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Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
A Book

by Lindsay M. Oberman,Peter G. Enticott

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-11-27
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0128127783
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neurotechnology and Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders provides a comprehensive overview of neurotechnological devices as potential treatments for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are covered such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, Depression, Tourette’s Syndrome, and OCD. Different device-based treatments are discussed such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, Deep Brain Stimulation, Chronotherapy, and Neurofeedback. Provides an overview of neuromodulatory devices as potential treatments for psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in children and adolescents Gives evidence-based recommendations for non-drug interventions that may be effective for treatment options Discusses different neuromodulatory treatment options, including TMS, tDCS, DBS, chronotherapy and neurofeedback

Pediatric Brain Stimulation

Pediatric Brain Stimulation
Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain

by Adam Kirton,Donald L. Gilbert

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-07-08
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN : 0128020385
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Pediatric Brain Stimulation: Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain presents the latest on this rapidly expanding field that has seen an exponential growth in publications over the past 10 years. Non-invasive modalities like TMS can painlessly map and measure complex neurophysiology in real patients. Neuromodulatory applications like rTMS and tDCS carry increasingly proven therapeutic applications. Rapidly advancing technological methodologies are increasing opportunities and indications. Despite all these benefits, applications in the more plastic developing brains of children are only just emerging. This book provides a comprehensive overview of brain stimulation in children. Chapters include Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) fundamentals, brain stimulation in pediatric neurological conditions, and invasive brain stimulation. The main audience for this research will be those interested in applying brain stimulation technologies to advance clinical research and patient care, although a wide variety of clinicians and scientist will find this to be a valuable reference on brain stimulation with specific chapters on a variety of conditions. Provides an overview of recent findings and knowledge of pediatric brain stimulation and the developing brain Edited by renowned leaders in the field of pediatric brain stimulation Presents a great resource for basic and clinical scientists and practitioners in neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

by Lindsay M. Oberman,Peter G. Enticott

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-12-03
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889196992
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (TCS)) can be used both experimentally and therapeutically. In the experimental domain TMS can be applied in single pulses to depolarize a small population of neurons in a targeted brain region. This protocol can be used, for example, to map cortical motor outputs, study central motor conduction time, or evaluate the cortical silent period (a measure of intracortical inhibition) all of which are relevant to neurodevelopment. TMS can also be applied in pairs of pulses (paired pulse stimulation, ppTMS) where two pulses are presented in rapid succession to study intracortical inhibition and facilitation. Trains of repeated TMS (rTMS) pulses can be applied at various stimulation frequencies and patterns to modulate local cortical excitability beyond the duration of the stimulation itself. Depending on the parameters of stimulation the excitability can be either facilitated or suppressed. TCS (including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS) also have the potential to modulate cortical excitability and have also been used to study and modulate cortical activity in healthy and patient populations. The after-effects of rTMS and TCS are thought to be related to changes in efficacy (in either the positive or negative direction) of synaptic connections of the neurons being stimulated, thus these techniques have been used to study and modulate cortical plasticity mechanisms in a number of populations. Recently, researchers have begun to apply these techniques to the study of neurodevelopmental mechanisms as well as the pathophysiology and development of novel treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders. Though there is much promise, caution is warranted given the vulnerability of pediatric and clinical populations and the potential that these techniques have to modify circuit development in a cortex that is in a very dynamic state. This Research Topic hopes to provide an opportunity to share ideas across areas (human and animal researchers, clinicians and basic scientists). We are particularly interested in papers that address issues of choosing a protocol (intensity, frequency, location, coil geometry etc.), populations where noninvasive brain stimulation may have direct impact on diagnostics and treatment, as well as the safety and ethics of applying these techniques in pediatric populations. As many may not be aware of the potential and limitations of noninvasive brain stimulation and its use for research and treatment in this area, this Research Topic promises to have broad appeal. Submissions for all Frontiers article types are encouraged.

Frontiers in Brain Based Therapeutic Interventions and Biomarker Research in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Frontiers in Brain Based Therapeutic Interventions and Biomarker Research in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
A Book

by Paul E. Croarkin,Stephanie H. Ameis

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2016-08-05
  • Pages : 107
  • ISBN : 2889199541
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Developmental neuroscience research is on the cusp of unprecedented advances in the understanding of how variations in brain structure and function within neural circuits confer risk for symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders. Novel dimensional approaches to illness classification, the availability of non-invasive, diverse and increasingly sophisticated methods to measure brain structure and function in humans in vivo, and advances in genetics, animal model and multimodal research now place brain-based biomarkers within reach in the field of psychiatry. These advances hold great promise for moving neuroscience research into the clinical realm. One exciting new area of translational research in child and adolescent psychiatry, is in the use of a variety of neuroscience research tools to track brain response to clinical intervention. Examples of this include: using longitudinal neuroimaging techniques to track changes in white matter microstructure following a training intervention for children with poor reading skills, or using functional imaging to compare brain activity before and after children with bipolar disorder begin taking psychotropic medication treatment. Brain stimulation is another cutting-edge research area where brain response to therapeutic intervention can be closely tracked with electroencephalography or other brain imaging modalities. Research using neuroscience tools to track brain response to clinical interventions is beginning to yield novel insights into the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric illness, and is providing preliminary feedback around how therapeutic interventions work in the brain to bring about symptom improvement. Using these novel approaches, neuroscience research may soon move into the clinical realm to target early pathophysiology, and tailor treatments to both individuals and specific neurodevelopmental trajectories, in an effort to alter the course of development and mitigate risk for a lifetime of morbidity and ineffective treatments. Excitement and progress in these areas must be tempered with safety and ethical considerations for these vulnerable populations. This research topic focuses on efforts to use neuroscience research tools to identify brain-based biomarkers of therapeutic response in child and adolescent psychiatry.

Non Invasive Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences

Non Invasive Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
A Book

by Bernardo Dell'Osso,Giorgio Di Lorenzo

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-09-01
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 3030433560
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents the state of the art regarding the use of non-invasive brain stimulation (TMS and tDCS) in the research and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The contributions, all of which were prepared by internationally recognized experts in the field, are divided into two main sections (for TMS and tDCS, respectively) across diagnoses, following an introductory section on the mechanisms of action and neurophysiological background. Neuropsychological perspectives and approaches are provided as well. The book is ultimately intended to offer a unique, integrated approach to the use of non-invasive brain stimulation across the clinical neurosciences, providing a comprehensive and updated perspective that will benefit psychiatrists, neurologists, clinical psychologists and neurophysiologists alike.

The Genetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The Genetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
A Book

by Kevin J. Mitchell

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-09-28
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 1118524888
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neurodevelopmental disorders arise from disturbances to various processes of brain development, which can manifest in diverse ways. They encompass many rare genetic syndromes as well as common, heritable conditions such as intellectual disability, autism, ADHD, schizophrenia and many types of epilepsy. The Genetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders examines recent revolutionary advances in our understanding of the genetics of these disorders, exploring both basic discoveries and the translation of new findings into the clinical setting. The book begins by examining the genetic architecture and etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. It describes the striking recent progress in identifying pathogenic mutations, which are grouped here based on the neurodevelopmental processes impacted. Subsequent chapters consider the use of cellular and animal models to elucidate the cascading consequences of such mutations, from molecular and cellular levels to emergent effects on neural circuits, brain systems and subsequent psychological development. The text concludes by examining the important clinical implications of the recent advances in the field, from recognition of the genetic causes in individual patients to development of new treatments and interventions. A timely synthesis, The Genetics of Neurodevelopmental Disorders is a unique and essential resource for neuroscientists, geneticists, neurologists and psychiatrists and an accessible and up-to-date overview for medical and science students.

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

From Neurons to Neighborhoods
The Science of Early Childhood Development

by Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2000-11-13
  • Pages : 612
  • ISBN : 0309069882
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Non-invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) in Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Non-invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-06-15
  • Pages : 358
  • ISBN : 9780128223444
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Within the last fifteen years, Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation techniques have been used to examine the potential treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders in adults. In this special issue, we provide a unique focus on the potential effects of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in neurodevelopmental disorders. We included a range of review, opinion, methodological, and original research articles, together with suggestions on how to better translate scientific knowledge into practice. We hope that this novel volume will influence basic research and the development of therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents suffering from neurodevelopmental disorders. Covering the effect of brain stimulation on different neurodevelopmental disorders Includes experimental studies in humans and animals and theoretical reviews Provides accurate and most up to date coverage from selected international experts in the field

The Neuroscience of Hallucinations

The Neuroscience of Hallucinations
A Book

by Renaud Jardri,Arnaud Cachia,Pierre Thomas,Delphine Pins

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-09-25
  • Pages : 566
  • ISBN : 1461441218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hallucinatory phenomena have held the fascination of science since the dawn of medicine, and the popular imagination from the beginning of recorded history. Their study has become a critical aspect of our knowledge of the brain, making significant strides in recent years with advances in neuroimaging, and has established common ground among what normally are regarded as disparate fields. The Neuroscience of Hallucinations synthesizes the most up-to-date findings on these intriguing auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and somatosensory experiences, from their molecular origins to their cognitive expression. In recognition of the wide audience for this information among the neuroscientific, medical, and psychology communities, its editors bring a mature evidence base to highly subjective experience. This knowledge is presented in comprehensive detail as leading researchers across the disciplines ground readers in the basics, offer current cognitive, neurobiological, and computational models of hallucinations, analyze the latest neuroimaging technologies, and discuss emerging interventions, including neuromodulation therapies, new antipsychotic drugs, and integrative programs. Among the topics covered: Hallucinations in the healthy individual. A pathophysiology of transdiagnostic hallucinations including computational and connectivity modeling. Molecular mechanisms of hallucinogenic drugs. Structural and functional variations in the hallucinatory brain in schizophrenia. The neurodevelopment of hallucinations. Innovations in brain stimulation techniques and imaging-guided therapy. Psychiatrists, neurologists, neuropsychologists, cognitive neuroscientists, clinical psychologists, and pharmacologists will welcome The Neuroscience of Hallucinations as a vital guide to the current state and promising future of their shared field.

Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders

Neurological, Psychiatric, and Developmental Disorders
Meeting the Challenge in the Developing World

by Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Committee on Nervous System Disorders in Developing Countries

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2001-01-01
  • Pages : 458
  • ISBN : 9780309170932
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain disordersâ€"neurological, psychiatric, and developmentalâ€"now affect at least 250 million people in the developing world, and this number is expected to rise as life expectancy increases. Yet public and private health systems in developing countries have paid relatively little attention to brain disorders. The negative attitudes, prejudice, and stigma that often surround many of these disorders have contributed to this neglect. Lacking proper diagnosis and treatment, millions of individual lives are lost to disability and death. Such conditions exact both personal and economic costs on families, communities, and nations. The report describes the causes and risk factors associated with brain disorders. It focuses on six representative brain disorders that are prevalent in developing countries: developmental disabilities, epilepsy, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and stroke. The report makes detailed recommendations of ways to reduce the toll exacted by these six disorders. In broader strokes, the report also proposes six major strategies toward reducing the overall burden of brain disorders in the developing world.

Handbook of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Handbook of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
A Book

by Alvaro Pascual-Leone

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2001-11-30
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 9780340720097
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Transcranial Magnetic Stimul0tion (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that has revolutionised the study of the human nervous system allowing in-depth investigations of complex voluntary motor control pathways. Today, many of the techniques used in TMS have become routine in clinical electrophysiological assessments. As an investigative tool, its application ranges from clinical diagnostics to cognitive research. Now the use of repetitive TMS (rTMS) is gaining support amongst psychiatrists as evidence suggests that it may provide an alternative to ECT in treating depression and other psychiatric disorders. This handbook brings together the basic science, fundamental principles, and essential procedures of TMS needed by all those useing or planning to use the technique clinically or in research. The final two sections focus upon current up to date knowledge of applications of the technique. Written in a digestible style by world authorities in different related specialties, the Handbook of TMS will be a valuable and comprehensive guide for clinical neurophysiologists, neuropsychiatrists, neurologists and psychiatrists.

Autism

Autism
Paradigms, Recent Research and Clinical Applications

by Michael Fitzgerald,Jane Yip

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2017-04-12
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 953513079X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book opens with a discussion of neurodiversity and an elaboration of the diagnosis of autism. It then examines factors correlating with autism, including sex bias, month of birth, migration and impact of infant feeding. The next section is on the impact of autism. The neurobiology and genetic section deals with epigenetics and intracellular pathways associated with etiology. The development and behaviour section deals with proprioceptive profiles and joint attention in autism. The final section focuses on interventions including mindfulness, animal assisted activity, social/cultural perspective on autism intervention and physical activity. The book is relevant to all professionals and researchers working with persons with autism, including psychiatrists/psychologists, speech and language therapists, occupational therapists, teachers, nurses and care workers.

Government Research Directory

Government Research Directory
A Book

by Anonimo

  • Publisher : Gale Cengage
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 1485
  • ISBN : 9780787697563
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides more than 6,800 research facilities and programs of the U.S. and Canadian federal governments. Listings include e-mail and Web site addresses, and a wealth of descriptive information.

Neuroimaging in Developmental Clinical Neuroscience

Neuroimaging in Developmental Clinical Neuroscience
A Book

by Judith M. Rumsey,Monique Ernst

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2009-02-19
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9781139476751
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Modern neuroimaging offers tremendous opportunities for gaining insights into normative development and a wide array of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Focusing on ontogeny, this text covers basic processes involved in both healthy and atypical maturation, and also addresses the range of neuroimaging techniques most widely used for studying children. This book will enable you to understand normative structural and functional brain maturation and the mechanisms underlying basic developmental processes; become familiar with current knowledge and hypotheses concerning the neural bases of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders; and learn about neuroimaging techniques, including their unique strengths and limitations. Coverage includes normal developmental processes, atypical processing in developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, ethical issues, neuroimaging techniques and their integration with psychopharmacologic and molecular genetic research approaches, and future directions. This comprehensive volume is an essential resource for neurologists, neuropsychologists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, and radiologists concerned with normal development and developmental neuropsychiatric disorders.

Autism

Autism
Explaining the Enigma

by Uta Frith

  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Release : 1991-01-16
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 9780631168249
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The updated edition of this classic account of autism includes a new chapter outlining recent developments in neuropsychological research and reviews the growing body of work on the neurophysiological basis of autism.

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder
Recent Advances

by Michael Fitzgerald

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2015-04-02
  • Pages : 378
  • ISBN : 9535120379
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book starts with a new sub category of Autism Criminal Autistic Psychopathy and school shootings. It focuses on a number of interventions, including speech and language pathology, speech and language assessment instruments, occupational therapy, improving functional language development in autism with natural gestures, communication boards etc as well as helping people with autism using the pictorial support, training of concepts of significant others, theory of mind, social concepts and a conceptual model for empowering families of children with autism cross culturally. It also examines the issue of hyperandrogenism and evidence-based treatments of autism. In terms of assessment, it focuses on psychological and biological assessment including neurotransmitters systems, structural and functional brain imaging, coping strategies of parents, examines the intertwining of language impairment, specific language impairment and ASD, as well as implicit and spontaneous Theory of Mind reading in ASD. In terms of aetiology, it focuses on genetic factors, epigenetics, synaptic vesicles, toxicity during neurodevelopment, immune system and sex differences. It also examines the link between social cognitive anatomical and neurophysiologic biomarkers and candidate genes. This book will be relevant to all mental health professionals because autism occurs in all the different areas of psychiatry and professionals who will find it helpful will be psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, teachers and all those working with persons with Autism including parents who nowadays are interested in knowing more and more, at a detailed level about their children or adults with autism.

Biology of the NMDA Receptor

Biology of the NMDA Receptor
A Book

by Antonius M. VanDongen

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2008-10-29
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 9781420044157
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The NMDA receptor plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system and in adult neuroplasticity, learning, and memory. Therefore, it is not surprising that this receptor has been widely studied. However, despite the importance of rhythms for the sustenance of life, this aspect of NMDAR function remains poorly studied. Written by one of the world’s leading authorities on NMDA receptors, Biology of the NMDA Receptor brings together virtually all the players in this important field.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
A Book

by Somnath Banerjee

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2013-06-27
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 9535110861
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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ADHD in children and adolescents is a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is recognized by the clinicians all over the world. ADHD is a clinical diagnosis based on reliable history, reports from home and school and a physical examination to rule out any other underlying medical conditions. ADHD can cause low self-esteem in the child and impair quality of life for the child and the family. It is known that ADHD is a chronic illness and that clinicians needed to use chronic illness principles in treating it. The last 10 years have seen an increase in the number of medications that have been approved for the treatment of ADHD. This book has tried to address some of the issues in ADHD.

Pediatric Neuropsychiatry

Pediatric Neuropsychiatry
A Case-Based Approach

by Aaron J. Hauptman,Jay A. Salpekar

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-10-26
  • Pages : 326
  • ISBN : 3319949985
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adult neuropsychiatry is now a well-established field with numerous reputable references. Practitioners who work with children routinely note how references and practitioners knowledgeable in the equivalent work in the pediatric world are rare. Child psychiatrists and neurologists frequently work with individuals struggling with these conditions and would strongly benefit from such a reference that incorporates medical work-up, psychopharmacological recommendations, family/support recommendations and theoretical pathophysiology. Pediatricians and developmental pediatricians often treat children with behavioral and neuropsychiatric sequelae, but are not well-trained in the neuropsychiatric management of these cases. Neuropsychologists and educational psychologists working with children and adults with pediatric-onset conditions will also find the text helpful to contextualize their cases, better-understand the medical evaluation and management and perhaps adjust recommendations that would supplement their own testing methods. Finally, sub-specialists in adult neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychiatry often find themselves working with these children by default as there are few pediatric subspecialists who are available to accept them into practice. When facing complex neuropsychiatric illness in children, many clinicians are stymied because they may have “never seen a case like that”. This text fills the wide gap that currently exists and helps move this field forward. The approach utilized in adult neuropsychiatry that is both clear and accessible does not yet have an equivalent in the pediatric realm, but there is tremendous interest in its development. Children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric conditions are very common and they and their caregivers often struggle to find professionals well educated in this field. Ultimately, a wide range of clinicians will find this text to be a very helpful resource for diagnosis and management in the spectrum of pediatric neuropsychiatric conditions. The case-based approach is also unique with respect to neuropsychiatric approaches, and the clear cut, reader-friendly approach of such a format would likely be well-received among physicians looking for a resource on this issue.

Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation

Oxford Handbook of Transcranial Stimulation
A Book

by Eric Wassermann,Charles Epstein,Ulf Ziemann

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2008-01-24
  • Pages : 747
  • ISBN : 0198568924
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Transcranial stimulation comprises an important set of techniques for investigating brain function, some of which are showing the promise of treating disease. This book provides the definitive review of the scientific and technical background required to understand transcranial stimulation, for neuroscientists, neurologists, and psychiatrists.