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Modelling the Flying Bird

Modelling the Flying Bird
A Book

by C.J. Pennycuick

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-08-23
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 9780080557816
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book outlines the principles of flight, of birds in particular. It describes a way of simplifying the mechanics of flight into a practical computer program, which will predict in some detail what any bird, real or hypothetical, can and cannot do. The Flight program, presented on the companion website, generates performance curves for flapping and gliding flight, and simulations of long-distance migration and accounts successfully for the consumption of muscles and other tissues during migratory flights. The program is effectively a working model of a flying bird (or bat or pterosaur) and is the skeleton around which the book is built. The book provides a wider background and then explains how Flight works and shows how to set up and test hypotheses generated by the program. The book and the program are based on adapting the conventional (and well-tested) thinking of aeronautical engineers to the biological problems of bird flight. Their primary aim is to convince biologists that this is the appropriate way to handle problems that involve flight, to make the engineering background accessible to biologists, and to provide a tool kit in the shape of the Flight program, which they can use to solve practical problems involving bird flight and migration. In addition, the book will be readily accessible to engineers who want to know how birds work, and should be of interest to the ever-growing community working on flapping "micro air vehicles" (MAVs). The program can be used to predict the flight performance and capabilities of reconstructed fossil birds and pterosaurs, flying in ancient atmospheres that differ from present conditions, and also, of course, to predict and account for the results of experiments and observations on living birds and bats. * An up to date work by the world's leading expert on bird flight * Examines the biology and biomechanics of bird flight with added reference to the flight of bats and pterosaurs. * Uses proven aeronautical principles to help solve biological issues in understanding and predicting the flight capabilities of birds and other vertebrates. * Provides insights into the evolution of flight and the likely capabilities of extinct birds and reptiles. * Gives a detailed explanation of the science behind, and use of, the author's predictive bird flight simulation program - Flight - which is available on a companion website. * Presents often difficult concepts in easily understood language.

The Simple Science of Flight

The Simple Science of Flight
From Insects to Jumbo Jets

by Hendrik Tennekes

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 201
  • ISBN : 0262513137
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An investigation into how machines and living creatures fly, and of the similarities between butterflies and Boeings, paper airplanes and plovers. From the smallest gnat to the largest aircraft, all things that fly obey the same aerodynamic principles. In The Simple Science of Flight, Henk Tennekes investigates just how machines and creatures fly: what size wings they need, how much energy is required for their journeys, how they cross deserts and oceans, how they take off, climb, and soar. Fascinated by the similarities between nature and technology, Tennekes offers an introduction to flight that teaches by association. Swans and Boeings differ in numerous ways, but they follow the same aerodynamic principles. Biological evolution and its technical counterpart exhibit exciting parallels. What makes some airplanes successful and others misfits? Why does the Boeing 747 endure but the Concorde now seem a fluke? Tennekes explains the science of flight through comparisons, examples, equations, and anecdotes. The new edition of this popular book has been thoroughly revised and much expanded. Highlights of the new material include a description of the incredible performance of bar-tailed godwits (7,000 miles nonstop from Alaska to New Zealand), an analysis of the convergence of modern jetliners (from both Boeing and Airbus), a discussion of the metabolization of energy featuring Lance Armstrong, a novel treatment of the aerodynamics of drag and trailing vortices, and an emphasis throughout on evolution, in nature and in engineering. Tennekes draws on new evidence on bird migration, new wind-tunnel studies, and data on new airliners. And his analysis of the relative efficiency of planes, trains, and automobiles is newly relevant. (On a cost-per-seat scale, a 747 is more efficient than a passenger car.)

Modelling the Bird Flight

Modelling the Bird Flight
A Book

by Herbert Oertel,Sebastian Ruck

  • Publisher : KIT Scientific Publishing
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 3866447612
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Vertebrate Integument Volume 2

The Vertebrate Integument Volume 2
Structure, Design and Function

by Theagarten Lingham-Soliar

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-02-18
  • Pages : 348
  • ISBN : 366246005X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The emphasis in this volume is on the structure and functional design of the integument. The book starts with a brief introduction to some basic principles of physics (mechanics) including Newton’s Three Laws of Motion. These principles are subsequently used to interpret the problems animals encounter in motion. It is in only the last 40 or so years that we have begun to understand how important a role the integument plays in the locomotion of many marine vertebrates. This involves the crossed-fiber architecture, which was first discovered in a classic study on nemertean worms. As a design principle we see that the crossed-fiber architecture is ubiquitous in nature. Research on some of the most dynamic marine vertebrates of the oceans – tuna, dolphins and sharks, and the extinct Jurassic ichthyosaurs – shows precisely how the crossed-fiber architecture contributes to high-speed swimming and (in lamnid sharks) may even aid in energy conservation. However, this design principle is not restricted to animals in the marine biota but is also found as far afield as the dinosaurs and, most recently, has been revealed as a major part of the microstructure of the most complex derivative of the integument, the feather. We see that a variety of phylogenetically diverse vertebrates take to the air by using skin flaps to glide from tree to tree or to the ground, and present detailed descriptions of innovations developed in pursuit of improved gliding capabilities in both extinct and modern day gliders. But the vertebrate integument had even greater things in store, namely true or flapping flight. Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to use the integument as a membrane in true flapping flight and these interesting extinct animals are discussed on the basis of past and cutting-edge research , most intriguingly with respect to the structure of the flight membrane. Bats, the only mammals that fly, also employ integumental flight membranes. Classic research on bat flight is reviewed and supplemented with the latest research, which shows the complexities of the wing beat cycle to be significantly different from that of birds, as revealed by particle image velocimetry. The book’s largest chapter is devoted to birds, given that they make up nearly half of the over 22,000 species of tetrapods. The flight apparatus of birds is unique in nature and is described in great detail, with innovative research highlighting the complexity of the flight structures, bird flight patterns, and behavior in a variety of species. This is complimented by new research on the brains of birds, which shows that they are more complex than previously thought. The feather made bird flight possible, and was itself made possible by β-keratin, contributing to what may be a unique biomechanical microstructure in nature, a topic discussed in some depth. A highly polarized subject concerns the origin of birds and of the feather. Alleged fossilized protofeathers (primal simple feathers) are considered on the basis of histological and taphonomic investigative studies in Chapter 6. Finally, in Chapter 7 we discuss the controversies associated with this field of research. Professor Theagarten Lingham-Soliar works at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth and is an Honorary Professor of Life Sciences at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Birds

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Birds
A Book

by J. Eduardo P. W. Bicudo,William A. Buttemer,Mark A. Chappell

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2010-04-01
  • Pages : 317
  • ISBN : 0199228442
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Birds have colonized almost every terrestrial habitat on the planet - from the poles to the tropics, and from deserts to high mountain tops. This book focuses on our current understanding of the unique physiological characteristics of birds that are of particular interest to ornithologists, but also have a wider biological relevance.

Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases X

Information Modelling and Knowledge Bases X
A Book

by Hannu Jaakkola,Hannu Kangassalo,Eiji Kawaguchi

  • Publisher : IOS Press
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 351
  • ISBN : 9789051994537
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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LISTENING TO MUSIC is designed to help develop and refine the listening skills of your students and inspire a lifelong appreciation of music. Author and award-winning scholar-teacher Craig Wright, who has taught Music Appreciation courses for more than 35 years, is consistently praised by reviewers and other professors for his unparalleled accuracy and his clear, direct, conversational style. Throughout the book, Wright connects with today's students by incorporating comparisons between pop and classical music and by using examples from popular artists to illustrate core concepts. This chronological text succinctly covers traditional Western music from medieval to modern, discussing examples from each historical period within their social contexts and the construction of each piece. Later chapters cover popular music, its impact on musical globalization, and comparisons between Western and non-Western music. LISTENING TO MUSIC is the only text that provides Craig Wright's own Listening Exercises, in the book and online, which help students focus on important musical elements and episodes. A free CD, packaged with each printed copy of the text, includes all of the musical examples for the Part 1 listening exercises. A full set of optional online student resources includes Active Listening Guides, streaming music, an interactive eBook, quizzing, and more--all to challenge your students. All of the music discussed in the text is also available on CD and on Sony Music download cards. Available with InfoTrac Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac.

Birds of Stone

Birds of Stone
Chinese Avian Fossils from the Age of Dinosaurs

by Luis M. Chiappe,Meng Qingjin

  • Publisher : JHU Press
  • Release : 2016-11
  • Pages : 294
  • ISBN : 1421420244
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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When fossils of birds from China’s Jehol region first appeared in scientific circles, the world took notice. These Mesozoic masterpieces are between 120 and 131 million years old and reveal incredible details that capture the diversity of ancient bird life. Paleontologists all over the world began to collaborate with Chinese colleagues as new and wondrous fossil-related discoveries became regular events. The pages of National Geographic and major scientific journals described the intricate views of feathers as well as food still visible in the guts of these ancient birds. Now, for the first time, a sweeping collection of the most interesting of Jehol’s avian fossils is on display in this beautiful book. Birds of Stone makes visible the unexpected avian diversity that blanketed the earth just a short time (geologically speaking) after a dinosaur lineage gave rise to the first birds. Our visual journey through these fossils is guided by Luis M. Chiappe, a world expert on early birds, and Meng Qingjin, a leading figure in China's natural history museum community. Together, they help us understand the "meaning" of each fossil by providing straightforward narratives that accompany the full-page photographs of the Jehol discoveries. Anyone interested in the history of life—from paleontologists to inquisitive birders—will find Birds of Stone an irresistible feast for the eyes and mind.

Behavioral Ecology of Neotropical Birds

Behavioral Ecology of Neotropical Birds
A Book

by Juan Carlos Reboreda,Vanina Dafne Fiorini,Diego Tomás Tuero

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-04-24
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 3030142809
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book covers central aspects of behavioral ecology, including sexual selection, social and genetic mating systems, cooperative breeding, brood parasitism, brood reduction, migration, personalities and communication. Over the past several years, Neotropical bird species from temperate to tropical latitudes of South America have been extensively studied, yielding valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms that drive their behavioral traits. In this book, international experts provide a general overview of main behavioral aspects. They also present the main findings of their work, including experimental approaches to testing the most accepted behavioral theory in their model systems. In closing, they propose new theoretical frameworks and future research directions. As such, the book provides a comprehensive and updated guide for all researchers, students and professionals whose work involves the study and management of birds across the Neotropical region.

Living machines

Living machines
A handbook of research in biomimetics and biohybrid systems

by Tony J. Prescott,Nathan Lepora,Paul F. M. J Verschure

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2018-04-13
  • Pages : 632
  • ISBN : 0191662569
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Contemporary research in the field of robotics attempts to harness the versatility and sustainability of living organisms. By exploiting those natural principles, scientists hope to render a renewable, adaptable, and robust class of technology that can facilitate self-repairing, social, and moral—even conscious—machines. This is the realm of robotics that scientists call "the living machine". Living Machines can be divided into two entities-biomimetic systems, those that harness the principles discovered in nature and embody them in new artifacts, and biohybrid systems, which couple biological entities with synthetic ones. Living Machines: A handbook of research in biomimetic and biohybrid systems surveys this flourishing area of research. It captures the current state of play and points to the opportunities ahead, addressing such fields as self-organization and co-operativity, biologically-inspired active materials, self-assembly and self-repair, learning, memory, control architectures and self-regulation, locomotion in air, on land or in water, perception, cognition, control, and communication. In all of these areas, the potential of biomimetics is shown through the construction of a wide range of different biomimetic devices and animal-like robots. Biohybrid systems is a relatively new field, with exciting and largely unknown potential, but one that is likely to shape the future of humanity. Chapters outline current research in areas including brain-machine interfaces-where neurons are connected to microscopic sensors and actuators-and various forms of intelligent prostheses from sensory devices like artificial retinas, to life-like artificial limbs, brain implants, and virtual reality-based rehabilitation approaches. The handbook concludes by exploring the impact living machine technology will have on both society and the individual, by forcing human beings to question how we see and understand ourselves. With contributions from leading researchers drawing on ideas from science, engineering, and the humanities, this handbook will appeal to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of biomimetic and biohybrid technologies. Researchers in the areas of computational modeling and engineering, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, artificial life, biorobotics, neurorobotics, and human-machine interfaces, will find Living Machines an invaluable resource.

Animal Locomotion

Animal Locomotion
Physical Principles and Adaptations

by Malcolm S. Gordon,Reinhard Blickhan,John O. Dabiri,John J. Videler

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-05-25
  • Pages : 267
  • ISBN : 1351966200
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Animal Locomotion: Physical Principles and Adaptations is a professional-level, state of the art review and reference summarizing the current understanding of macroscopic metazoan animal movement. The comparative biophysics, biomechanics and bioengineering of swimming, flying and terrestrial locomotion are placed in contemporary frameworks of biodiversity, evolutionary process, and modern research methods, including mathematical analysis. The intended primary audience is advanced-level students and researchers primarily interested in and trained in mathematics, physical sciences and engineering. Although not encyclopedic in its coverage, anyone interested in organismal biology, functional morphology, organ systems and ecological physiology, physiological ecology, molecular biology, molecular genetics and systems biology should find this book useful.

Evolutionary Biomechanics

Evolutionary Biomechanics
Selection, Phylogeny, and Constraint

by Graham K. Taylor,Adrian L. R. Thomas

  • Publisher : Oxford Series in Ecology and Evolution
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN : 0198566387
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This title discusses the study of evolution through the analysis of biomechanical systems. Instead of reviewing the entire breadth of the biomechanical literature, a few key examples are explored in depth as vehicles for discussing fundamental concepts, analytical techniques, and evolutionary theory.

Distinct Aerodynamics of Insect-Scale Flight

Distinct Aerodynamics of Insect-Scale Flight
A Book

by Csaba Hefler,Chang-kwon Kang,Huihe Qiu,Wei Shyy

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2021-05-27
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 110887522X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Insect-scale flapping wing flight vehicles can conduct environmental monitoring, disaster assessment, mapping, positioning and security in complex and challenging surroundings. To develop bio-inspired flight vehicles, systematic probing based on the particular category of flight vehicles is needed. This Element addresses the aerodynamics, aeroelasticity, geometry, stability and dynamics of flexible flapping wings in the insect flight regime. The authors highlight distinct features and issues, contrast aerodynamic stability between rigid and flexible wings, present the implications of the wing-aspect ratio, and use canonical models and dragonflies to elucidate scientific insight as well as technical capabilities of bio-inspired design.

Animal Movement Across Scales

Animal Movement Across Scales
A Book

by Lars-Anders Hansson,Susanne Akesson,Susanne Åkesson

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2014
  • Pages : 279
  • ISBN : 0199677182
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adopts a broad, cross-taxonomic approach to animal movement across both temporal and spatial scales; addresses how and why animals move, and in what ways they differ in their locomotion and navigation performance; synthesizes our current knowledge of the genetics of movement/migration, including gene flow and local adaptations; provides a future perspective on how patterns of animal migration may change over time, together with the potential evolutionary consequences.--

Animal Athletes

Animal Athletes
An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach

by Duncan J. Irschick,Timothy E. Higham

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 255
  • ISBN : 0199296553
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Animals perform many athletic tasks to an amazing degree of accomplishment: not only spectacular feats of running and jumping but also routine actions that ensure survival such as feeding, vocalization, diving, flying, and many more. The study of performance capacity (defined as the ability ofan animal to conduct a key task) is of great interest to both ecologists and evolutionary biologists. At an ecological level, how well individuals perform often dictates opportunities for reproduction, occupation of preferred territories, or capturing prey. Therefore, variation in performancecapacities can be a key determinant of variation in fitness within animal populations. At an evolutionary level, variation in function often follows closely from variation in form, and therefore enables animals to invade novel habitats, or to overtake other species. This novel book examines how andwhy animal athletes have evolved. It uses examples from across the animal kingdom and integrates them in the broader context of ecology and evolution, thereby identifying common themes that transcend taxonomic divisions.Animal Athletes is an accessible textbook of particular relevance to undergraduates, graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of evolutionary biology, ecology, vertebrate morphology, and functional morphology, and will also appeal to the interested layperson.

New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics IX

New Results in Numerical and Experimental Fluid Mechanics IX
Contributions to the 18th STAB/DGLR Symposium, Stuttgart, Germany, 2012

by Andreas Dillmann,Gerd Heller,Ewald Krämer,Hans-Peter Kreplin,Wolfgang Nitsche,Ulrich Rist

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2014-01-25
  • Pages : 683
  • ISBN : 3319031589
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents contributions to the 18th biannual symposium of the German Aerospace Aerodynamics Association (STAB). The individual chapters reflect ongoing research conducted by the STAB members in the field of numerical and experimental fluid mechanics and aerodynamics, mainly for (but not limited to) aerospace applications, and cover both nationally and EC-funded projects. By addressing a number of essential research subjects, together with their related physical and mathematics fundamentals, the book provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current research work in the field, as well as its main challenges and new directions. Current work on e.g. high aspect-ratio and low aspect-ratio wings, bluff bodies, laminar flow control and transition, active flow control, hypersonic flows, aeroelasticity, aeroacoustics and biofluid mechanics is exhaustively discussed here.

Aeroecology

Aeroecology
A Book

by Phillip B. Chilson,Winifred F. Frick,Jeffrey F. Kelly,Felix Liechti

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-03-23
  • Pages : 497
  • ISBN : 3319685767
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book consists of a diverse collection of chapters that seeks to broaden our fundamental understanding of the ecological function and biological importance of the Earth’s lower atmosphere, which provides a huge living space for billions of animals moving within and across continents. Their migration, dispersal and foraging activities connect water and land habitats within and across continents. Drawing upon the wide-ranging experience of the authors, the book takes an inherently interdisciplinary approach that serves to introduce the reader to the topic of aeroecology, frame some of the basic biological questions that can be addressed within the context of aeroecology, and highlight several existing and emerging technologies that are being used to promote aeroecological studies. The book begins with several background chapters, that provide introduction into such topics as atmospheric science, the concept of the habitat, animal physiology, and methods of navigation. It then continues with a broad discussion of observational methods available to and used by aeroecologists. Finally, several targeted examples of aeroecological studies are presented. Following the development of the chapters, the reader is provided with a unifying framework for investigating how the dynamic properties of meteorological conditions at local, regional, and global scales affect the organisms that depend on the air for foraging and movement. Material presented in the book should be of interest to anyone wishing to gain a comprehensive understanding of the aerosphere itself and the myriad airborne organisms that inhabit and depend upon this environment for their existence. The material should be accessible to a diverse set of readers at all stages of training and across a range of research expertise.

Living Dinosaurs

Living Dinosaurs
The Evolutionary History of Modern Birds

by Dr. Gareth Dyke,Gary Kaiser

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2011-02-15
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN : 1119990459
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Living Dinosaurs offers a snapshot of our current understanding of the origin and evolution of birds. After slumbering for more than a century, avian palaeontology has been awakened by startling new discoveries on almost every continent. Controversies about whether dinosaurs had real feathers or whether birds were related to dinosaurs have been swept away and replaced by new and more difficult questions: How old is the avian lineage? How did birds learn to fly? Which birds survived the great extinction that ended the Mesozoic Era and how did the avian genome evolve? Answers to these questions may help us understand how the different kinds of living birds are related to one another and how they evolved into their current niches. More importantly, they may help us understand what we need to do to help them survive the dramatic impacts of human activity on the planet.

Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts

Wind Energy and Wildlife Impacts
Balancing Energy Sustainability with Wildlife Conservation

by Regina Bispo,Joana Bernardino,Helena Coelho,José Lino Costa

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-03-25
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN : 3030055205
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a state-of-art overview of the significant advances in understanding the impacts of wind energy on wildlife. However, many challenges remain regarding planning and policy, assessment of direct and indirect effects on wildlife, methodological approaches, technology development, and mitigation strategies and their effectiveness. The book comprises a selection of the best contributions presented at the 4th Conference on Wind energy and Wildlife impacts, held in Estoril, Portugal, 2017. The contents promote the international cooperation among researchers, developers, regulators and stakeholders that have contributed to building knowledge on this topic.

Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation

Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation
A Book

by Rick A. Adams,Scott C. Pedersen

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-09-05
  • Pages : 547
  • ISBN : 1461473977
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent advances in the study of bats have changed the way we understand this illusive group of mammals. This volume consist of 25 chapters and 57 authors from around the globe all writing on the most recent finding on the evolution, ecology and conservation of bats. The chapters in this book are not intended to be exhaustive literature reviews, but instead extended manuscripts that bring new and fresh perspectives. Many chapters consist of previously unpublished data and are repetitive of new insights and understanding in bat evolution, ecology and conservation. All chapters were peer-reviewed and revised by the authors. Many of the chapters are multi-authored to provide comprehensive and authoritative coverage of the topics.

Vultures

Vultures
Their Evolution, Ecology and Conservation

by Michael O'Neal Campbell

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-06-26
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 1482223627
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book reexamines current knowledge on the evolution, ecology, and conservation biology of both New World vultures (Cathartidae) and Old World vultures (Accipitridae) and seeks answers to past and present regional extinctions, colorizations, and conservation questions. Extinct species of both families are examined, as is the disputed evidence fo