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Nanocarriers for Cancer Diagnosis and Targeted Chemotherapy

Nanocarriers for Cancer Diagnosis and Targeted Chemotherapy
A Book

by Muhammad Raza Shah,Muhammad Imran,Shafi Ullah

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-07-13
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN : 0128163119
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanocarriers for Cancer Diagnosis and Targeted Chemotherapy reviews the principles and applications of nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. Drug targeting involves active and passive strategies that exploit both the use of ligands for interactions and the physical and chemical properties of nanocarriers and micro-environments at target sites. Multidrug resistance and adverse side effects associated with anticancer drugs have attracted greater scientific attention and led formulation scientists to specifically target these drugs to target sites. Nanocarriers like liposomes, niosomes, gold nanorods, carbon nanotubes, and micelles are discussed for the delivery of drugs to specific disease sites. This is an important reference source for researchers in the biomedical and biomaterials fields who want to gain an understanding on how nanotechnology is used for earlier diagnoses and more effective cancer treatment. Explores the fundamental principles of drug targeting through different nano-carriers, highlighting major applications Shows how the use of nanocarriers is leading to quicker cancer diagnosis and more effective treatment Discusses the major challenges of using nanocarriers for drug delivery and assesses how to overcome these barriers

Lipid Nanocarriers in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

Lipid Nanocarriers in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
A Book

by Eliana Souto

  • Publisher : Smithers Rapra
  • Release : 2011-06-30
  • Pages : 557
  • ISBN : 1847354793
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lipid Nanocarriers in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy fills a need for an accurate, coherent and authoritative introduction to lipid nanocarriers focusing in cancer therapy; both because of the growing popularity of these modern drug delivery systems and also because of the emergent need of dealing with cancer treatment. This handbook deals with lipid nanocarriers for targeted delivery to tumours of various organs and combination of these with other methods of treatment of cancer such as radiotherapy, diagnostic and imaging analysis. Lipid nanocarriers are also used for gene therapy for cancer.

Nanomedicine for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

Nanomedicine for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
A Book

by Arshi Malik,Sarah Afaq,Mohammed Tarique

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-08-01
  • Pages : 249
  • ISBN : 9811575649
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book reviews the current applications and future prospects of nanomaterials in cancer diagnostics and therapy. Nanomaterials have recently emerged as a remarkable and promising tool for cancer therapy and diagnosis, due to their broad range of intrinsic molecular properties. To overcome the current limitations of nanoparticles in drug delivery systems, attempts have been made to synthesize nanoparticles from biological materials for targeted cancer therapy. This book provides concise evaluations of various potential bio-inspired platforms that mimic natural components of the body and offer effective and versatile drug delivery systems for cancer therapy. It also assesses the potential of nanoparticles to enhance the outcomes of cancer immunotherapy via immune cell activation and tumor microenvironment modulation. The book also summarizes in the applications of nanomaterials for the detection, prevention, and treatment of solid tumors and in the treatment of leukemia and lymphomas. In closing, it discusses ethical issues in nanomedicine, including risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication during clinical trials. The book offers offers a valuable source of information for students, academics, researchers, scientists, clinicians, and healthcare professionals working in nanotechnology and cancer research.

Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy: Novel Concepts, Mechanisms and Applications

Nanoparticles in Cancer Therapy: Novel Concepts, Mechanisms and Applications
A Book

by Qingxin Mu,Bing Yan

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-04-03
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889458105
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since the invention of nanomedicine decades ago, considerable progresses have been made, especially with cancer as a target. Nanoparticles have been proven to be powerful imaging tools or potent agents for cancer diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Active research spread from fundamental research to clinical investigations. This topic intends to cover several important aspects in this field including nanocarrier development, gene delivery, intrinsically active nanoparticles, tumor microenvironment, immunology, and toxicity.

Multifunctional Theranostic Nanomedicines in Cancer

Multifunctional Theranostic Nanomedicines in Cancer
A Book

by Malay K. Das

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-03-26
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN : 0128217006
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Multifunctional Theranostic Nanomedicines in Cancer focuses on new trends, applications, and the significance of novel multifunctional nanotheranostics in cancer imaging for diagnosis and treatment. Cancer nanotechnology offers new opportunities for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles harboring various functions—including targeting, imaging, and therapy—have been intensively studied with the goal of overcoming the limitations of conventional cancer diagnosis and therapy. Thus theranostic nanomedicines have emerged in recent years to provide an efficient and safer alternative in cancer management. This book covers polymer-based therapies, lipid-based therapies, inorganic particle-based therapies, photo-related therapies, radiotherapies, chemotherapies, and surgeries. Multifunctional Theranostic Nanomedicines in Cancer offers an indispensable guide for researchers in academia, industry, and clinical settings; it is also ideal for postgraduate students; and formulation scientists working on cancer. Provides a comprehensive resource of recent scientific progress and novel applications of theranostic nanomedicines Discusses treatment options from a pharmaceutical sciences perspective Includes translational science and targeted CNS cancer treatment

Development of multifunctional poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy and imaging

Development of multifunctional poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy and imaging
A Book

by Ruhani Singh

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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[Truncated] Nanoparticle based chemotherapy has been predicated to be one of the frontrunners in the field of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Currently, nanoparticle-mediated cancer targeted therapy mainly relies on the abnormal tumor microenvironment for distribution and retention of the nanoparticles. The design and development of multifunctional second-generation nanoparticles seek to expand upon the benefits of these firstgeneration nanoparticles by combining therapeutic and diagnostic functions within a single formulation and are commonly referred to as theranostic agents. These agents can simultaneously deliver imaging probes and therapeutics to specific sites or organs, enabling detection and treatment of disease in a single procedure. Theranostic agents are expected to inform us about localization of the drug and pathological processes longitudinally. This will help make informed decisions about timing, dosage, drug choice, and treatment strategies. However, any additional design feature in drug development will come at the cost of additional regulatory, production, and financial hurdles. The trade-off between these costs and clinical benefit will be highly dependent on the choices made when designing drug nanoparticles. Considering these aforementioned criteria, for successful clinical translation, preclinical development of a multifunctional nanoformulation needs to encompass utilization of simple and efficient conjugation methodologies, pertinent yet readily available and cost-effective targeting ligands, and assessment of efficacy in relevant animal models that mimic the clinical situation. The work presented in this thesis is a systematic progression from development to validation of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) based multifunctional nanoparticles as versatile nanocarriers for receptor-mediated targeted delivery, in models of ovarian and prostate cancers, in vitro and in vivo respectively. The availability of the epoxide functionality in PGMA enables efficient functionalization through nucleophilic ring opening reactions making PGMA an ideal platform for the conjugation of targeting ligands.

Nanoparticles in Lung Cancer Therapy - Recent Trends

Nanoparticles in Lung Cancer Therapy - Recent Trends
A Book

by Abhijit Bandyopadhyay,Tamalika Das,Sabina Yeasmin

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2014-11-14
  • Pages : 65
  • ISBN : 8132221753
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This brief provides an insight into the present scenario of the role of nanotechnology in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer at an early stage. Currently, lung cancer is the subject of major concern owing to the very high mortality rate throughout the world. Most of the conventional treatment methods such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, etc., fail to prolong life of the patients. Incidents of recurrence are also very common in case of lung cancer. Researchers have shown that nanoparticles may act as a powerful anti cancer tool, especially for lung cancer. Unique surface properties and easy surface functionalization of nanoparticles enable early detection, diagnosis, imaging and treatment of lung cancer. The authors have elaborately presented how various nanoparticles (natural, semi synthetic and synthetic) may help in the treatment of lung cancer. They have also detailed works of various scientists who succeeded in developing effective nanoparticles and enabled very specific lung cancer therapy without any undesirable side effects and minimized death.

Advances in Cancer Treatment

Advances in Cancer Treatment
From Systemic Chemotherapy to Targeted Therapy

by Iago Dillion Lima Cavalcanti,José Cleberson Santos Soares

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 109
  • ISBN : 3030683346
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This work covers the pathophysiology of cancer, exploring the difficulty of optimal treatment due to the complexity and diversity of cancer types. The search for distinctive molecular biology characteristics of tumor cells is especially relevant in the identification of overexpressed receptors and proteins that can be used as a target for cancer treatment. We highlight the main therapeutic modalities, particularly conventional systemic chemotherapy, addressing its mechanisms of action, therapeutic classes and even the toxic effects. We also describe the main tumor markers, their importance in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and the specificity of tumor cells. The first chapters serve as an introduction to the central topic of this book, targeted therapy. Key aspects of target therapy, such as classes of drugs, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, checkpoint inhibitors, cancer vaccines and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are presented, and, for each one, the benefits, as well as the adverse effects are reported. Chapter 6 compares conventional systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapy, identifies the risks and benefits and also the eligibility criteria for patient care. The possibility of targeted therapy replacing conventional chemotherapy is discussed while reviewing studies that demonstrate the benefits of combining both types of treatment. Finally, the introduction of pharmaceutical nanotechnology to improve antineoplastic agents is addressed in the last chapter and sets the direction for future research in cancer treatment. This is a valuable resource for many health professionals including physicians, pharmacists, nurses, researchers and students interested in the field of oncology.

Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine
Chapter 2. Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

by Marc J. Williams,Serena A. Corr

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-09-19
  • Pages : 196
  • ISBN : 0128055405
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The past two decades have seen a surge in the development and application of nanoparticles for biomedical uses, with a focused effort on engineering particles for ‘theranostic’ applications where diagnosis and disease treatment are possible using a single platform. Magnetic nanoparticles, in particular, are ideal candidates for this kind of multimodal action, given their potential use spans magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, magnetic hyperthermia and targeted drug delivery. This is due to unique properties their size bestows on them. Here, we examine these properties of magnetic nanoparticles and how they govern the particle efficacy for a desired application. Given the intimate link between synthetic approach chosen and subsequent properties, we will also discuss typical and emerging routes to magnetic nanoparticle preparation. We will, in detail, describe the uses of magnetic nanoparticles as diagnostic and therapeutic tools, with particular emphasis on their use as MR contrast agents and the most recent developments in targeted drug delivery. Finally, we will present an outlook for the future of these important materials.

Magnetic Nanoparticles in Human Health and Medicine

Magnetic Nanoparticles in Human Health and Medicine
Current Medical Applications and Alternative Therapy of Cancer

by Costica Caizer,Mahendra Rai

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-09-08
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 1119754747
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Explores the application of magnetic nanoparticles in drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, and alternative cancer therapy Magnetic Nanoparticles in Human Health and Medicine addresses recent progress in improving diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and using non-invasive and non-toxic magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. Focusing on cancer diagnosis and therapy, the book covers both fundamental principles and advanced theoretical and experimental research on the magnetic properties, biocompatibilization, biofunctionalization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. Chapters written by a panel of international specialists in the field of magnetic nanoparticles and their applications in biomedicine cover magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), MRI contrast agents, biomedical imaging, modeling and simulation, nanobiotechnology, toxicity issues, and more. Readers are provided with accurate information on the use of magnetic nanoparticles in diagnosis, drug delivery, and therapeutics—featuring discussion of current problems, proposed solutions, and future research directions. Topics include magnetic nanoparticles with antioxidant activity, iron oxide nanoparticles in nanomedicine, superparamagnetic hyperthermia in clinical trials, and simulating the physics of magnetic particle heating for biomedical applications. This comprehensive volume: Covers both general research on magnetic nanoparticles in medicine and specific applications in cancer therapeutics Discusses the use of magnetic nanoparticles in alternative cancer therapy by magnetic and superparamagnetic hyperthermia Explores targeted medication delivery using magnetic nanoparticles as a future replacement of conventional techniques Reviews the use of MRI with magnetic nanoparticles to increase the diagnostic accuracy of medical imaging Magnetic Nanoparticles in Human Health and Medicine is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of nanomagnetism, nanomaterials, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoengineering, biopharmaceuticals nanobiotechnologies, nanomedicine,and biopharmaceuticals, particularly those focused on cancer diagnosis and therapeutics.

New Nanomaterials and Techniques for Tumor-targeted Systems

New Nanomaterials and Techniques for Tumor-targeted Systems
A Book

by Rongqin Huang,Yi Wang

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-09-28
  • Pages : 463
  • ISBN : 9811551596
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book summarizes the latest advances in nanomaterials and techniques in the field of tumor-targeted diagnosis and therapy. It provides valuable information for beginners and senior researchers, and stimulates new research directions by offering novel and provocative insights into the properties and technical principles of nanomaterials. The book systemically discusses the challenges in tumor treatment, current tumor-targeted strategies, drug-release strategies, diagnosis and therapeutic patterns, and also explores newly developed multifunctional nanomaterials and related systems.

Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Promising Tool for Anti-cancer Therapeutics

Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Promising Tool for Anti-cancer Therapeutics
A Book

by Prashant Kesharwani,Kishore M. Paknikar,Virendra Gajbhiye

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-07-08
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0128173319
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Polymeric Nanoparticles as Promising Tool for Anti-cancer Therapeutics provides an understanding of polymeric compounds and their use in cancer therapies. The book begins by giving an overview of the current status, future challenges and potential utilization of polymeric nanoparticles. It then covers specific polymeric nanoparticles through contributions from world-renowned experts and researchers. Chapters examine specific polymeric nanoparticles, their development as potential targeted delivery systems, and cancer characteristics that can be targeted for therapy development. The book synthesizes current research trends in the field, thus enhancing existing knowledge of nanomedicine, drug delivery and therapeutic intervention strategies in human cancers. Users will find this to be an ideal reference for research scientists and those in the pharmaceutical and medical fields who are working to develop novel cancer therapies using nanoparticle-based delivery systems. Explores the development of polymeric nanoparticle systems for the purpose of cancer therapy Presents thoroughly analyzed data and results regarding the usage of polymeric nanoparticles-based platforms for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer Highlights various cancer characteristics that can be targeted for therapeutic development using polymeric nanoparticles

Cancer Nanotheranostics: What Have We Learned So Far?

Cancer Nanotheranostics: What Have We Learned So Far?

by João Conde,Pedro Viana Baptista,Jesús M De La Fuente,Furong Tian

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-03-17
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 288919776X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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After a quarter of century of rapid technological advances, research has revealed the complexity of cancer, a disease intimately related to the dynamic transformation of the genome. However, the full understanding of the molecular onset of this disease is still far from achieved and the search for mechanisms of treatment will follow closely. It is here that Nanotechnology enters the fray offering a wealth of tools to diagnose and treat cancer. In fact, the National Cancer Institute predicts that over the next years, nanotechnology will result in important advances in early detection, molecular imaging, targeted and multifunctional therapeutics, prevention and control of cancer. Nanotechnology offers numerous tools to diagnose and treat cancer, such as new imaging agents, multifunctional devices capable of overcome biological barriers to deliver therapeutic agents directly to cells and tissues involved in cancer growth and metastasis, and devices capable of predicting molecular changes to prevent action against precancerous cells. Nanomaterials-based delivery systems in Theranostics (Diagnostics & Therapy) provide better penetration of therapeutic and diagnostic substances within the body at a reduced risk in comparison to conventional therapies. At the present time, there is a growing need to enhance the capability of theranostics procedures where nanomaterials-based sensors may provide for the simultaneous detection of several gene-associated conditions and nanodevices with the ability to monitor real-time drug action. These innovative multifunctional nanocarriers for cancer theranostics may allow the development of diagnostics systems such as colorimetric and immunoassays, and in therapy approaches through gene therapy, drug delivery and tumor targeting systems in cancer. Some of the thousands and thousands of published nanosystems so far will most likely revolutionize our understanding of biological mechanisms and push forward the clinical practice through their integration in future diagnostics platforms. Nevertheless, despite the significant efforts towards the use of nanomaterials in biologically relevant research, more in vivo studies are needed to assess the applicability of these materials as delivery agents. In fact, only a few went through feasible clinical trials. Nanomaterials have to serve as the norm rather than an exception in the future conventional cancer treatments. Future in vivo work will need to carefully consider the correct choice of chemical modifications to incorporate into the multifunctional nanocarriers to avoid activation off-target, side effects and toxicity. Moreover the majority of studies on nanomaterials do not consider the final application to guide the design of nanomaterial. Instead, the focus is predominantly on engineering materials with specific physical or chemical properties. It is imperative to learn how advances in nanosystem’s capabilities are being used to identify new diagnostic and therapy tools driving the development of personalized medicine in oncology; discover how integrating cancer research and nanotechnology modeling can help patient diagnosis and treatment; recognize how to translate nanotheranostics data into an actionable clinical strategy; discuss with industry leaders how nanotheranostics is evolving and what the impact is on current research efforts; and last but not least, learn what approaches are proving fruitful in turning promising clinical data into treatment realities.

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment

Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment
A Book

by Sarwar Beg,Mahfoozur Rahman,Hani Choudhry,Eliana B. Souto,Farhan J. Ahmad

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-11-20
  • Pages : 402
  • ISBN : 0128210966
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanoformulation Strategies for Cancer Treatment provides an up-to-date review on current developments and regulatory and clinical challenges in the field of nanopharmaceuticals and the effective treatment of diverse varieties of cancer. This important reference source is ideal for biomaterials scientists and pharmaceutical scientists working in the area of cancer diagnosis and therapy. Due to the high cost of traditional cancer treatment types, researchers have increasingly looked for new ways to augment the therapeutic performance of existing drug candidates. The use of nanotechnology-based approaches have gained significant momentum, thus leading to the launch of a series of new drug products. As nanopharmaceuticals improve the therapeutic performance of cancer therapy drugs, but also provide opportunities for site-specific drug targeting in tumors, this work is a welcomed resource on the topics discussed. Highlights the application of nanoformulations, including liposomes, nanoparticles and nanobiomaterials for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells Explores recent advances made using novel nanoformulations containing herbal drugs and biotechnology based therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment Assesses the regulatory hurdles that are necessary for the successful clinical translation of nanomedicines from the laboratory into the market

Multifunctional Nanoparticle-based Approaches to Enhance the Treatment of Cancer

Multifunctional Nanoparticle-based Approaches to Enhance the Treatment of Cancer
A Book

by Perry Yin

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 186
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) hold tremendous potential for various biomedical applications, including cancer diagnosis and treatment, owing to their unique ability to be manipulated by magnetic fields. In particular, cancer applications of MNPs have primarily utilized MNPs as MRI contrast agents, drug delivery vehicles, and as agents for magnetic hyperthermia. Significant progress has already been made in the advancement of MNP-based therapies to the clinic; however, tumor targeting and chemoresistance remain significant challenges. Addressing these challenges, this thesis focuses on the development of novel multifunctional MNP-based combination therapies. In the first half of this thesis, novel MNP and magnetic core-shell nanoparticle (MCNP)-based combination therapies are developed to enhance the treatment of cancer by sensitizing cancer cells to subsequent therapies. To this end, MNPs are first developed for the dual purpose of delivering microRNA and inducing magnetic hyperthermia for the treatment of brain cancer. We demonstrate that the combination of lethal-7a microRNA (let-7a), which targets a number of survival pathways, can sensitize cancer cells to subsequent magnetic hyperthermia. Moreover, we demonstrate the use of MCNPs that are composed of a magnetic core and a mesoporous silica shell for the simultaneous delivery of let-7a and doxorubicin, wherein let-7a was found to sensitize breast cancer cells to subsequent doxorubicin chemotherapy. In the second half of this thesis, to overcome poor tumor targeting, a stem cell-based gene therapy is developed. Specifically, MCNPs are reported for the dual purpose of delivering and activating a heat-inducible gene vector that encodes TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) for the treatment of ovarian cancer. These engineered AD-MSCs retained their innate ability to home to tumors, making them ideal cellular carriers for cancer therapy. Moreover, mild magnetic hyperthermia resulted in the selective expression of TRAIL in the engineered AD-MSCs thereby inducing significant cancer cell death. Overall, this thesis has demonstrated two multifunctional MNP-based approaches for cancer therapy: 1) combined MNP-based delivery of microRNA and magnetic hyperthermia to sensitize cancers to subsequent chemotherapy and 2) MCNP-based activation of heat-inducible genes in stem cells for targeted cancer treatment.

Oleanolic Acid Delivery Using Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Oleanolic Acid Delivery Using Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy
A Book

by Kwun-Wai Dede Man,文冠慧

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017-01-26
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9781361024157
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This dissertation, "Oleanolic Acid Delivery Using Biodegradable Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy" by Kwun-wai, Dede, Man, 文冠慧, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Utilization of nanocarriers is having a significant impact on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. It allows targeted administration to specific sites and sustained drug delivery. Therefore, this regimen greatly increases the therapeutic index and drug concentration in tumor tissues. Among all types, biomaterials-based nanocarriers, owing to their biocompatible nature, offers a potentially safer strategy to improve the survival of cancer patients. This thesis investigated the therapeutic activity of copolymeric nanoparticulate systems encapsulated with oleanolic acid (OA). Four types of biodegradable copolymers, namely, mPEG-P(D, L)LA, mPEG-P(L)LA, mPEG-P(D, L)LGA and mPEG-P(L)LGA, were employed to fabricate OA-loaded nanoparticles (OA-NPs) by nanoprecipitation. Physicochemical characterizations were performed using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope(TEM)and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Cytotoxicity of the formulations was evaluated on A549 (human alveolar carcinoma), HepG2 (human liver carcinoma) and BEAS-2B (normal bronchial epithelial) cells via 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The induced cell death pathway was confirmed by fluorescence-activated cellsorting (FACS) flow cytometry. The synthesized NPs were spherical, with size dimensions of 40-70nm. The particle size increased to 230-260nm after the incorporation of OA. Polydispersity indices of less than 0.3 indicated the narrow size distribution of the negatively charged NPs. OA-NPs in suspension form were stable over 7 days of storage atboth in 4Cand 25C. Significant inhibitory effect was demonstrated by the OA-NPs on A549 and HepG2 cell lines through apoptosis (p mPEG-P(L)LGA >mPEG-P(D, L)LA > mPEG-P(L)LA NPs in decreasing order. The cytotoxic effect of OA-NPs on BEAS-2B cells was less than that on the two other cancer cell lines, while blank NPs (without OA incorporated) exhibited insignificant toxicity on all cell lines. This reflectedthe cytotoxic effect was ascribed to the encapsulated OA rather than the copolymeric NPs. Overall, our studies clearly revealed the specific anti-tumor capability of the developed OA-loaded nanoparticulate systems. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5388008 Subjects: Nanoparticles Drug carriers (Pharmacy) Cancer - Treatment

Recent Advances in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

Recent Advances in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy
A Nanobased Approach

by Anjana Pandey,Saumya Srivastava

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2022-01-19
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 1000528138
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book provides information about different types and stages of cancers and their subtypes with their respective molecular mechanisms, etiology, histopathology and cellular origins of cancer. The book also provides detailed information about cancer incidence, mortality, different type of technologies both bio and nano employed in cancer diagnosis and screening and their applications in cancer therapies. The book will serve the purpose to impart knowledge to its readers about molecular mechanisms of cancer, diagnosis and therapies along with different computational techniques used on a single platform. The chapters include a broad and integrated perspective on cancer related topics. The book covers both conventional and emerging techniques employed in cancer screening and diagnosis including imaging, biomarker and electrochemical nanosensor based approaches with detailed information on sensor development. Similarly, the book also covers the mechanisms of different conventional and emerging herbal & nano therapies used in cancer treatment. The authors then discuss about applications of different computational and mathematical tools such as machine learning methods that can be employed in cancer diagnosis and therapy at the level of personalized medicine. The target readers for the book include university students, course lectures, researchers and industrialists working in the fields of cancer biology, medicine, and pharmacology. Features: An integrated approach to provide information about all aspects of cancer biology, diagnosis and therapy. Covers both conventional and emerging tools/ techniques applicable in cancer screening and diagnosis. Covers the mechanisms of conventional and emerging anticancer drugs and therapies. Provides insights about personalized medicine based approach in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

X-ray Radiation Enabled Cancer Detection and Treatment with Nanoparticles

X-ray Radiation Enabled Cancer Detection and Treatment with Nanoparticles
A Book

by Mainul Hossain

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite significant improvements in medical sciences over the last decade, cancer still continues to be a major cause of death in humans throughout the world. Parallel to the efforts of understanding the intricacies of cancer biology, researchers are continuously striving to develop effective cancer detection and treatment strategies. Use of nanotechnology in the modern era opens up a wide range of possibilities for diagnostics, therapies and preventive measures for cancer management. Although, existing strategies of cancer detection and treatment, using nanoparticles, have been proven successful in case of cancer imaging and targeted drug deliveries, they are often limited by poor sensitivity, lack of specificity, complex sample preparation efforts and inherent toxicities associated with the nanoparticles, especially in case of in-vivo applications. Moreover, the detection of cancer is not necessarily integrated with treatment. X-rays have long been used in radiation therapy to kill cancer cells and also for imaging tumors inside the body using nanoparticles as contrast agents. However, X-rays, in combination with nanoparticles, can also be used for cancer diagnosis by detecting cancer biomarkers and circulating tumor cells. Moreover, the use of nanoparticles can also enhance the efficacy of X-ray radiation therapy for cancer treatment. This dissertation describes a novel in vitro technique for cancer detection and treatment using X-ray radiation and nanoparticles. Surfaces of synthesized metallic nanoparticles have been modified with appropriate ligands to specifically target cancer cells and biomarkers in vitro. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence signals from the X-ray irradiated nanoparticles are then used for detecting the presence of cancer. The method enables simultaneous detection of multiple cancer biomarkers allowing accurate diagnosis and early detection of cancer. Circulating tumor cells, which are the primary indicators of cancer metastasis, have also been detected where the use of magnetic nanoparticles allows enrichment of rare cancer cells prior to detection. The approach is unique in that it integrates cancer detection and treatment under one platform, since, X-rays have been shown to effectively kill cancer cells through radiation induced DNA damage. Due to high penetrating power of X-rays, the method has potential applications for in vivo detection and treatment of deeply buried cancers in humans. The effect of nanoparticle toxicity on multiple cell types has been investigated using conventional cytotoxicity assays for both unmodified nanoparticles as well as nanoparticles modified with a variety of surface coatings. Appropriate surface modifications have significantly reduced inherent toxicity of nanoparticles, providing possibilities for future clinical applications. To investigate cellular damages caused by X-ray radiation, an on-chip biodosimeter has been fabricated based on three dimensional microtissues which allows direct monitoring of responses to X-ray exposure for multiple mammalian cell types. Damage to tumor cells caused by X-rays is known to be significantly higher in presence of nanoparticles which act as radiosensitizers and enhance localized radiation doses. An analytical approach is used to investigate the various parameters that affect the radiosensitizing properties of the nanoparticles. The results can be used to increase the efficacy of nanoparticle aided X-ray radiation therapy for cancer treatment by appropriate choice of X-ray beam energy, nanoparticle size, material composition and location of nanoparticle with respect to the tumor cell nucleus.

Magnetic Triggered Drug Release: A Newer Paradigm of Drug Delivery in Cancer

Magnetic Triggered Drug Release: A Newer Paradigm of Drug Delivery in Cancer
A Book

by Raghvendra Ashok Bohara

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2020-02-11
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9789811382321
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses the potential of magnetic nanoparticles in cancer therapy. It reviews the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles – which, due to their small size and processability, have become widely used in various biomedical applications – and their role in cancer diagnosis, drug delivery, and personalized medicine. It presents the applications of magnetic nanoparticle in the destruction of tumur cells by heating them to their apoptosis threshold. It also introduces the new perspective in the development of magnetic field induced drug release in the cancer treatment. Importantly, the book covers the innovative three arm approach in cancer treatment by magnetic nanoparticles through inducing apoptosis, activating the immune response, and targeted-drug delivery. It highlights various novel approaches to improve the biocompatibility, half-life, and biodegradability of magnetic nanoparticles. In closing, the book offers comprehensive descriptions of numerous challenges involved in applying magnetic nanoparticles to cancer treatment.

Cooperative Nanomaterials Systems for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapeutics

Cooperative Nanomaterials Systems for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapeutics
A Book

by Ji Ho Park

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The unique electromagnetic and biologic properties of nanomaterials are being harnessed to build powerful new medical technologies. Particularly, there have been recently increasing interests in cancer nanotechnology, wherein nanomaterials play an important role in ultrasensitive imaging, targeting, and therapy of cancer. However, these nanomaterials typically function as individual units and are designed to independently perform their tasks. In this dissertation, new cooperative nanosystems consisting of two distinct nanomaterials that work together to target, identify, or treat tumors in vivo were studied. In the first two chapters, the synthesis of worm-shaped dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (nanoworms, NW) exhibiting substantial in vivo circulation times and significant tumor targeting when coated with tumor-homing peptides were studied. NWs are also found to display a greater magnetic resonance (MR) response than the spherical nanoparticles. Next, two types of multifunctional nanoparticles were fabricated for simultaneous detection and treatment of cancer. Micellar hybrid nanoparticles (MHN) that contain magnetic nanoparticles, quantum dots, and an anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) within a single PEG-modified phospholipid micelle were first prepared. Simultaneous multimodal imaging (MR and fluorescence) and targeted drug delivery in vitro and in vivo was performed using DOX-incorporated targeted MHN. Secondly, luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (LPSINP) that were drug-loadable, biodegradable and relatively non-toxic were prepared. In contrast to most inorganic nanomaterials, LPSINP were degraded in vivo in a relatively short time with no noticeable toxicity. The clearance and degradation of intravenously injected LPSINP in the bladder, liver, and spleen were established by whole-body fluorescence imaging. Finally, two types of cooperative nanomaterials systems to amplify targeting and deliver drugs efficiently to regions of tumor invasion were developed. Gold nanorods localized through vascular circulation to the tumor region, where they reported their location and converted near infrared (NIR) radiation to thermal energy. The local photothermal heating enabled to enhance tumor-specific drug release from thermally labile therapeutic liposomes or induce more binding sites for targeted therapeutic liposomes. The combination of local hyperthermia and chemotherapy in the cooperative nanosystems significantly enhanced therapeutic efficacy relative to individual therapies.