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Models of the Ecological Hierarchy

Models of the Ecological Hierarchy
From Molecules to the Ecosphere

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2012-12-31
  • Pages : 594
  • ISBN : 0444594051
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the application of statistics to ecological inference problems, hierarchical models combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are applied in this book to a wide range of problems ranging from the molecular level, through populations, ecosystems, landscapes, networks, through to the global ecosphere. Provides an excellent introduction to modelling Collects together in one source a wide range of modelling techniques Covers a wide range of topics, from the molecular level to the global ecosphere

A Steady-state Model of Ecological Hierarchy

A Steady-state Model of Ecological Hierarchy
A Book

by Grant Garrison Thompson

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1984
  • Pages : 293
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A generalized mathematical model of ecosystems is developed. The model begins with the general class of systems known as state-determined systems, in which the time-derivative of each state variable is a function of some subset of the set of all system state variables and .environmental parameters. A formal basis is presented for considering the steady-state behavior of such systems in terms of isoclines, drawing upon the fields of graph theory, linear algebra, and differential equations. The simplifying capabilities of hierarchy theory are invoked to mitigate the adverse effects of model complexity. Like the theory of isocline analysis, the particular formulation of hierarchy theory presented is phrased in graph-theoretic terms, enabling the model to be developed as a technique for analyzing the steady-state behavior of hierarchical systems. The role of inter-level time scale heterogeneity in hierarchical organization is discussed. As an illustration of its ability to portray the behavior of spatially-nested hierarchies, the model is used to provide a perspective on data from the climax vegetation of the Great Smoky Mountains. The effects of time scale heterogeneity are also illustrated by using the model to organize data sets from several vegetation/avian communities across the United States. The vegetation is taken to behave with a lower characteristic frequency than the relatively rapidly-developing avian subcommunity, thus constraining the latter in a hierarchical fashion. In order to understand in a more general way the role such a model might play in advancing ecological understanding, a broad framework is presented for analyzing the role of conceptual structures in science and the place of models in these structures. A view of models as scientific metaphors is advanced as an alternative to the pictorial/realist interpretation of models. Given this understanding of models in general, the proposed model and its underlying assumptions are compared and contrasted with a set of four partial conceptual structures drawn from the fields of systems ecology, plant ecology, natural resource economics, and organismic systems theory.

Integrated Regional Models

Integrated Regional Models
Interactions between Humans and their Environment

by Peter Groffman,Gene E. Likens

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 157
  • ISBN : 1468464477
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Integrated regional models are conceptual and mathematical models that describe the physical environment, biological interactions, human decision-making, and human impact on the environment. Efforts are now being made to integrate regional models from the physical, biological and social sciences in order to respond to diverse environmental problems. This volume explores the latest research developments on processes operating at a variety of scales, including regions, and how scientists can combine their efforts to develop models linking biological, physical, and human systems. Data requirements for successful integrated regional models are identified and discussed. Chapters also consider methodological questions, such as whether to integrate disciplinary approaches at the beginning or the end of the modelling process, and whether integrated regional models should focus on specific regions or specific problems. The information in this volume will enable the reader to view problems such as coastal zone management, atmospheric pollution, non-point source pollution, commodity production in forested areas, and urban expansion in a broad, conceptual context. Researchers and graduate students in ecology, biology, geography and geology will benefit from this innovative approach to contemporary environmental problems.

Grassland structure and function

Grassland structure and function
California annual grassland

by L.F. Huenneke,H.A. Mooney

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN : 9400931131
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The chapters in this volume are based on a opportumtles for studying the links between symposium, "California grasslands: structure abiotic and biotic components. and productivity", supported by the National The contributions in this volume illustrate Science Foundation. The primary objective of the links between population-level processes this symposium was to integrate the current and system-level phenomena in a well-studied understanding of controls on ecosystem struc community. Unfortunately, some areas of cur ture and function with the approaches of popu rent research (e.g., nutrient cycling) are under lation biology. The annual grasslands are represented in this volume. For other topics eminently suitable for experimental and manip (particularly the role of invertebrate con sumers), the lack of data from the annual grass ulative studies of ecosystem processes. The short lives and small stature of the component land brought a broader grassland perspective. plant species make experimental work far more Together, however, the contributions illustrate practical than in forests or even in perennial the importance of different ecological ap dominated prairies. The system's small-scale proaches in studying the controls on structure patchiness, and the obvious importance of and function of a complex system. the region's mediterranean climate in the life cycle of the annual vegetation, afford many L.F. Huenneke and H.A. Mooney Huenneke, L.F. and Mooney, H. (eds) Grassland Structure and Function: California Annual Grassland.

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Encyclopedia of Ecology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 2014-11-03
  • Pages : 3120
  • ISBN : 008091456X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication

Forest Dynamics

Forest Dynamics
An Ecological Model

by Daniel B. Botkin

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 309
  • ISBN : 0195065557
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Offering a fresh perspective on ecological phenomena, this book provides all the information necessary to understand and use the JABOWA simulation model of forest growth. It sets the forest model within the broader context of the science of ecology and the ecological issues that confront society in the management of forests.

Ecological Modeling

Ecological Modeling
An Introduction to the Art and Science of Modeling Ecological Systems

by Hsiao-Hsuan Wang,W. E. Grant

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-08-14
  • Pages : 302
  • ISBN : 0444641645
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ecological Modeling: An Introduction to the Art and Science of Modeling Ecological Systems, Volume 31, presents the skills needed to appropriately evaluate and use ecological models. Illustrated throughout with practical examples, the book discusses ecological modeling as both an art and a science, balancing the qualitative (artistic) side, with its foundations in common sense and modeling practice, against the quantitative (scientific) aspects of the modeling process. This book draws on the authors’ extensive experience in both teaching and using these techniques to provide readers with a practical, user-friendly guide that supports and encourages the appropriate, effective use of these tools. Provides readers with a commonsense understanding of the systems perspective and its foundations in general system theory Highlights the importance of a solid understanding of the qualitative aspects of the modeling process Facilitates the ability to appropriately evaluate and use ecological models Supports learning with a variety of simple examples to instill the desire and confidence to embark upon the modeling experience

Ecological Understanding

Ecological Understanding
The Nature of Theory and the Theory of Nature

by Steward T.A. Pickett,Jurek Kolasa,Clive G. Jones

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • Pages : 206
  • ISBN : 0080504973
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ecology is an historical science in which theories can be as difficult to test as they are to devise. This volume, intended for ecologists and evolutionary biologists, reviews ecological theories, and how they are generated, evaluated, and categorized. Synthesizing a vast and sometimes labyrinthine literature, this book is a useful entry into the scientific philosophy of ecology and natural history. The need for integration of the contributions to theory made by different disciplines is a central theme of this book. The authors demonstrate that only through such integration will advances in ecological theory be possible. Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, and other serious students of natural history will want this book.

Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modelling

Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modelling
A Book

by W.K. Lauenroth,G.V. Skogerboe,M. Flug

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-10-22
  • Pages : 995
  • ISBN : 0444597654
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The International Society for Ecological Modelling (ISEM) sponsors conferences, workshops and training courses with the aim of advancing the development of ecological and environmental modelling. The 3rd International Conference on the state-of-the-art in ecological modelling was sponsored by the ISEM in cooperation with the National Park Service Water Resources Laboratory and hosted by the Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory at Colorado State University. Its theme was the application of ecological modelling to environmental management and this book contains the full texts of the three invited papers presented in the five general sessions, plus the final summaries and syntheses of the topics covered during those sessions.

Time and Methods in Environmental Interfaces Modelling

Time and Methods in Environmental Interfaces Modelling
Personal Insights

by Dragutin T Mihailovic,Igor Balaž,Darko Kapor

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2016-10-31
  • Pages : 412
  • ISBN : 0444639233
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Time and Methods in Environmental Interfaces Modelling: Personal Insights considers the use of time in environmental interfaces modeling and introduce new methods, from the global scale (e.g. climate modeling) to the micro scale (e.g. cell and nanotubes modeling), which primarily arise from the personal research insights of the authors. As the field of environmental science requires the application of new fundamental approaches that can lead to a better understanding of environmental phenomena, this book helps necessitate new approaches in modeling, including category theory, that follow new achievements in physics, mathematics, biology, and chemistry. Includes the use of new mathematical tools, such as category theory, mathematical theory of general systems and formal concept analysis, matrix theory tools, stability analysis, and pseudospectra Presents new content related to time in relation to physics and biology Combines the word of an experienced author team with over 35 papers of collective experience

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Introduction to Systems Ecology
A Book

by Sven Erik Jorgensen

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 143985520X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

PSA

PSA
Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association

by Peter D. Asquith

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 478
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Organizational Evolution and Strategic Management

Organizational Evolution and Strategic Management
A Book

by Rodolphe Durand

  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release : 2006-04-25
  • Pages : 200
  • ISBN : 1847878083
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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`I have no doubt this book will be read and used time and again by any scholar working within the evolutionary approach to organizations. I believe that it will also be of great interest to strategy scholars' - Management `Rodolphe Durand has a compelling message for the growing community of evolutionary researchers in organization studies. Evolutionary researchers need to attend more carefully to historical and contemporary debates in the biological sciences if they are to avoid false tracks and simplisitic analogies. Durand offers here the foundations of a distinctive and authentic evolutionary theory that takes organizations seriously for what they are' - Richard Whittington, Oxford University `This book fills an important gap in the study of organizations and strategy from an evolutionary perspective. It offers a synthetic approach to evolutionary analysis with grounded empirical examples that graduate students and seasoned scholars alike will find immensely useful. Durand's OES model, rooted in a critical examination of philosophical and scientific writings on evolution, is particularly promising and provides a valuable guidepost for future research on organizations and strategic management' - Michael Lounsbury, University of Alberta How is economic evolutionary theory, in which organisations evolve according to environmental selection, reconciled with evidence of strategic management? This book is the first of its kind to propose a solution to this theoretical puzzle and engage readers in a balanced understanding of organizational evolution. Rodolphe Durand embarks upon a fresh assessment of the literature. His discoveries provide the foundation for a new theory of organizational selection and an organizational evolution and strategy model that reconciles economic evolution with strategic intentionality. Chapters include an examination of the work by Lamarck, Darwin and Spencer; a constructive appraisal of evolutionary theory applied to organisations and a summary of how the organizational evolution and strategy model will affect future theory and research. - An associated web site with further information can be found at: http://studies.hec.fr/web/durand

Ecology, Cognition and Landscape

Ecology, Cognition and Landscape
Linking Natural and Social Systems

by Almo Farina

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2009-11-23
  • Pages : 161
  • ISBN : 9048131375
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is more and more evident that our living system is completely disturbed by human intrusion. Such intrusion affects the functioning of entire systems in ways we do not yet fully understand. We use paradigms such as the disturbance to cover large and deep gaps in our scienti?c knowledge. Human ecology is an uncertain terrain for anthropologists, geographers, and ecologists and rarely is expanded to include the social and economic realms. The integration of different disciplines and the application of their many paradigms to problems of environmental complexity remains a distant goal despite the many efforts that have been made to achieve it. Philosophical and semantic barriers are erected when such integration is pursued by pioneering scientists. Recently, evolutionary ecology has shown great interest in the spatial processes well described by the emerging discipline of landscape ecology. But this interest takes the form of pure curiosity or at worst, of skepticism toward the real capacity of landscape ecology to contribute to the advancement of ecological science. The past two centuries have been characterized by huge changes occurring in the entire ecosphere. Global changes are the effects of human intervention at a planetary scale, with consequent degradation of the environment creating an e- logical debt for future generations. On the other side of the issue, new technologies have improved the welfare of billions of people and have given hope to many other billions that they may also see such improvement in the near future.

Handbook of Ecological Models used in Ecosystem and Environmental Management

Handbook of Ecological Models used in Ecosystem and Environmental Management
A Book

by Sven Erik Jorgensen

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 636
  • ISBN : 1439818134
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is estimated that roughly 1000 new ecological and environmental models join the ranks of the scientific literature each year. The international peer-reviewed literature reports some 20,000 new models spanning the period from 1970-2010. Just to keep abreast of the field it is necessary to design a handbook of models that doesn't merely list them,

Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology: Analysis of distribution, abundance and species richness in R and BUGS

Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology: Analysis of distribution, abundance and species richness in R and BUGS
Volume 1:Prelude and Static Models

by Marc Kery,J. Andrew Royle

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2015-11-14
  • Pages : 808
  • ISBN : 0128014865
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology: Distribution, Abundance, Species Richness offers a new synthesis of the state-of-the-art of hierarchical models for plant and animal distribution, abundance, and community characteristics such as species richness using data collected in metapopulation designs. These types of data are extremely widespread in ecology and its applications in such areas as biodiversity monitoring and fisheries and wildlife management. This first volume explains static models/procedures in the context of hierarchical models that collectively represent a unified approach to ecological research, taking the reader from design, through data collection, and into analyses using a very powerful class of models. Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology, Volume 1 serves as an indispensable manual for practicing field biologists, and as a graduate-level text for students in ecology, conservation biology, fisheries/wildlife management, and related fields. Provides a synthesis of important classes of models about distribution, abundance, and species richness while accommodating imperfect detection Presents models and methods for identifying unmarked individuals and species Written in a step-by-step approach accessible to non-statisticians and provides fully worked examples that serve as a template for readers' analyses Includes companion website containing data sets, code, solutions to exercises, and further information

Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences

Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-10-08
  • Pages : 380
  • ISBN : 0444635432
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advanced Modelling Techniques Studying Global Changes in Environmental Sciences discusses the need for immediate and effective action, guided by a scientific understanding of ecosystem function, to alleviate current pressures on the environment. Research, especially in Ecological Modeling, is crucial to support the sustainable development paradigm, in which the economy, society, and the environment are integrated and positively reinforce each other. Content from this book is drawn from the 2013 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM), an important and active research community contributing to this arena. Some progress towards gaining a better understanding of the processes of global change has been achieved, but much more is needed. This conference provides a forum to present current research using models to investigate actions towards mitigating and adapting to change. Presents state-of-the-art modeling techniques Drawn from the 2013 conference of the International Society for Ecological Modeling (ISEM), an important and active research community contributing to this arena Integrates knowledge of advanced modeling techniques in ecological and environmental sciences Describes new applications for sustainability

Managing Organizations in the Information Society

Managing Organizations in the Information Society
A Book

by Managing Organizations in the Information Society,Krzysztof Woźniak

  • Publisher : Mfiles pl
  • Release : 2014-09-16
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN : 8393510430
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This publication presents the strategies for managing organizations in the information society. In the conditions of rapid changes in economic environment it is necessary to seek new opportunities for the organization’s development and improvement. The proven methods for ensuring sustained growth turn out to be ineffective in the new information society. Therefore it is important to adapt strategies of organizations to changing requirements and conditions.

Sustainability

Sustainability
A Philosophy of Adaptive Ecosystem Management

by Bryan G. Norton

  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release : 2005-11
  • Pages : 607
  • ISBN : 0226595218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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While many disciplines contribute to environmental conservation, there is little successful integration of science and social values. Arguing that the central problem in conservation is a lack of effective communication, Bryan Norton shows in Sustainability how current linguistic resources discourage any shared, multidisciplinary public deliberation over environmental goals and policy. In response, Norton develops a new, interdisciplinary approach to defining sustainability—the cornerstone of environmental policy—using philosophical and linguistic analyses to create a nonideological vocabulary that can accommodate scientific and evaluative environmental discourse. Emphasizing cooperation and adaptation through social learning, Norton provides a practical framework that encourages an experimental approach to language clarification and problem formulation, as well as an interdisciplinary approach to creating solutions. By moving beyond the scientific arena to acknowledge the importance of public discourse, Sustainability offers an entirely novel approach to environmentalism.

The Wildlife Techniques Manual

The Wildlife Techniques Manual
Volume 1: Research. Volume 2: Management.

by Nova J. Silvy

  • Publisher : Johns Hopkins University Press
  • Release : 2020-07-28
  • Pages : 1400
  • ISBN : 1421436698
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This deft and thorough update ensures that The Wildlife Techniques Manual will remain an indispensable resource, one that professionals and students in wildlife biology, conservation, and management simply cannot do without.