Download Neuroscience of Preference and Choice Ebook PDF

Neuroscience of Preference and Choice

Neuroscience of Preference and Choice
Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms

by Raymond Dolan,Tali Sharot

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 0123814316
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

One of the most pressing questions in neuroscience, psychology and economics today is how does the brain generate preferences and make choices? With a unique interdisciplinary approach, this volume is among the first to explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating the generation of the preferences that guide choice. From preferences determining mundane purchases, to social preferences influencing mating choice, through to moral decisions, the authors adopt diverse approaches to answer the question. Chapters explore the instability of preferences and the common neural processes that occur across preferences. Edited by one of the world's most renowned cognitive neuroscientists, each chapter is authored by an expert in the field, with a host of international contributors. Emphasis on common process underlying preference generation makes material applicable to a variety of disciplines - neuroscience, psychology, economics, law, philosophy, etc. Offers specific focus on how preferences are generated to guide decision making, carefully examining one aspect of the broad field of neuroeconomics and complementing existing volumes Features outstanding, international scholarship, with chapters written by an expert in the topic area

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research
Theory and Practice

by Gigi Foster

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-02-08
  • Pages : 359
  • ISBN : 0128130938
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research: Theory and Practice demonstrates the use of biophysical measurement in laboratory-based experimental social science research and the ways biophysical measures can inform analyses of human behavior. Noting the practical limitations of laboratory-based biophysical measurement, its contributors provide hands-on guidance about biophysical measurement devices. Its Introductory and concluding chapters address ethics, measurement options, and historical and scientific contexts. Highlighting examples of device adoption in experimental social science lab settings, this book makes these tools understandable and accessible to all. Demonstrates the strengths and limitations of tools in both research objectives and practicality Provides hands-on guidance for device usage and data implementation, integration and assessment Compares and contrasts the uses of biophysical data in research objectives and disciplines

The Marketplace of Attention

The Marketplace of Attention
How Audiences Take Shape in a Digital Age

by James G. Webster

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2016-09-02
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 0262529890
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

How do media find an audience when there is an endless supply of content but a limited supply of public attention? Feature films, television shows, homemade videos, tweets, blogs, and breaking news: digital media offer an always-accessible, apparently inexhaustible supply of entertainment and information. Although choices seems endless, public attention is not. How do digital media find the audiences they need in an era of infinite choice? In The Marketplace of Attention, James Webster explains how audiences take shape in the digital age. Webster describes the factors that create audiences, including the preferences and habits of media users, the role of social networks, the resources and strategies of media providers, and the growing impact of media measures—from ratings to user recommendations. He incorporates these factors into one comprehensive framework: the marketplace of attention. In doing so, he shows that the marketplace works in ways that belie our greatest hopes and fears about digital media. Some observers claim that digital media empower a new participatory culture; others fear that digital media encourage users to retreat to isolated enclaves. Webster shows that public attention is at once diverse and concentrated—that users move across a variety of outlets, producing high levels of audience overlap. So although audiences are fragmented in ways that would astonish midcentury broadcasting executives, Webster argues that this doesn't signal polarization. He questions whether our preferences are immune from media influence, and he describes how our encounters with media might change our tastes. In the digital era's marketplace of attention, Webster claims, we typically encounter ideas that cut across our predispositions. In the process, we will remake the marketplace of ideas and reshape the twenty-first century public sphere.

Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering

Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering
Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, and the AHFE International Conference on Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA

by Hasan Ayaz

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-06-11
  • Pages : 515
  • ISBN : 3030204731
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book offers a broad perspective on the field of cognitive engineering and neuroergonomics, covering emerging practices and future trends toward the harmonious integration of human operators and computer systems. It presents novel theoretical findings on mental workload and stress, activity theory, human reliability, error and risk, and neuroergonomic measures alike, together with a wealth of cutting-edge applications. Further, the book describes key advances in our understanding of cognitive processes, including mechanisms of perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, with a special emphasis on their role in interactions between humans and other elements of computer-based systems. Based on the AHFE 2019 affiliated conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, held on July 24-28, 2019, in Washington D.C., USA, it provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the current challenges in cognitive computing and factors influencing human performance.

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation
A Book

by Mimi Bong, 3rd

  • Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
  • Release : 2016-11-02
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 1786354748
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The phenomena of motivation cannot be studied separately as an independent research topic because motivation is highly interrelated to cognition, emotion, learning, and decision-making process. The overarching aim of this volume, therefore, is to provide new insight into a unified grand theory of motivation by integrating noteworthy neuroscience research findings on motivation. This volume is dedicated to advancing our understanding of brain mechanisms of underlying various motivational phenomena, including reward, approach, autonomy, intrinsic motivation, learning, effort, curiosity, and self-control. The volume is divided into four parts: The first part introduces classical but fundamental issues such as reward, approach, and individual differences. The second part deals with intrinsic motivation including autonomy and curiosity. The third one examines recent approaches on the interface between motivation and cognition in learning and decision-making. The last part focuses on practically significant issues pertaining to self-regulation development

Society, Organizations and the Brain: building towards a unified cognitive neuroscience perspective

Society, Organizations and the Brain: building towards a unified cognitive neuroscience perspective

by Carl Senior,Nick Lee,Sven Braeutigam

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-07-02
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889195805
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This e-book brings together scholars in both the neurosciences and organizational sciences who have adopted various approaches to study the cognitive mechanisms mediating the social behavior that we see within organizations. Such an approach has been termed by ourselves, and others, as ‘organisational cognitive neuroscience’. In recent years there has been a veritable increase in studies that have explored the cognitive mechanisms driving such behaviors, and much progress has been made in understanding the neural underpinnings of processes such as financial exchange, risk awareness and even leadership. However, while these studies are informative and add to our understanding of human cognition they fall short of providing evidence-based recommendations for practice. Specifically, we address the broader issue of how the neuroscientific study of such core social behaviors can be used to improve the very way that we work. To address these gaps in our understanding the chapters in this book serve as a platform that allows scholars in both the neurosciences and the organizational sciences to highlight the work that spans across these two fields. The consolidation of these two fields also serves to highlight the utility of a singular organizational cognitive neuroscience. This is a fundamentally important outcome of the book as the application of neuroscience to address economically relevant behaviors has seen a variety of fields evolve in their own right, such as neuromarketing, neuroeconomics and so forth. The use of neuro-scientific technologies,in particular fMRI, has indeed led to a bewildering (and somewhat suffocating) proliferation of new approaches, however, the speed of such developments demands that we must proceed carefully with such ventures or risk some fundamental mistakes. The book that you now hold will consolidates these new neuroscience based approaches and in doing so highlight the importance of this approach in helping us to understand human social behavior in general. Taken together the chapters provide a framework for scholars within the neurosciences who wish to explore the further the opportunities that the study of organisational behavior may provide.

Neurobiology of Choice

Neurobiology of Choice
A Book

by Daeyeol Lee,Paul Glimcher,Julia Trommershaeuser

  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release : 2012-01-01
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889190110
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Research on economic decision-making seeks to understand how subjects choose between plans of action (lotteries, gambles, prospects) that have economic consequences. The key difficulty in making such decisions is that typically no plan of action available to the decision-maker guarantees a specific outcome, rather, consequences are risky or uncertain. More recently, researchers in psychology, behavioral and computational neuroscience and psychology have started to apply these theoretical principles to studying choice behavior and its neural basis in the laboratory, for instance in electrophysiological studies of animals making choices for primary reward such as juice and neuroimaging studies of humans making choices for money. Moreover, researchers across all these fields are, in parallel, studying how decisions are guided by learning and how the computations relevant to decisions and choices are represented neurally. This emerging field of theoretically grounded decision neuroscience is now known as "neuroeconomics." With this Research Topic, we aim to solicit contributions from researchers from the fields of neurobiology, behavioral and computational neuroscience and economics which discuss the neural computations underlying decision-making and adaptive behavior.

Findings and Current Opinion in Cognitive Neuroscience

Findings and Current Opinion in Cognitive Neuroscience
A Book

by Larry R. Squire,Stephen M. Kosslyn,Stephen Michael Kosslyn

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 381
  • ISBN : 026269204X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This volume, which contains forty-six review articles from recent issues of CurrentOpinion in Neurobiology, provides easy access to the current state of theory and findings in thefield.

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory : An Introduction

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory : An Introduction
An Introduction

by Howard Eichenbaum Library of Cognitive Neurobiology Boston University

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2002-02-07
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 0198032463
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This clear and accessible textbook introduces students to the brain's remarkable capacity for memory. It begins with a history of thinking and research on the biological bases of memory, highlighting discoveries about the brain made in a "Golden Era" of neuroscience around the turn of the 20th century. This is followed by presentation of our current understanding of the neurobiology of memory, organized into sections corresponding to the book's four major themes. The first is Connection, and it considers how memory is based on alterations in the communication between nerve cells. Research on the physiology and biochemistry of neurons has revealed a cascade of molecular events and structural changes that enhance or weaken the connectivity of nerve cells in support of memory. The second theme is Cognition, which considers the psychological structure of memory. Early work on this topic involved controversy over the basic cognitive processes that underlie memory, and modern research has shown that these characterizations reflect distinctions among qualitatively different forms of memory. The third theme is Compartmentalization, the notion that the different forms of memory are accomplished by distinct brain systems. Recent research has revealed parallel memory systems that separately mediate our ability for conscious recollection, our capacity to acquire skills and habits, and our acquisition of emotional attachments and aversions. The fourth theme is Consolidation, the process by which memories are transformed from a labile trace into a permanent store. Scientists have shown that there are two distinct stages in memory consolidation, one involving cellular mechanisms that underlie a fixation of changes in the neuronal connection strengths and the other involving a reorganization and restruction of the circuits that store and retrieve memories. The book assumes little background knowledge from biology or psychology, and is intended as a text for use in undergraduate courses on memory and cognitive science, and for early graduate students in neuroscience, cognitive science, or biology. It encapsulates the major concepts in the field, and makes this area of research accessible to students who pursue a variety of related disciplines.

21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook

21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook
A Book

by Rhona C. Free

  • Publisher : SAGE Publications
  • Release : 2010-05-14
  • Pages : 1048
  • ISBN : 145226631X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance. Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is a must-have reference resource. Key Features Provides highly readable summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics, helpful for students trying to get a "big picture" sense of the field Includes introductions to relevant theory as well as empirical evidence, useful for readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well for students embarking on research projects Features chapters focused on cutting-edge topics with appeal for economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas as well as new approaches Presents models in graphical format and summarizes empirical evidence in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics, so as to maximize accessibility to students

Neuroeconomics: Hype or Hope?

Neuroeconomics: Hype or Hope?
A Book

by Caterina Marchionni,Jack Vromen

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2014-06-11
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN : 131797736X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Is neuroeconomics a flimsy fad likely to pass without leaving a discernible trace in economics? Or is it a promising new field with the potential to enrich and improve economic theory? Neuroeconomics brings together a unique mix of perspectives ranging from philosophy of science to neuroeconomics practice to reflect on the promises and limitations of neuroeconomics for the future of economics. The analyses collected in the volume suggest that although neuroeconomics raises methodological worries that ought to be dealt with, it might contribute to economics in various ways, some perhaps more promising than others. One thing comes out clearly, though: a complete insulation of economics from neuroscience and psychology is likely to do economics more harm than good. This book was originally published as a special issue of Journal of Economic Methodology.

Issues in Neurology and Neuroscience: 2013 Edition

Issues in Neurology and Neuroscience: 2013 Edition
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
  • Release : 2013-05-01
  • Pages : 579
  • ISBN : 1490107762
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Issues in Neurology and Neuroscience / 2013 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ book that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Additional Research. The editors have built Issues in Neurology and Neuroscience: 2013 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Additional Research in this book to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Neurology and Neuroscience: 2013 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Volume 1

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Volume 1
A Book

by Larry R. Squire

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2009-06-12
  • Pages : 12505
  • ISBN : 0080963935
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The Encyclopedia of the Neuroscience explores all areas of the discipline in its focused entries on a wide variety of topics in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and other related areas of neuroscience. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and peer reviewed by the advisory board before acceptance into the encyclopedia. Each article contains a glossary, introduction, a reference section, and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields.

Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Frontiers E-books
  • Release : 2022
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889190277
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Strength of Preference and Decision Making Under Risk

Strength of Preference and Decision Making Under Risk
A Book

by Carlos Alós-Ferrer,Michele Garagnani

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Overwhelming evidence from the cognitive sciences shows that, in simple discrimination tasks (determining what is louder, longer, brighter, or even which number is larger) humans make more mistakes and decide more slowly when the stimuli are closer along the relevant scale. We investigate to what extent these effects are relevant for economic decisions. Strikingly, we find that even when there is an objectively correct answer independently of attitudes toward risk, the same effects obtain as expected values become closer. Contrary to pure discrimination tasks, however, differences in payoff-independent numerical magnitudes play a minor role. When correct answers depend on subjective attitudes toward risk, differences in expected values fail to explain error rates. The gradual effects on error rates and response times subsist but are instead explained by cardinal differences in independently-estimated subjective utilities ("strength of preference"). This is in agreement with assumptions typically made (but seldom validated) in random utility models. We conclude that the gradual effects on choice found in cognitive discrimination paradigms are very much present in economic choices, but depend on purely economic variables. An implication is that even if correct economic choices can be seen as ordinal, actual economic choices carry a cardinal component.

Behavioral Neuroscience of Motivation

Behavioral Neuroscience of Motivation
A Book

by Eleanor H. Simpson,Peter D. Balsam

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-05-11
  • Pages : 587
  • ISBN : 3319269356
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This volume covers the current status of research in the neurobiology of motivated behaviors in humans and other animals in healthy condition. This includes consideration of the psychological processes that drive motivated behavior and the anatomical, electrophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms which drive these processes and regulate behavioural output. The volume also includes chapters on pathological disturbances in motivation including apathy, or motivational deficit as well as addictions, the pathological misdirection of motivated behavior. As with the chapters on healthy motivational processes, the chapters on disease provide a comprehensive up to date review of the neurobiological abnormalities that underlie motivation, as determined by studies of patient populations as well as animal models of disease. The book closes with a section on recent developments in treatments for motivational disorders.

Behavior Analysis and Learning

Behavior Analysis and Learning
A Biobehavioral Approach, Sixth Edition

by W. David Pierce,Carl D. Cheney

  • Publisher : Taylor & Francis
  • Release : 2017-06-14
  • Pages : 622
  • ISBN : 135177980X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Using a consistent Skinnerian perspective, Behavior Analysis and Learning: A Biobehavioral Approach, Sixth Edition provides an advanced introduction to the principles of behavior analysis and learned behaviors, covering a full range of principles from basic respondent and operant conditioning through applied behavior analysis into cultural design. The textbook uses Darwinian, neurophysiological, and biological theories and research to inform B. F. Skinner’s philosophy of radical behaviorism. The sixth edition expands focus on neurophysiological mechanisms and their relation to the experimental analysis of behavior, providing updated studies and references to reflect current expansions and changes in the field of behavior analysis. By bringing together ideas from behavior analysis, neuroscience, and epigenetics under a selectionist framework, this textbook facilitates understanding of behavior at environmental, genetic, and neurophysiological levels. This "grand synthesis" of behavior, neuroscience, and neurobiology roots behavior firmly in biology. The book includes special sections, "New Directions," "Focus On," "Note On," "On the Applied Side," and "Advanced Section," which enhance student learning and provide greater insight on specific topics. This book is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in psychology or other behavior-based disciplines, especially behavioral neuroscience. For additional resources to use alongside the textbook, consult the Companion Website at www.routledge.com/cw/pierce.

Behavioral Economics of Preferences, Choices, and Happiness

Behavioral Economics of Preferences, Choices, and Happiness
A Book

by Shinsuke Ikeda,Hideaki Kiyoshi Kato,Fumio Ohtake,Yoshiro Tsutsui

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-01-13
  • Pages : 717
  • ISBN : 4431554025
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book is a collection of important contributions by Japanese researchers and their coauthors to present current advances in behavioral economics and finance, particularly in relation to decision making and human well-being. The topics covered in this volume include decision making under the conditions of inter-temporal choices, risk and social relations, happiness and the neuro-scientific/biological basis of behavior. The book includes works of research, both theoretical and empirical, on time discounting, time preferences, risk aversion, altruism, social status, happiness, addiction, limited attention and health and financial investments. The authors of the chapters add supplementary discussions to survey more recent advances on related topics or to provide detailed information that were abbreviated in the original publications. The addenda will enable readers to deepen their understanding of decision making and human well-being.

Neuroscience Letters

Neuroscience Letters
Supplement

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Mate Choice

Mate Choice
The Evolution of Sexual Decision Making from Microbes to Humans

by Gil G. Rosenthal

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2017-07-18
  • Pages : 648
  • ISBN : 0691150672
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

A major new look at the evolution of mating decisions in organisms from protozoans to humans The popular consensus on mate choice has long been that females select mates likely to pass good genes to offspring. In Mate Choice, Gil Rosenthal overturns much of this conventional wisdom. Providing the first synthesis of the topic in more than three decades, and drawing from a wide range of fields, including animal behavior, evolutionary biology, social psychology, neuroscience, and economics, Rosenthal argues that "good genes" play a relatively minor role in shaping mate choice decisions and demonstrates how mate choice is influenced by genetic factors, environmental effects, and social interactions. Looking at diverse organisms, from protozoans to humans, Rosenthal explores how factors beyond the hunt for good genes combine to produce an endless array of preferences among species and individuals. He explains how mating decisions originate from structural constraints on perception and from nonsexual functions, and how single organisms benefit or lose from their choices. Both the origin of species and their fusion through hybridization are strongly influenced by direct selection on preferences in sexual and nonsexual contexts. Rosenthal broadens the traditional scope of mate choice research to encompass not just animal behavior and behavioral ecology but also neurobiology, the social sciences, and other areas. Focusing on mate choice mechanisms, rather than the traits they target, Mate Choice offers a groundbreaking perspective on the proximate and ultimate forces determining the evolutionary fate of species and populations.