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Nanotoxicity

Nanotoxicity
From In Vivo and In Vitro Models to Health Risks

by Saura C. Sahu,Daniel A. Casciano

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2009-08-04
  • Pages : 630
  • ISBN : 047074779X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanomaterials - substances smaller than 100 nanometers in size - have been added in recent years to an increasing numbers of consumer products used in day-to-day life; in food packaging, medical devices, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, odor-resistant textiles and household appliances. The extensive application of nanomaterials in a wide range of products for human use poses a potential for toxicity risk to human health and the environment. Such adverse effects of nanomaterials on human health have triggered the development of a new scientific discipline known as “nanotoxicity” – the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicity: From in vivo and in vitro Models to Health Risks provides up-to-date state-of-the-art information presented by recognized experts in this emerging new field in toxicology. It discusses the safety evaluation of nanomaterials in foods, drugs, medical devices, cosmetics and other regulated products and its use in risk analysis for potential regulatory use. Topics covered include: biomarkers for nanotoxicity assessment nanotoxicity assessment by gene expression analysis in vivo and in vitro models for nanotoxicity testing mechanisms of nanotoxicity pharmakokinetics of nanomaterials nanotoxicity of foods including food processing, food packaging and food safety nanotoxicity of drugs including drug development and drug delivery nanotoxicity of cosmetics and consumer products health and environmental impact of nanotoxicity safety evaluation of nanomaterials regulatory impact of nanomaterials Nanotoxicity: From in vivo and in vitro Models to Health Risks is a valuable authoritative source of information for readers from a wide range of disciplines such as toxicology, pharmacology, drug toxicity and food and environmental sciences. The book will be useful to the research community in academia, industry, hospitals and government, as well as to government regulators and risk assessors of foods, drugs and environmental and agricultural products.

Nanotoxicity

Nanotoxicity
Methods and Protocols

by Joshua Reineke

  • Publisher : Humana Press
  • Release : 2016-08-23
  • Pages : 414
  • ISBN : 9781493958757
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The field of nanotechnology has developed very rapidly over the past decade lending great promise to medical applications in drug delivery, therapeutics, and biological imaging. Due to the great promise, rapid development, and broad application of nanomaterials, it is imperative that researchers from development through application seek a thorough understanding of nanotoxicity. Nanotoxicity: Methods and Protocols address the special considerations when applying toxicity studies to nanomaterials and detail newly developed methods for the study of nanotoxicity. These diverse methods span in vitro cell culture, model tissues, in situ exposure, in vivo models, analysis in plants, and mathematical modeling, proving to be relevant to pharmaceutical scientists, material scientists, bioengineers, toxicologists, environmentalists, immunologists, and cellular and molecular biologists, to name a few. As part of the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Nanotoxicity: Methods and Protocols aims to diversify the capabilities of current researchers involved in nanotoxicology and to enable researchers in related fields to expand their knowledge of how nanomaterials interface with the biological environment.

The Study and Exploration about Nanotoxicity of Oxide Nanoparticles on Escherichia Coli and Exiguobacterium Sibiricum

The Study and Exploration about Nanotoxicity of Oxide Nanoparticles on Escherichia Coli and Exiguobacterium Sibiricum
A Book

by Yu Yang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Modeling of Nanotoxicity

Modeling of Nanotoxicity
Molecular Interactions of Nanomaterials with Bionanomachines

by Ruhong Zhou

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-09-04
  • Pages : 189
  • ISBN : 331915382X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals of nanotoxicity modeling and its implications for the development of novel nanomedicines. It lays out the fundamentals of nanotoxicity modeling for an array of nanomaterial systems, ranging from carbon-based nanoparticles to noble metals, metal oxides, and quantum dots. The author illustrates how molecular (classical mechanics) and atomic (quantum mechanics) modeling approaches can be applied to bolster our understanding of many important aspects of this critical nanotoxicity issue. Each chapter is organized by types of nanomaterials for practicality, making this an ideal book for senior undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers in nanotechnology, chemistry, physics, molecular biology, and computer science. It is also of interest to academic and industry professionals who work on nanodrug delivery and related biomedical applications, and aids readers in their biocompatibility assessment efforts in the coming age of nanotechnology. This book also provides a critical assessment of advanced molecular modeling and other computational techniques to nanosafety, and highlights current and future biomedical applications of nanoparticles in relation to nanosafety.

Nanotoxicity

Nanotoxicity
Prevention and Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials

by Susai Rajendran,Anita Mukherjee,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Chandraiah Godugu,Ritesh K. Shukla

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-04-09
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 012819944X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanotoxicity: Prevention, and Antibacterial Applications of Nanomaterials focuses on the fundamental concepts for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanomaterials. It sheds more light on the underlying phenomena and fundamental mechanisms through which nanomaterials interact with organisms and physiological media. The book provides good guidance for toxic prevention methods and management in the manufacture/application/disposal. The book also discusses the potential applications of nanomaterials-based antibiotics. The potential toxic effects of nanomaterials result not only from the type of base materials, but also from their size/ ligands/surface chemical modifications. This book discusses why different classes of nanomaterials display toxic properties, and what can be done to mitigate this toxicity. It also explores how nanomaterials are being used as antimicrobial agents, being used to purify air and water, and counteract a range of infectious diseases. This is an important reference for materials scientists, environmental scientists and biomedical scientists, who are seeking to gain a greater understanding of how nanomaterials can be used to combat toxic agents, and how the toxicity of nanomaterials themselves can best be mitigated. Explains the underlying phenomena and fundamental mechanisms through which nanomaterials interact with organisms and physiological media Outlines major methods for mitigating and prevention of nanotoxicity Discusses the applications of nanomaterials-based antibiotics

Nanotoxicity

Nanotoxicity
Methods and Protocols

by Qunwei Zhang

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 371
  • ISBN : 9781493989164
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aquatic Nanotoxicity Testing

Aquatic Nanotoxicity Testing
Insights at the Biochemical, Cellular, and Whole Animal Levels

by Kimberly J. Ong

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 185
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aquatic organisms are susceptible to waterborne nanoparticles and there is only limited understanding of the mechanisms by which these emerging contaminants affect biological processes. The unique properties of nanomaterials necessitate evaluation of standard toxicity testing techniques to provide a solid foundation for thorough and accurate biological effects testing. I discovered that many biochemical assays used to test toxicity are affected by nanoparticles, thus hindering our ability to properly evaluate nanotoxicity. A meta-analysis showed that ca. 95% of papers from 2010 assessing nanotoxicity did not account for nanoparticle interference, with only minimal improvement in 2012. I then performed a series of biological tests with various nanomaterials. I evaluated the effects of functionalized silicon nanoparticles in cell and zebrafish exposures and determined that they are a less-toxic alternative to cadmium selenide quantum dots. Then, I tested medically relevant hydroxyapatite nanomaterials, and established that nanoparticle shape affects uptake and toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Using whole animal experiments I determined that nanoparticles could delay or prevent zebrafish hatch, likely due to the inhibition of hatching proteases. Replicating more realistic aquatic environments, I examined whether humic acid, an important component of natural waters, would alter nanoparticle toxicity. The presence of humic acid changed the physicochemical characteristic of nanoparticles, and some biological effects were abrogated, indicating that laboratory toxicity tests might not be representative of effects in the natural environment. Finally, I focused on the physiological and systemic effects of nanoparticles. I determined that silver nanoparticles affects sodium uptake in juvenile trout, and inhibits ionoregulatory transporter activity. I propose that many of the nanoparticle effects seen in biochemical assays, cellular experiments, and whole animal exposures are often related to nanoparticle interactions with proteins, enzymes, dyes, and other biologically-relevant molecules. Importantly, I found that some biological effects could be attributed to nanoparticle-specific properties, as opposed to the bulk or dissolved components. Determining the potential toxic effects caused by nanoparticle exposure and understanding the mechanism by which nanoparticles cause effects will help properly regulate these materials and allow for their safe development and production.

Optimal ranking of nanotoxicity assesement methods using interval-valued neutrosophic multicriteria decision making

Optimal ranking of nanotoxicity assesement methods using interval-valued neutrosophic multicriteria decision making
A Book

by Xavier Adaikalaraj,Nivetha Martin,P. Pandiammal,N. Ramila Gandhi

  • Publisher : Infinite Study
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 4
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This paper is intended to rank these in vitro methods using a multicriteria decision making model with interval – valued neutrosophic values representing the weights of criteria and expert’s opinion. The optimal ranking of the in vitro methods such as Proliferative assay, Apoptosis assay, Necrosis assay, Oxidative Stress assay and Inflammatory assay is based on the feedback of three experts and five criteria namely Cost Effective, Efficiency in mitigating the generation of toxic wastes, Accuracy in quantitative indices, Robust Nature and Consistency in results. This research work will certainly assist the decision makers on the assessment of nano risks in its exposure to the external environment.

Nanotoxicity

Nanotoxicity
In Vivo and in Vitro Models to Health Risks

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 609
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanopharmaceuticals: Principles and Applications Vol. 3

Nanopharmaceuticals: Principles and Applications Vol. 3
A Book

by Vinod Kumar Yata,Shivendu Ranjan,Nandita Dasgupta,Eric Lichtfouse

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-08-19
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 3030471209
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is the third volume on this subject and focuses on the recent advances of nanopharmaceuticals in cancer, dental, dermal and drug delivery applications and presents their safety, toxicity and therapeutic efficacy. The book also includes the transport phenomenon of nanomaterials and important pathways for drug delivery applications. It goes on to explain the toxicity of nanoparticles to different physiological systems and methods used to assess this for different organ systems using examples of in vivo systems.

Nanotoxicology

Nanotoxicology
Toxicity Evaluation of Nanomedicine Applications

by Hemant Kumar Daima,S. L. Kothari,Bhargava Suresh Kumar

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2021-07-15
  • Pages : 494
  • ISBN : 1000399915
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The field of nanomedicine has risen quickly due to the increasing number of designer-made nanomaterials. These nanomaterials have the potential to manage diseases and change the way medicine is currently studied. However, the increased practice of using nanomaterials has shed light on how many concepts of nanomedicine and nanotoxicity have been overlooked. Nanotoxicology: Toxicity Evaluation of Nanomedicine Applications addresses the existing gaps between nanomedicine and nanotoxicity. This book also brings together up-to-date knowledge on advances toward safe-by-design nanomaterials and existing toxicity challenges. This book delivers a comprehensive coverage in the field with fundamental understanding, serving as a platform to convey essential concepts of nanotoxicology and how these concepts can be employed to develop advanced nanomaterials for a range of biomedical applications. This book is an effort to answer some of the thoughtful nanotoxicological complications and their auspicious probable solutions with new approaches and careful toxicity assessment. Key Features: Reveals novel nanoscale approaches, toxicity assessment, and biomedical applications Includes importance of nanotoxicity concepts in developing smart nanomaterials Highlights unique contributions and "A to Z" aspects on the state-of-the-art from global leaders Offers a complete package to learn fundamentals with recommendations on nanomaterials toxicity and safe-by-design nanomedicines Nanotoxicology: Toxicity Evaluation of Nanomedicine Applications illuminates the high potential of many innovative nanomaterials, ultimately demonstrating them to be promising substitutes for available therapies that can be effectively used in fighting a myriad of biomedical complications. Further, this book reports legal, ethical, safety, and regulatory issues associated with nanomaterials, which have often been neglected, if not overlooked in literature and limiting clinical translation at nanoscale level. It will equip readers with cutting-edge knowledge of promising developments in nanomedicine and nanotoxicology, along with potential future prospects.

Nanobiomaterials Science, Development and Evaluation

Nanobiomaterials Science, Development and Evaluation
A Book

by Mehdi Razavi,Avnesh Thakor

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2017-05-22
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 0081009682
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanobiomaterials Science, Development and Evaluation examines the practical aspects of producing nanostructured biomaterials for a range of applications. With a strong focus on materials, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites, the book also examines nanostructured coatings and toxicology aspects. Chapters in Part One look at materials classes and their synthesis with information on all major material groups. Part Two focuses on nanostructured coatings and practical aspects associated with the use of nanobiomaterials in vivo. This book brings together the work of international contributors who are actively engaged on the forefront of research in their respective disciplines, and is a valuable resource for materials scientists in academia, industry, and all those who wish to broaden their knowledge in the allied field. Focuses on the synthesis and evaluation techniques for a range of nanobiomaterials Examines nanostructured inorganic coatings for biomaterials Discusses issues related to the toxicology of nanobiomaterials Presents the practical aspects of nanobiomaterials

Nanotoxicity in Aquatic Invertebrates

Nanotoxicity in Aquatic Invertebrates
A Book

by Chavon Walters

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Due to their unique properties, nanomaterials (NMs) are being incorporated in several applications including consumer products, electronics, pesticides and the pharmaceutical industry. As such, the rapid development and large-scale production of NMs has inspired concerns regarding their environmental health risks. In order to address these concerns, there has been a rapid development in the methods of toxicity testing of NMs, specifically in aquatic organisms. Understanding the unique properties of nanoscale materials has proven to be a particular important aspect of their toxicity. Properties such as surface area, surface coating, surface charge, particle reactivity, aggregation and dissolution may affect cellular uptake, in vivo reactivity and distribution across tissues. The behaviour of NPs is influenced by both the inherent properties of the NP as well as environmental properties (such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, salinity, organic matter). As such, this chapter describes methodologies of NM characterization in exposure media and NM in vivo toxicity experimental procedures under variable environmental conditions (with special emphasis on temperature).

Nanotoxicology

Nanotoxicology
Toxicity Evaluation, Risk Assessment and Management

by Vineet Kumar,Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-03-12
  • Pages : 684
  • ISBN : 1351138189
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As the application of nanotechnology in the myriad disciplines of science and engineering--from agriculture, pharmaceuticals, material science, and biotechnology to sensors, electronics, and mechanical and electrical engineering--brings benefits it also can produce serious threats to human health and the environment that must be evaluated. The unique properties of nanomaterials make them different from their bulk counterparts. In addition to such unique properties, the nanometric size of nanomaterials can invite some detrimental effects on the health and well-being of living organisms and the environment. Thus, it is important to distinguish nanomaterials with such ill effects from nanomaterials with no or minimum toxicity. Nanotoxicology: Toxicity Evaluation, Risk Assessment and Management covers issues such as the basic principles of nanotoxicity, methods used for nanotoxicity evaluation, risk assessment and its management for nanomaterial toxicity with a focus on current trends, limitations, challenges, and future directions of nanotoxicity evaluation. Various experts from different countries discuss these issues in detail in this book. This will be helpful to researchers, educators, and students who are interested in research opportunities for avoiding the environmental and health hazards of nanomaterials. This book will also be useful for industrial practitioners, policy makers, and other professionals in the fields of toxicology, medicine, pharmacology, food, drugs, and other regulatory sciences.

Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine

Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine
Research Advancements & Future Perspectives

by Pradipta Ranjan Rauta,Yugal Kishore Mohanta,Debasis Nayak

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-10-10
  • Pages : 273
  • ISBN : 0429521545
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanotechnology in biology and medicine: Research advancements & future perspectives is focused to provide an interdisciplinary, integrative overview on the developments made in nanotechnology till date along with the ongoing trends and the future prospects. It presents the basics, fundamental results/current applications and latest achievements on nanobiotechnological researches worldwide scientific era. One of the major goals of this book is to highlight the multifaceted issues on or surrounding of nanotechnology on the basis of case studies, academic and theoretical articles, technology transfer (patents and copyrights), innovation, economics and policy management. Moreover, a large variety of nanobio-analytical methods are presented as a core asset to the early career researchers. This book has been designed for scientists, academician, students and entrepreneurs engaged in nanotechnology research and development. Nonetheless, it should be of interest to a variety of scientific disciplines including agriculture, medicine, drug and food material sciences and consumer products. Features It provides a thoroughly comprehensive overview of all major aspects of nanobiotechnology, considering the technology, applications, and socio-economic context It integrates physics, biology, and chemistry of nanosystems It reflects the state-of-the-art in nanotechnological research (biomedical, food, agriculture) It presents the application of nanotechnology in biomedical field including diagnostics and therapeutics (drug discovery, screening and delivery) It also discusses research involving gene therapy, cancer nanotheranostics, nano sensors, lab-on-a-chip techniques, etc. It provides the information about health risks of nanotechnology and potential remedies. It offers a timely forum for peer-reviewed research with extensive references within each chapter

Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon Nanotubes
Growth and Applications

by Mohammad Naraghi

  • Publisher : IntechOpen
  • Release : 2011-08-09
  • Pages : 618
  • ISBN : 9789533075662
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carbon Nanotubes are among the strongest, toughest, and most stiff materials found on earth. Moreover, they have remarkable electrical and thermal properties, which make them suitable for many applications including nanocomposites, electronics, and chemical detection devices. This book is the effort of many scientists and researchers all over the world to bring an anthology of recent developments in the field of nanotechnology and more specifically CNTs. In this book you will find: - Recent developments in the growth of CNTs- Methods to modify the surfaces of CNTs and decorate their surfaces for specific applications- Applications of CNTs in biocomposites such as in orthopedic bone cement- Application of CNTs as chemical sensors- CNTs for fuelcells- Health related issues when using CNTs

Immune-nanotoxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Design of an Inhibition-based Investingation

Immune-nanotoxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles: Design of an Inhibition-based Investingation
A Book

by Michael D. McHugh,Elisabeth S. Papazoglou

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 116
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Metallic Nanotoxicity to Bacteria and Bacteriophages

Metallic Nanotoxicity to Bacteria and Bacteriophages
A Book

by Jia You

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 57
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The inhibitory effort of two commonly used nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), on the growth of bacteria (E. coli) and bacteriophage (MS2) were evaluated using a turbidimetric microtiter assay and the standard double agar layer (DAL) assay. In the pure E. coli cultures, Ag NPs presented a greater degree of inhibition against bacteria than ZnO NPs. However, both nanoparticles did not deactivate MS2 at the highest nanoparticle concentrations tested (5 mg/L total Ag and 20 mg/L ZnO). Instead, exposure of MS2 to ZnO NPs at the concentration of 20 mg/L ZnO resulted in significantly higher plaque forming units (PFU) than the control. No bacteriophage inactivation was observed in the presence of nanosilver, nanosilver/Ag+ mixture (50:50 of Ag+ and nanosilver in mass ratios) or Ag+ ions, all at the total Ag concentration of 5 mg/L. In a binary system containing bacteria and phages, both MS2 and Ag NPs reduced bacterial growth, but the degree of bacterial growth inhibition by nanosilver or a mixture of nanosilver/Ag+ was phage concentration dependent. For Ag+ ions at concentration of 5 mg/L Ag, complete bacterial growth inhibition was observed regardless of phage concentration. Results from the dynamic bacterial growth inferred from the turbidimetric microtiter assay and the parallel active bacterial and phage concentration measurements inferred from standard agar plate assay indicated that both Ag NPs and ZnO NPs facilitated MS2 to infect the E. coli host. The complex interactions among bacteria, phage and nanoparticles suggested that bacterial cell membrane disruption or structure change due to nanoparticle exposure might allow bacteriophage MS2 to enter bacterial host cells more easily and promote bacterial cell lysis.

Nanotoxicity: Exploring the Interactions Between Carbon Nanotubes and Proteins

Nanotoxicity: Exploring the Interactions Between Carbon Nanotubes and Proteins
A Book

by Guanghong Zuo,Haiping Fang,Ruhong Zhou

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9789533075662
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanotoxicity of Oxide-derived Engineered Nanomaterials

Nanotoxicity of Oxide-derived Engineered Nanomaterials
Impact on Cell Viability and Function, with Conventional Assays and Evaluation of Novel Eicosanoid Profiling

by Elizabeth F. Garrison

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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