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Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products

Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products
A Book

by Effie Tsakalidou,Konstantinos Papadimitriou

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-05-31
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN : 0128033622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products presents a compiled and renewed vision of the knowledge existing as well as the emerging challenges on animal husbandry and non-cow milk production, technology, chemistry, microbiology, safety, nutrition, and health, including current policies and practices. Non-bovine milk products are an expanding means of addressing nutritional and sustainable food needs around the world. While many populations have integrated non-bovine products into their diets for centuries, as consumer demand and acceptance have grown, additional opportunities for non-bovine products are emerging. Understanding the proper chain of production will provide important insight into the successful growth of this sector. This book is a valuable resource for those involved in the non-cow milk sector, e.g. academia, research institutes, milk producers, dairy industry, trade associations, government, and policy makers. Discusses important social, economic, and environmental aspects of the production and distribution of non-bovine milk and milk products Provides insight into non-bovine milk from a broad range of relevant perspectives with contributions from leading researchers around the world Focuses on current concerns including animal health and welfare, product safety, and production technologies Serves as a valuable resource for those involved in the non-cow milk sector

Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals

Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals
A Book

by Young W. Park,George F. W. Haenlein,William L. Wendorff

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-05-08
  • Pages : 712
  • ISBN : 1119110289
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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THE ONLY SINGLE-SOURCE GUIDE TO THE LATEST SCIENCE, NUTRITION, AND APPLICATIONS OF ALL THE NON-BOVINE MILKS CONSUMED AROUND THE WORLD Featuring contributions by an international team of dairy and nutrition experts, this second edition of the popular Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals provides comprehensive coverage of milk and dairy products derived from all non-bovine dairy species. Milks derived from domesticated dairy species other than the cow are an essential dietary component for many countries around the world. Especially in developing and under-developed countries, milks from secondary dairy species are essential sources of nutrition for the humanity. Due to the unavailability of cow milk and the low consumption of meat, the milks of non-bovine species such as goat, buffalo, sheep, horse, camel, Zebu, Yak, mare and reindeer are critical daily food sources of protein, phosphate and calcium. Furthermore, because of hypoallergenic properties of certain species milk including goats, mare and camel are increasingly recommended as substitutes in diets for those who suffer from cow milk allergies. This book: Discusses key aspects of non-bovine milk production, including raw milk production in various regions worldwide Describes the compositional, nutritional, therapeutic, physio-chemical, and microbiological characteristics of all non-bovine milks Addresses processing technologies as well as various approaches to the distribution and consumption of manufactured milk products Expounds characteristics of non-bovine species milks relative to those of human milk, including nutritional, allergenic, immunological, health and cultural factors. Features six new chapters, including one focusing on the use of non-bovine species milk components in the manufacture of infant formula products Thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the many advances that have occurred in the dairy industry since the publication of the acclaimed first edition, Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals, 2nd Edition is an essential reference for dairy scientists, nutritionists, food chemists, animal scientists, allergy specialists, health professionals, and allied professionals.

Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition

Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition
Production, Composition and Health

by Young W. Park,George F. W. Haenlein

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-04-09
  • Pages : 728
  • ISBN : 1118534204
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Milk is nature’s most complete food, and dairy productsare considered to be the most nutritious foods of all. Thetraditional view of the role of milk has been greatly expanded inrecent years beyond the horizon of nutritional subsistence ofinfants: it is now recognized to be more than a source of nutrientsfor the healthy growth of children and nourishment of adulthumans. Alongside its major proteins (casein and whey), milk containsbiologically active compounds, which have important physiologicaland biochemical functions and significant impacts upon humanmetabolism, nutrition and health. Many of these compounds have beenproven to have beneficial effects on human nutrition andhealth. This comprehensive reference is the first to address such a widerange of topics related to milk production and human health,including: mammary secretion, production, sanitation, qualitystandards and chemistry, as well as nutrition, milk allergies,lactose intolerance, and the bioactive and therapeutic compoundsfound in milk. In addition to cow’s milk, the book alsocovers the milk of non-bovine dairy species which is of economicimportance around the world. The Editors have assembled a team of internationally renownedexperts to contribute to this exhaustive volume which will beessential reading for dairy scientists, nutritionists, foodscientists, allergy specialists and health professionals.

Probiotic and Prebiotics in Foods: Challenges, Innovations and Advances

Probiotic and Prebiotics in Foods: Challenges, Innovations and Advances
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-09-15
  • Pages : 396
  • ISBN : 012820219X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Advances in Food and Nutrition Research series highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters. Each chapter is written by an international board of authors. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Advances in Food and Nutrition Research series Updated release includes the latest information on the Probiotic and Prebiotics in Foods: challenges, innovations and advances

Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals

Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals
A Book

by William L. Wendorff

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-07-24
  • Pages : 712
  • ISBN : 1119110270
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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THE ONLY SINGLE-SOURCE GUIDE TO THE LATEST SCIENCE, NUTRITION, AND APPLICATIONS OF ALL THE NON-BOVINE MILKS CONSUMED AROUND THE WORLD Featuring contributions by an international team of dairy and nutrition experts, this second edition of the popular Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals provides comprehensive coverage of milk and dairy products derived from all non-bovine dairy species. Milks derived from domesticated dairy species other than the cow are an essential dietary component for many countries around the world. Especially in developing and under-developed countries, milks from secondary dairy species are essential sources of nutrition for humanity. Due to the unavailability of cow milk and the low consumption of meat, the milks of non-bovine species such as goat, buffalo, sheep, horse, camel, Zebu, Yak, mare and reindeer are critical daily food sources of protein, phosphate and calcium. Furthermore, because of hypoallergenic properties of certain species milk including goats, mare and camel are increasingly recommended as substitutes in diets for those who suffer from cow milk allergies. This book: Discusses key aspects of non-bovine milk production, including raw milk production in various regions worldwide Describes the compositional, nutritional, therapeutic, physio-chemical, and microbiological characteristics of all non-bovine milks Addresses processing technologies as well as various approaches to the distribution and consumption of manufactured milk products Expounds characteristics of non-bovine species milks relative to those of human milk, including nutritional, allergenic, immunological, health and cultural factors Features six new chapters, including one focusing on the use of non-bovine species milk components in the manufacture of infant formula products. Thoroughly updated and revised to reflect the many advances that have occurred in the dairy industry since the publication of the acclaimed first edition, Handbook of Milk of Non-Bovine Mammals, 2nd Edition is an essential reference for dairy scientists, nutritionists, food chemists, animal scientists, allergy specialists, health professionals, and allied professionals.

Sheep, Goat and Other Non-cow Milk

Sheep, Goat and Other Non-cow Milk
Proceedings of an International Symposium, 16-18 May 2011, Athens, Greece

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 171
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Developments in ewes milk, goat milk and other non-cow milk in many countries concerning production of milk, products made from it (cheese, yogurt, and many local products), microbiology, analysis, composition, technology, nutritional properties.

Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products

Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products
A Book

by Young W. Park

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2009-09-15
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN : 9780813819495
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Although bioactive compounds in milk and dairy products have beenextensively studied during the last few decades – especiallyin human and bovine milks and some dairy products – very fewpublications on this topic are available, especially in other dairyspecies’ milk and their processed dairy products. Also,little is available in the areas of bioactive and nutraceuticalcompounds in bovine and human milks, while books on other mammalianspecies are non-existent. Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Productsextensively covers the bioactive components in milk and dairyproducts of many dairy species, including cows, goats, buffalo,sheep, horse, camel, and other minor species. Park has assembled agroup of internationally reputed scientists in the forefront offunctional milk and dairy products, food science and technology ascontributors to this unique book. Coverage for each of the various dairy species includes:bioactive proteins and peptides; bioactive lipid components;oligosaccharides; growth factors; and other minor bioactivecompounds, such as minerals, vitamins, hormones and nucleotides,etc. Bioactive components are discussed for manufactured dairyproducts, such as caseins, caseinates, and cheeses; yogurtproducts; koumiss and kefir; and whey products. Aimed at food scientists, food technologists, dairymanufacturers, nutritionists, nutraceutical and functional foodsspecialists, allergy specialists, biotechnologists, medical andhealth professionals, and upper level students and faculty in dairyand food sciences and nutrition, Bioactive Components in Milkand Dairy Products is an important resourcefor those who are seeking nutritional, health, and therapeuticvalues or product technology information on milk and dairy productsfrom the dairy cow and speciesbeyond. Areas featured are: Unique coverage of bioactive compounds in milks of the dairycow and minor species, including goat, sheep, buffalo, camel, andmare Identifies bioactive components and their analytical isolationmethods in manufactured dairy products, such as caseins,caseinates, and cheeses; yogurt products; koumiss and kefir; andwhey products Essential for professionals as well as biotechnologyresearchers specializing in functional foods, nutraceuticals,probiotics, and prebiotics Contributed chapters from a team of world-renowned expertscientists

Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products

Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products
A Book

by Young W. Park

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2009-06-29
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN : 0813819822
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Although bioactive compounds in milk and dairy products have been extensively studied during the last few decades – especially in human and bovine milks and some dairy products – very few publications on this topic are available, especially in other dairy species’ milk and their processed dairy products. Also, little is available in the areas of bioactive and nutraceutical compounds in bovine and human milks, while books on other mammalian species are non-existent. Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products extensively covers the bioactive components in milk and dairy products of many dairy species, including cows, goats, buffalo, sheep, horse, camel, and other minor species. Park has assembled a group of internationally reputed scientists in the forefront of functional milk and dairy products, food science and technology as contributors to this unique book. Coverage for each of the various dairy species includes: bioactive proteins and peptides; bioactive lipid components; oligosaccharides; growth factors; and other minor bioactive compounds, such as minerals, vitamins, hormones and nucleotides, etc. Bioactive components are discussed for manufactured dairy products, such as caseins, caseinates, and cheeses; yogurt products; koumiss and kefir; and whey products. Aimed at food scientists, food technologists, dairy manufacturers, nutritionists, nutraceutical and functional foods specialists, allergy specialists, biotechnologists, medical and health professionals, and upper level students and faculty in dairy and food sciences and nutrition, Bioactive Components in Milk and Dairy Products is an important resource for those who are seeking nutritional, health, and therapeutic values or product technology information on milk and dairy products from the dairy cow and speciesbeyond. Areas featured are: Unique coverage of bioactive compounds in milks of the dairy cow and minor species, including goat, sheep, buffalo, camel, and mare Identifies bioactive components and their analytical isolation methods in manufactured dairy products, such as caseins, caseinates, and cheeses; yogurt products; koumiss and kefir; and whey products Essential for professionals as well as biotechnology researchers specializing in functional foods, nutraceuticals, probiotics, and prebiotics Contributed chapters from a team of world-renowned expert scientists

Handbook of Research on Health and Environmental Benefits of Camel Products

Handbook of Research on Health and Environmental Benefits of Camel Products
A Book

by Omar Amin Alhaj,Bernard Faye,Rajendra Prasad Agrawal

  • Publisher : Medical Information Science Reference
  • Release : 2019-12-27
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 1799816052
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This book discusses the nutritional, physical, and chemical factors of camel milk in comparison to other animal and plant-based milks and introduces benefits attributed to camel meat. It explores the health benefits of fresh and fermented camel milk in vitro and in vivo as well as the link between functional constituents and the functional properties of milk"-- Provided by publisher.

Dairy Production and Processing

Dairy Production and Processing
The Science of Milk and Milk Products

by John R. Campbell,Robert T. Marshall

  • Publisher : Waveland Press
  • Release : 2016-01-29
  • Pages : 549
  • ISBN : 1478632615
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A productive dairy industry is vital to providing safe, high-quality milk that fulfills the nutritional needs of people of all ages around the world. In order to achieve that goal, Campbell and Marshall present a timely, lucid, and comprehensive look at today’s dairy industry. Dairy Production and Processing offers not only a fundamental understanding of dairy animals, dairy products, and the production aspects of each, but also a wealth of applied information on the scope of the current milk and milk products industry. The application of basic sciences and technologies throughout the text will serve students well not only as they learn the first principles of dairy science, but also as a professional reference in their careers. Study questions can be found at the conclusion of each chapter, along with relevant and informative websites. An extensive glossary is provided to enable readers to expand their knowledge of selected terms. Topics found in this instructive and insightful text include: • an overview of the dairy industry, • dairy herd breeding and records, • the feeding and care of dairy cattle, sheep, goats, and water buffalo, • important principles of milking and milking facilities, • dairy farm management, • milk quality and safety, and • the production of milk and milk products.

Horse Feeding and Management

Horse Feeding and Management
A Book

by Markku Saastamoinen

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2020-04-30
  • Pages : 196
  • ISBN : 3039285521
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Horses perform variety of roles in our society, serving people in several ways. Proper nutrition and feeding management are some of the main objectives to ensure the well-being and performance of horses. Thus, the link between equine health and good dietary treatment must be recognized to increase our understanding of the needs of the horse. It is important to ensure science-based knowledge is available to all stakeholders and people working in the horse industry. This book presents research papers published in the Special Issue of Animals entitled ‘Horse Nutrition and Management’.

Zoonotic Pathogens in the Food Chain

Zoonotic Pathogens in the Food Chain
A Book

by Denis O. Krause,Stephen Hendrick

  • Publisher : CABI
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 242
  • ISBN : 1845936817
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Beginning with their sources, including manure and animal feed, and detailing their development, spread and transmission to humans, Zoonotic Pathogens in the Food Chain gives an insightful introduction to and epidemiological overview of the problems raised by zoonotic pathogens. The authors specifically examine the attributes of microorganisms that allow potential contamination of food sources and the factors in modern animal production processes that contribute to the risk of infection. Chapters discuss in detail pathogens that have recently emerged as important sources of infection, investigating in depth the implications of avian flu, swine flu, bovine spongiform encephalopathies and Johne's disease for human consumers, and considering where potential mitigation strategies should be focused. With a focus on new trends in animal production, such as organic livestock farming and raw milk consumption, this text provides an interesting and up-to-date reference for researchers, academics and those with an interest in pathology working in the livestock industry.

High Temperature Processing of Milk and Milk Products

High Temperature Processing of Milk and Milk Products
A Book

by Hilton C. Deeth,Michael J. Lewis

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-05-08
  • Pages : 584
  • ISBN : 1118460502
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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High Temperature Processing of Milk and Milk Products covers many aspects of thermal processing of milk and milk products with particular focus on UHT processing. The book begins with an overview of the major thermal processing technologies: thermisation, pasteurisation, extended-shelf-life (ESL), UHT and in-container sterilisation. It discusses the principles of the technologies, the processing and packaging equipment used, processing issues such as temperature-time profiles, heat stability, fouling and cleaning, and the quality and safety aspects of the products produced. It provides a balance of the engineering aspects of the processes and the chemical, microbiological and sensory aspects of the products. The changes that occur in products during processing and storage, and the related defects which can arise, are central to the book. The discussions of these changes will be an aid to industry personnel in identifying the causes of quality defects in these products and devising measures which can be taken to eliminate or minimise the defects. A unique feature is a chapter on analytical methodologies applicable to thermally processed dairy products. There are also chapters on high-temperature processed products other than white cows' milk, including products based on plant materials, and on non-thermal technologies which may be used in place of or as adjuncts to thermal processing. The book concludes with a chapter outlining some of the challenges with the technologies and treated products, and a compendium of relevant reviews, chapters and books.

The Effect of Technological Processing on the Content of Isoflavones in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products

The Effect of Technological Processing on the Content of Isoflavones in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products
A Book

by Ludmila Křížová

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Effect of Technological Processing on the Content of Isoflavones in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products.

Advanced Dairy Chemistry Volume 3

Advanced Dairy Chemistry Volume 3
Lactose, water, salts and vitamins

by Patrick F. Fox

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 536
  • ISBN : 1475744099
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is the third volume of Advanced Dairy Chemistry, which should be regarded as the second edition of Developments in Dairy Chemistry. Volume 1 of the series, Milk Proteins, was published in 1992 and Volume 2, Milk Lipids, in 1994. Volume 3, on lactose, water, salts and vitamins, essentially updates Volume 3 of Developments in Dairy Chemistry but with some important changes. Five of the eleven chapters are devoted to lactose (its physico-chemical properties, chemical modification, enzymatic modification and nutritional aspects), two chapters are devoted to milk salts (physico-chemical and nutritional aspects), one to vitamins and one to overview the flavour of dairy products. Two topics covered in the first editions (enzymes and other biologically active proteins) were transferred to Volume 1 of Advanced Dairy Chemistry and two new topics (water and physico chemical properties of milk) have been introduced. Although the constituents covered in this volume are commercially less important than proteins and lipids covered in Volumes 1 and 2, they are critically important from a nutritional viewpoint, especially vitamins and minerals, and to the quality and stability of milk and dairy products, especially flavour, milk salts and water. Lactose, the principal constituent of the solids of bovine milk, has long been regarded as essentially worthless and in many cases problematic from the nutritional and techno logical viewpoints; however, recent research has created several new possi bilities for the utilization of lactose.

Food biopolymers: Structural, functional and nutraceutical properties

Food biopolymers: Structural, functional and nutraceutical properties
A Book

by Adil Gani,Bilal Ahmad Ashwar

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-02-11
  • Pages : 441
  • ISBN : 3030270610
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Food biopolymers: Structural, functional and nutraceutical properties provides valuable coverage of all major food biopolymers from plant, animal and marine sources. The text focuses on the structural characteristics of biopolymers including starch, non-starch polysaccharides, proteins and fats. A full section is dedicated to the nutraceutical potential and applications of these polymers. Further sections provide comprehensive overviews of the development of functional food products and important data on biopolymer behavior and nutraceutical potential during processing. Researchers hoping to gain a basic understanding of the techno-functional, nutraceutical potential and applications of food biopolymers will find a singular source with this text. The first section of this work focuses on the the structure, functions, bioactivity and applications of starches. The next chapters cover non-starch polysaccharides. Further sections are dedicated to proteins, lipids and oils. A detailed overview is provided for each, followed by application procedures, specifics on individual types, proteins and enzymes, and nutraceutical properties. This work can be used as a singular source for all relevant information on food biopolymers and their structural and functional properties, including their potential to increase food quality, improve shelf life, and reduce pollution and waste in the food industry.

Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry

Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry
A Book

by Noble P. Wong

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 779
  • ISBN : 1461570506
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry has always been a reference text which has attempted to provide a complete treatise on the chemistry of milk and the relevant research. The third edition carries on in that format which has proved successful over four previous editions (Fun damentals of Dairy Science 1928, 1935 and Fundamentals of Dairy Chemistry 1965, 1974). Not only is the material brought up-to-date, indeed several chapters have been completely re-written, but attempts have been made to streamline this edition. In view of the plethora of research related to dairy chemistry, authors were asked to reduce the number of references by eliminating the early, less significant ones. In addition, two chapters have been replaced with subjects which we felt deserved attention: "Nutritive Value of Dairy Foods" and "Chemistry of Processing. " Since our society is now more attuned to the quality of the food it consumes and the processes necessary to preserve that quality, the addition of these topics seemed justified. This does not minimize the importance of the information in the deleted chapters, "Vitamins of Milk" and "Frozen Dairy Products. " Some of the mate rial in these previous chapters has been incorporated into the new chapters; furthermore, the information in these chapters is available in the second edition, as a reprint from ADSA (Vitamins in Milk and Milk Products, November 1965) or in the many texts on ice cream manufac ture.

Milk Proteins

Milk Proteins
From Expression to Food

by Mike Boland,Harjinder Singh,Abby Thompson

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2014-07-08
  • Pages : 622
  • ISBN : 0124051758
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Understanding of the interactions of milk proteins in complex food systems continues to progress, resulting in specialized milk-protein based applications in functional foods, and in protein ingredients for specific health applications. Milk Proteins is the first and only presentation of the entire dairy food chain – from the source to the nutritional aspects affecting the consumer. With focus on the molecular structures and interactions of milk proteins in various processing methods, Milk Proteins presents a comprehensive overview of the biology and chemistry of milk, as well as featuring the latest science and developments. Significant insight into the use of milk proteins from an industry viewpoint provides valuable application-based information. Those working with food and nutritional research and product development will find this book useful. 20% new chapter content — full revision throughout New chapters address: role of milk proteins in human health; aspects of digestion and absorption of milk proteins in the GIT; consumer demand and future trends in milk proteins; and world supply of proteins with a focus on dairy proteins Internationally recognized authors and editors bring academic and industrial insights to this important topic

Encyclopedia of Fermented Fresh Milk Products: An International Inventory of Fermented Milk, Cream, Buttermilk, Whey, and Related Products

Encyclopedia of Fermented Fresh Milk Products: An International Inventory of Fermented Milk, Cream, Buttermilk, Whey, and Related Products
A Book

by Joseph A. Kurmann,Jeremija L. Rasic,Manfred Kroger

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1992-10-31
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 9780442008697
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This wide-ranging encyclopedia presents an international survey of fermented fresh milk and related products. 400 entries cover traditional and non-traditional fermented fresh milk, cream, buttermilk, and whey products. Many new or little-known products and by-products are included, providing R&D personnel with a wealth of new product ideas.

Milk and Milk Products

Milk and Milk Products
A Book

by Aparna Bhatt

  • Publisher : AGRIHORTICO
  • Release : 2019-03-28
  • Pages : 48
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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MILK is the normal mammary secretion derived from complete milking of healthy milch animal. It is also defined as the whole, clean, fresh, lacteal secretion obtained by complete milking of one or more healthy milch animals. Milk has been evolved as an ideal source of nourishment to the young ones of a particular species producing it. In many parts of the world, cow is the major source of milk for human consumption. However, some other sources of milk like buffalo, goat, sheep, camel etc have also been employed for milk consumption. In India, the principal sources of milk are cow and buffalo. Moreover, in few parts of the country some amount of goat milk is also being consumed.India ranks high in milk production with a largest livestock population in the world.The term ‘market milk’ refers to the fluid whole milk that is sold to individuals usually for direct consumption. In India, generally the term ‘milk’ refers to cow or buffalo milk, or a combination of the two.