optimization

by Rajeev Kumar Chauhan,Kalpana Chauhan

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-08-17
  • Pages : 554
  • ISBN : 0128177756
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids: Integration, Challenges and Optimization unifies classically unconnected aspects of microgrids by considering them alongside economic analysis and stability testing. In addition, the book presents well-founded mathematical analyses on how to technically and economically optimize microgrids via distributed energy resource integration. Researchers and engineers in the power and energy sector will find this information useful for combined scientific and economical approaches to microgrid integration. Specific sections cover microgrid performance, including key technical elements, such as control design, stability analysis, power quality, reliability and resiliency in microgrid operation. Addresses the challenges related to the integration of renewable energy resources Includes examples of control algorithms adopted during integration Presents detailed methods of optimization to enhance successful integration

Dynamics and Control of Electric Transmission and Microgrids

Dynamics and Control of Electric Transmission and Microgrids
A Book

by K. R. Padiyar,Anil M. Kulkarni

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2019-02-04
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 1119173388
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A guide to the latest developments in grid dynamics and control and highlights the role of transmission and distribution grids Dynamics and Control of Electric Transmission and Microgrids offers a concise and comprehensive review of the most recent developments and research in grid dynamics and control. In addition, the authors present a new style of presentation that highlights the role of transmission and distribution grids that ensure the reliability and quality of electric power supply. The authors — noted experts in the field — offer an introduction to the topic and explore the basic characteristics and operations of the grid. The text also reviews a wealth of vital topics such as FACTS and HVDC Converter controllers, the stability and security issues of the bulk power system, loads which can be viewed as negative generation, the power limits and energy availability when distributed storage is used and much more. This important resource: Puts the focus on the role of transmission and distribution grids that ensure the reliability and quality of electric power supply Includes modeling and control of wind and solar energy generation for secure energy transfer Presents timely coverage of on-line detection of loss of synchronism, wide area measurements and applications, wide-area feedback control systems for power swing damping and microgrids-operation and control Written for students of power system dynamics and control/electrical power industry professionals, Dynamics and Control of Electric Transmission and Microgrids is a comprehensive guide to the recent developments in grid dynamics and control and highlights the role of transmission and distribution grids that ensure the reliability and quality of electric power supply.

Handbook of Distributed Generation

Handbook of Distributed Generation
Electric Power Technologies, Economics and Environmental Impacts

by Ramesh Bansal

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-03-07
  • Pages : 819
  • ISBN : 3319513435
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book features extensive coverage of all Distributed Energy Generation technologies, highlighting the technical, environmental and economic aspects of distributed resource integration, such as line loss reduction, protection, control, storage, power electronics, reliability improvement, and voltage profile optimization. It explains how electric power system planners, developers, operators, designers, regulators and policy makers can derive many benefits with increased penetration of distributed generation units into smart distribution networks. It further demonstrates how to best realize these benefits via skillful integration of distributed energy sources, based upon an understanding of the characteristics of loads and network configuration.

Modeling, Control, Estimation, and Optimization for Microgrids

Modeling, Control, Estimation, and Optimization for Microgrids
A Fuzzy-Model-Based Method

by Zhixiong Zhong

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-11-27
  • Pages : 379
  • ISBN : 1351032445
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Due to increasing economic and environmental pressures, small-scale grids have received increasing attention in the last fifteen years. These renewable sources, such as solar PVs, wind turbines, and fuel cells, integrated with grid, have changed the way we live our lives. This book describes microgrid dynamics modeling and nonlinear control issues from introductory to the advanced steps. The book addresses the most relevant challenges in microgrid protection and control including modeling, uncertainty, stability issues, local control, coordination control, power quality, and economic dispatch.

Smart Microgrids

Smart Microgrids
A Book

by Sasi K. Kottayil

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2020-08-18
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 1000166104
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book addresses the need to understand the development, use, construction, and operation of smart microgrids (SMG). Covering selected major operations of SMG like dynamic energy management, demand response, and demand dispatch, it describes the design and operational challenges of different microgrids and provides feasible solutions for systems. Smart Micro Grid presents communication technologies and governing standards used in developing communication networks for realizing various smart services and applications in microgrids. An architecture facilitating bidirectional communication for smart distribution/microgrid is brought out covering aspects of its design, development and validation. The book is aimed at graduate, research students and professionals in power, power systems, and power electronics. Features: • Covers a broad overview of the benefits, the design and operation requirements, standards and communication requirements for deploying microgrids in distribution systems. • Explores issues related to planning, expansion, operation, type of microgrids, interaction among microgrid and distribution networks, demand response, and the technical requirements for the communication network. • Discusses current standards and common practices to develop and operate microgrids. • Describes technical issues and requirements for operating microgrids. • Illustrates smart communication architecture and protocols.