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Nine Theories of Religion

Nine Theories of Religion
A Book

by Daniel Pals

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2014-09-08
  • Pages : 374
  • ISBN : 9780199859092
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nine Theories of Religion, third edition, considers nine of the most important religious theories that have been put forward since the scientific approach to religion first caught the imagination of nineteenth century scholars. In each case, the theory is presented by discussing the background of its major spokesman, discussing key ideas as they are presented in text, noticing its distinctive features in comparison with other theories, and recording the main objections raised by its critics.

Eight Theories of Religion

Eight Theories of Religion
A Book

by Daniel L. Pals

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN : 9780195165708
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Revised and updated in this second edition, Eight theories of religion considers how ... fundamental questions have engaged the most important thinkers of the modern era. Accessible, systematic, and succinct, the text examines the classic interpretations of religion advanced by theorists who have left a major imprint on the intellectual culture of the twentieth century."--Page 4 of cover.

An Ancient Theory of Religion

An Ancient Theory of Religion
Euhemerism from Antiquity to the Present

by Nickolas Roubekas

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2016-12-08
  • Pages : 190
  • ISBN : 1317535294
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An Ancient Theory of Religion examines a theory of religion put forward by Euhemerus of Messene (late 4th—early 3rd century BCE) in his lost work Sacred Inscription, and shows not only how and why euhemerism came about but also how it was— and still is—used. By studying the utilization of the theory in different periods—from the Graeco-Roman world to Late Antiquity, and from the Renaissance to the twenty-first century—this book explores the reception of the theory in diverse literary works. In so doing, it also unpacks the different adoptions and misrepresentations of Euhemerus’s work according to the diverse agendas of the authors and scholars who have employed his theory. In the process, certain questions are raised: What did Euhemerus actually claim? How has his theory of the origins of belief in gods been used? How can modern scholarship approach and interpret his take on religion? When referring to ‘euhemerism,’ whose version are we employing? An Ancient Theory of Religion assumes no prior knowledge of euhemerism and will be of interest to scholars working in classical reception, religious studies, and early Christian studies.

Why Study Religion?

Why Study Religion?
A Book

by Richard B. Miller

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 0197566812
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Why Study Religion? offers an alternative framework, Critical Humanism, for thinking about the purposes of the discipline. Richard B. Miller theorizes about the ends rather than the means of humanistic scholarship. He argues that the future of religious studies will depend on how well it can articulate its goals as a basis for motivating scholarship in the field.

An Introduction to the Cognitive Science of Religion

An Introduction to the Cognitive Science of Religion
Connecting Evolution, Brain, Cognition and Culture

by Claire White

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2021-03-15
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 1351010956
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In recent decades, a new scientific approach to understand, explain, and predict many features of religion has emerged. The cognitive science of religion (CSR) has amassed research on the forces that shape the tendency for humans to be religious and on what forms belief takes. It suggests that religion, like language or music, naturally emerges in humans with tractable similarities. This new approach has profound implications for how we understand religion, including why it appears so easily, and why people are willing to fight—and die—for it. Yet it is not without its critics, and some fear that scholars are explaining the ineffable mystery of religion away, or showing that religion is natural proves or disproves the existence of God. An Introduction to the Cognitive Science of Religion offers students and general readers an accessible introduction to the approach, providing an overview of key findings and the debates that shape it. The volume includes a glossary of key terms, and each chapter includes suggestions for further thought and further reading as well as chapter summaries highlighting key points. This book is an indispensable resource for introductory courses on religion and a much-needed option for advanced courses.

Cultural Approaches to Studying Religion

Cultural Approaches to Studying Religion
An Introduction to Theories and Methods

by Sarah J. Bloesch,Meredith Minister

  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release : 2018-10-18
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 1350023760
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is the first book to provide an introduction to contemporary cultural approaches to the study of religion. This book makes sophisticated ideas accessible at an introductory level, and examines the analytic tools of scholars in religious studies, as well as in related disciplines that have shaped the field including anthropology, history, literature, and critical studies in race, sexuality, and gender. Each chapter is written by a leading scholar and includes: · the biographical and historical context of each theorist · their approaches and key writings · analysis and evaluation of each theory · suggested further reading. Part One: Comparative Approaches considers how major features such as taboo, texts, myths and ritual work across religious traditions by exploring the work of Mary Douglas, Phyllis Trible, Wendy Doniger and Catherine Bell. Part Two: Examining Particularities analyzes the comparative approach through the work of Alice Walker, Charles Long and Caroline Walker Bynum, who all suggest that the specifics of race, body, place and time must be considered. Part Three: Expanding Boundaries examines Gloria Anzaldúa's language of religion, as well as the work of Judith Butler on performative, queer theories of religion, and concludes with Saba Mahmood, whose work considers postcolonial religious encounters, secularism, and the relationship between “East” and “West.” Reflecting the cultural turn and challenging the existing canon, this is the anthology instructors have been waiting for. For primary texts by the theorists discussed, please consult The Bloomsbury Reader in Cultural Approaches to the Study of Religion, edited by Sarah J. Bloesch and Meredith Minister.

The Cambridge Companion to Religion and Terrorism

The Cambridge Companion to Religion and Terrorism
A Book

by James R. Lewis

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2017-07-31
  • Pages : 299
  • ISBN : 1107140145
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There is currently much discussion regarding the causes of terrorist acts, as well as the connection between terrorism and religion. Terrorism is attributed either to religious 'fanaticism' or, alternately, to political and economic factors, with religion more or less dismissed as a secondary factor. The Cambridge Companion to Religion and Terrorism examines this complex relationship between religion and terrorism phenomenon through a collection of essays freshly written for this volume. Bringing varying approaches, from the theoretical to the empirical, to the topic, the Companion includes an array of subjects, such as radicalization, suicide bombing, and rational choice, as well as specific case studies. The result is a richly textured collection that prompts readers to critically consider the cluster of phenomena that we have come to refer to as 'terrorism,' and terrorism's relationship with the similarly problematic set of phenomena that we call 'religion.'

Religious Ethics

Religious Ethics
Meaning and Method

by William Schweiker,David A. Clairmont

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-04-14
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 1118610253
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An inclusive and innovative account of religious ethical thinking and acting in the world. Rather than merely applying existing forms of philosophical ethics, Religious Ethics defines the meaning of the field and presents a distinct and original method for ethical reflection through comparisons of world religious traditions. Written by leading scholars and educators in the field, this unique volume offers an innovative approach that reveals how religions concur and differ on moral matters, and provides practical guidance on thinking and living ethically. The book’s innovative method—integrating descriptive, normative, practical, fundamental, and metaethical dimensions of reflection—enables a far more complex and nuanced exploration of religious ethics than any single philosophical language, method, or theory can equal. First introducing the task of religious ethics, the book moves through each of the five dimensions of reflection to compare concepts such as good and evil, perplexity and wisdom, truth and illusion, and freedom and bondage in various theological contexts. Guides readers on understanding, assessing, and comparing the moral teachings and practices of world religions Applies a disciplined, scholarly approach to the subject of religious ethics Explores the distinctions between religious ethics and moral philosophy Provides a methodology which can be applied to comparative ethics for various religions Compares religious traditions to illuminate each of the five dimensions of ethical and moral reflection Religious Ethics: Meaning and Method will help anyone interested in the relation between religion and ethics in the modern world, including those involved in general and comparative religion studies, religious and comparative ethics, and moral theory.

Modern Religion, Modern Race

Modern Religion, Modern Race
A Book

by Theodore Vial

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-06-16
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN : 0190621966
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Religion is a racialized category, even when race is not explicitly mentioned. In Modern Religion, Modern Race Theodore Vial argues that because the categories of religion and race are rooted in the post-Enlightenment project of reimagining what it means to be human, we cannot simply will ourselves to stop using them. Only by acknowledging that religion is already racialized can we begin to understand how the two concepts are intertwined and how they operate in our modern world. It has become common to argue that the category religion is not universal, or even very old, but is a product of Europe's Enlightenment modernization. Equally common is the argument that religion is not an innocent category of analysis, but is implicated in colonial regimes of control and as such plays a role in Europe's process of identity construction of itself and of non-European "others." Current debates about race follow an eerily similar trajectory: race is not an ancient but a modern construction. It is part of the project of colonialism, and race discourse forms one of the cornerstones of modern European identity-making. Why can't we stop using them, or re-construct them in less toxic ways? By examining the theories of Kant, Herder, and Schleiermacher, among others, Vial uncovers co-constitutive nature of race and religion, describes how they became building blocks of the modern world, and shows how the two concepts continue to be used today to form identity and to make sense of the world. He shows that while we disdain the racist language of some of the founders of religious studies, the continued influence of the modern worldview they helped create leads us, often unwittingly, to reiterate many of the same distinctions and hierarchies. Although it may not be time to abandon the very category of religion, with all its attendant baggage, Modern Religion, Modern Race calls for us to examine that baggage critically, and to be fully conscious of the ways in which religion always carries with it dangerous ideas of race.

The Cambridge Companion to Religious Experience

The Cambridge Companion to Religious Experience
A Book

by Paul K. Moser,Chad Meister

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2020-07-31
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1108626734
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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For centuries, theologians and philosophers, among others, have examined the nature of religious experience. Students and scholars unfamiliar with the vast literature face a daunting task in grasping the main issues surrounding the topic of religious experience. The Cambridge Companion to Religious Experience offers an original introduction to its topic. Going beyond an introduction, it is a state-of-the-art overview of the topic, with critical analyses of and creative insights into its subject. Religious experience is discussed from various interdisciplinary perspectives, from religious perspectives inside and outside traditional monotheistic religions, and from various topical perspectives. Written by leading scholars in clear and accessible prose, this book is an ideal resource for undergraduate and graduate students, teachers, and scholars across many disciplines.

Introducing Religion

Introducing Religion
Religious Studies for the Twenty-First Century

by Robert S. Ellwood

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2019-11-11
  • Pages : 372
  • ISBN : 1000709019
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introducing Religion explores different ways of looking at religion in the twenty-first century. Providing a broad overview to the discipline of religious studies, this textbook introduces students to engaging and contemporary topics such as: sociology of religion psychology of religion history of religion religion and art religious ethics popular religion religion and violence Thoroughly updated throughout, this fifth edition includes images, further reading, a detailed glossary, case studies, and key terms for revision. This is the essential textbook for students approaching this subject area for the first time.

7 Ways of Looking at Religion

7 Ways of Looking at Religion
The Major Narratives

by Benjamin Schewel

  • Publisher : Yale University Press
  • Release : 2017-09-26
  • Pages : 249
  • ISBN : 0300231415
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An ambitious scholar’s lucid analysis of religion’s shifting place in the modern world. Western intellectuals have long theorized that religion would undergo a process of marginalization and decline as the forces of modernity advanced. Yet recent events have disrupted this seductively straightforward story. As a result, while religion has somehow evolved from its tribal beginnings up through modernity and into the current global age, there is no consensus about what kind of narrative of religious change we should alternatively tell. Seeking clarity, Benjamin Schewel organizes and evaluates the prevalent narratives of religious history that scholars have deployed over the past century and are advancing today. He argues that contemporary scholarly discourse on religion can be categorized according to seven central narratives: subtraction, renewal, transsecular, postnaturalist, construct, perennial, and developmental. Examining the basic logic, insights, and limitations of each of these narratives, Schewel ranges from Martin Heidegger to Muhammad Iqbal, from Daniel Dennett to Charles Taylor, to offer an incisive, broad, and original perspective on religion in the modern world. “The book should be a widely read guide to the ideas that structure many of the debates scholars are having today about the meaning of postsecularism and future of religion.” —Geoffrey Cameron, Review of Faith and International Affairs "What is the future of religion and how should we narrate its past? For all readers interested in these questions, this balanced and concise book is a must read.” —Hans Joas, Humboldt University, Berlin, and University of Chicago

Traditional Islamic Ethics: The Concept of Virtue and its Implications for Contemporary Human Rights

Traditional Islamic Ethics: The Concept of Virtue and its Implications for Contemporary Human Rights
A Book

by Irfaan Jaffer

  • Publisher : Vernon Press
  • Release : 2021-09-07
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 1648892787
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Traditional Islamic Ethics: The Concept of Virtue and its Implications for Human Rights" concentrates on the subject of Islam and modernity and Islam and human rights, a topic that has become popular and relevant with the rise of globalization and the interest in Islamic extremism and human rights. This book distinguishes itself by operating within the framework of the traditional school of thought or ‘Islamic Traditionalism’. In doing so, it draws on Islam’s 1400-year-old spiritual and intellectual tradition and its understanding of ethics and virtue, along with truth, justice, freedom, and equality. This book argues that Islam’s pre-modern approach is indispensable in creating an organic and integral human rights model for Muslims. The first section argues that the current understanding and implementation of international human rights needs to be more flexible and inclusive if it truly aims to be universal in scope; this is because ‘The Universal Declaration’ and its offshoots are still underpinned by secular-liberal principles, and therefore, are at odds with other cultural traditions. To this end, this section critically explores popular human rights histories and contemporary ethical theories that attempt to justify human rights. The second section of this book provides a general overview on the subject of ‘Islam and Human Rights’. After explaining some of the main problems, this section examines various solutions offered by Muslim academics and scholars, focusing on four different types of Muslim responses to modernity and human rights: liberal, progressive, traditional, and fundamentalist. It concludes that there are ‘spaces of convergence’ between modern-liberal ethics and traditional Islamic virtue ethics while maintaining that there are also fundamental differences and that these differences should be welcomed by human rights theorists and advocates. The book’s intended audience is primarily post-graduate students and professional academics in the fields of Human Rights, Ethical Philosophy, and Islamic Studies (modern Islamic thought, Sufism, Islamic theology, Islamic Philosophy, and Traditionalism). It will also appeal to anyone interested in the subject of Islam and modernity in general and Islam and human rights in particular.

Religion and Literature: History and Method

Religion and Literature: History and Method
A Book

by Eric Ziolkowski

  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release : 2019-12-16
  • Pages : 120
  • ISBN : 9004423907
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Religion and Literature: History and Method considers the history, methods, institutionalization, globalization, and future of the study of religion and literature, focusing on its emergence from the “field” of theology and literature, and its relations to myth criticism and biblical reception.

Paul Tillich and Religious Socialism

Paul Tillich and Religious Socialism
Towards a Kingdom of Peace and Justice

by Kirk R. MacGregor

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 210
  • ISBN : 1793605076
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This constructive theological work enhances Tillich's German religious socialism by creatively integrating it with Tillich's theological insights throughout his American career. Bringing Tillich into conversation with contemporary developments in just peacemaking, this book presents a refurbished version of religious socialism.

Reinventing Religion

Reinventing Religion
Beyond Belief and Scepticism

by Peter Moore

  • Publisher : Reaktion Books
  • Release : 2020-10-07
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 1789143268
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Many of us, proponents and critics alike, commonly make assumptions about religion. We may presume that religion is mainly about having beliefs or being good, or that it is concerned with spiritual rather than material issues, or that religious ideas and practices are meant to be somehow timeless. Such views, Peter Moore argues, work only to obscure the truth that religion is essentially humanity’s quest to become fully human. This enlightening exposition questions our very understanding of faith and contends that religions should remain open to reinventing themselves, both practically and intellectually, rediscovering neglected traditions and finding new ways forward. Written with subtlety and passion, this book gets to the heart of ongoing debates about the validity and purpose of religion.

Symbol and Theory

Symbol and Theory
A Philosophical Study of Theories of Religion in Social Anthropology

by John Skorupski

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 1976-11-04
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 9780521212007
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Anthropologists have always been concerned with the difference between traditional (or 'primitive') and scientific modes of thought and with the relationships between magic, religion and science. John Skorupski distinguishes two broadly opposed approaches to these problems: the 'intellectualist' regards primitive systems of thought and actions as cosmologies, comparable to scientific theory, which emerge and persist as attempts to control the natural world; the 'symbolist' regards them as essentially representative or expressive of the pattern of social relations in the culture in which they exist. Dr Skorupski considers in particular the notions of ritual, ceremony and symbol. He shows how their understanding involves and suggests more general philosophical problems of relativism, interpretation, translation, and the connections between belief and action. These are difficult and important problems and require an unusual combination of imagination and interdisciplinary exercise. This book is intended especially for philosophers, social anthropologists, social theorists and students of comparative religion.

The Origin and Character of God

The Origin and Character of God
Ancient Israelite Religion through the Lens of Divinity

by Theodore J. Lewis

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2020-07-03
  • Pages : 960
  • ISBN : 0190072563
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Few topics are as broad or as daunting as the God of Israel, that deity of the world's three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, who has been worshiped over millennia. In the Hebrew Bible, God is characterized variously as militant, beneficent, inscrutable, loving, and judicious. Who is this divinity that has been represented as masculine and feminine, mythic and real, transcendent and intimate? The Origin and Character of God is Theodore J. Lewis's monumental study of the vast subject that is the God of Israel. In it, he explores questions of historical origin, how God was characterized in literature, and how he was represented in archaeology and iconography. He also brings us into the lived reality of religious experience. Using the window of divinity to peer into the varieties of religious experience in ancient Israel, Lewis explores the royal use of religion for power, prestige, and control; the intimacy of family and household religion; priestly prerogatives and cultic status; prophetic challenges to injustice; and the pondering of theodicy by poetic sages. A volume that is encyclopedic in scope but accessible in tone, The Origin and Character of God is an essential addition to the growing scholarship of one of humanity's most enduring concepts.

The Sources of Secularism

The Sources of Secularism
Enlightenment and Beyond

by Anna Tomaszewska,Hasse Hämäläinen

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-10-05
  • Pages : 323
  • ISBN : 3319653946
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book examines the importance of the Enlightenment for understanding the secular outlook of contemporary Western societies. It shows the new ways of thinking about religion that emerged during the 17th and 18th centuries and have had a great impact on how we address problems related to religion in the public sphere today. Based on the assumption that political concepts are rooted in historical realities, this collection combines the perspective of political philosophy with the perspective of the history of ideas. Does secularism imply that individuals are not free to manifest their beliefs in public? Is secularization the same as rejecting faith in the absolute? Can there be a universal rational core in every religion? Does freedom of expression always go hand in hand with freedom of conscience? Is secularism an invention of the predominantly Christian West, which cannot be applied in other contexts, specifically that of Muslim cultures? Answers to these and related questions are sought not only in current theories and debates in political philosophy, but also in the writings of Immanuel Kant, Benedict Spinoza, Thomas Hobbes, Anthony Collins, Adriaan Koerbagh, Abbé Claude Yvon, Giovanni Paolo Marana, and others.

The Cosmic Spirit

The Cosmic Spirit
Awakenings at the Heart of All Religions, the Earth, and the Multiverse

by Roland Faber

  • Publisher : Wipf and Stock Publishers
  • Release : 2021-03-04
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN : 1725260697
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Are we more than stardust? Is the appearance of the fragile Earth in the vast universe more than an accident? Are we not children of a Spirit that pervades the dust, rejuvenates life, and embraces the ever-evolving universe? Is there a cosmic Spirit that wants us to awaken to a consciousness of universal meaning, sacred purpose, and mutual friendship with all beings? This book answers these questions with a spirituality of the numinous in our relation to the elements of the Earth in the matrix of the multiverse by taking you on a journey through nine paths and nineteen meditations of awakening. Not bound by any religion, but in deep appreciation of the religious and spiritual heritage of human encounters with the divine depth of existence in our selves and in nature, they invite you to become sojourners by engaging the most profound embodiments of the intangible Spirit by which it facilitates its own materialization in the cosmos and our spiritualization of the cosmos. Use—says this Spirit—the stardust that you are to become a spirit-faring species in an eternal journey of the cosmos to realize its ultimate motive of existence—the attraction of love!