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Nonlinear Magnetization Dynamics in Nanosystems

Nonlinear Magnetization Dynamics in Nanosystems
A Book

by Isaak D. Mayergoyz,Giorgio Bertotti,Claudio Serpico

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-04-20
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 9780080913797
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As data transfer rates increase within the magnetic recording industry, improvements in device performance and reliability crucially depend on the thorough understanding of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at a sub-nanoscale level. This book offers a modern, stimulating approach to the subject of nonlinear magnetization dynamics by discussing important aspects such as the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, analytical solutions, and the connection between the general topological and structural aspects of dynamics. An advanced reference for the study and understanding of nonlinear magnetization dynamics, it addresses situations such as the understanding of spin dynamics in short time scales and device performance and reliability in magnetic recording. Topics covered include nonlinear magnetization dynamics and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, nonlinear dynamical systems, spin waves, ferromagnetic resonance and pulsed magnetization switching. The book explains how to derive exact analytical solutions for the complete nonlinear problem and emphasises the connection between the general topological and structural aspects of nonlinear magnetization dynamics and the discretization schemes better suited to its numerical study. It is an exceptional research tool providing an advanced understanding of the study of magnetization dynamics in situations of fundamental and technological interest.

Nonlinear Magnetization Dynamics in Nanosystems

Nonlinear Magnetization Dynamics in Nanosystems
A Book

by Snoman

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As data transfer rates increase within the magnetic recording industry, improvements in device performance and reliability crucially depend on the thorough understanding of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at a sub-nanoscale level.

Nonlinear Dynamics: Materials, Theory and Experiments

Nonlinear Dynamics: Materials, Theory and Experiments
Selected Lectures, 3rd Dynamics Days South America, Valparaiso 3-7 November 2014

by Mustapha Tlidi,Marcel. G. Clerc

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-11-14
  • Pages : 361
  • ISBN : 3319248715
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents recent advances, new ideas and novel techniques related to the field of nonlinear dynamics, including localized pattern formation, self-organization and chaos. Various natural systems ranging from nonlinear optics to mechanics, fluids and magnetic are considered. The aim of this book is to gather specialists from these various fields of research to promote cross-fertilization and transfer of knowledge between these active research areas. In particular, nonlinear optics and laser physics constitute an important part in this issue due to the potential applications for all-optical control of light, optical storage, and information processing. Other possible applications include the generation of ultra-short pulses using all-fiber cavities.

International Conference on Theory and Application in Nonlinear Dynamics (ICAND 2012)

International Conference on Theory and Application in Nonlinear Dynamics (ICAND 2012)
A Book

by Visarath In,Antonio Palacios,Patrick Longhini

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2013-12-13
  • Pages : 341
  • ISBN : 3319029258
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A collection of different lectures presented by experts in the field of nonlinear science provides the reader with contemporary, cutting-edge, research works that bridge the gap between theory and device realizations of nonlinear phenomena. Representative examples of topics covered include: chaos gates, social networks, communication, sensors, lasers, molecular motors, biomedical anomalies, stochastic resonance, nano-oscillators for generating microwave signals and related complex systems. A common theme among these and many other related lectures is to model, study, understand, and exploit the rich behavior exhibited by nonlinear systems to design and fabricate novel technologies with superior characteristics. Consider, for instance, the fact that a shark’s sensitivity to electric fields is 400 times more powerful than the most sophisticated electric-field sensor. In spite of significant advances in material properties, in many cases it remains a daunting task to duplicate the superior signal processing capabilities of most animals. Since nonlinear systems tend to be highly sensitive to perturbations when they occur near the onset of a bifurcation, there are also lectures on the general topic of bifurcation theory and on how to exploit such bifurcations for signal enhancements purposes. This manuscript will appeal to researchers interested in both theory and implementations of nonlinear systems.

Handbook of Nanomagnetism

Handbook of Nanomagnetism
Applications and Tools

by Rosa A. Lukaszew

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-10-06
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 9814613053
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This unique handbook compiles and details cutting-edge research in nanomagnetism and its applications in spintronics, magnetoplasmonics, and nonlinear magneto-optics. Fundamental aspects of magnetism relevant to nanodevices and new spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), current-induced domain wall motion memory, and spin torque oscillators, as well as highly anisotropic materials and topics on magnetization damping are developed in detail in the book. New paradigms such as molecule-based magnets (MBMs), which are a promisingly adaptive class of solids poised to open new frontiers of exploration, are also covered. The relationship between magnetism and nonlinear optics and the new field of magnetoplasmonics is also developed in detail. The book also includes a thorough chapter on spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM), which enables studying magnetic phenomena on surfaces with real-space imaging and spectroscopy techniques down to the atomic level. All these topics are developed by an interdisciplinary team of leading experts in their pertinent fields. The book will certainly appeal to anyone involved in nanomagnetism and its application in spintronic nanodevices and nonlinear magneto-optics.

Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing

Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing
A Book

by Jayasimha Atulasimha,Supriyo Bandyopadhyay

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-02-03
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 1118869249
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanomagnetic and spintronic computing devices are strong contenders for future replacements of CMOS. This is an important and rapidly evolving area with the semiconductor industry investing significantly in the study of nanomagnetic phenomena and in developing strategies to pinpoint and regulate nanomagnetic reliably with a high degree of energy efficiency. This timely book explores the recent and on-going research into nanomagnetic-based technology. Key features: Detailed background material and comprehensive descriptions of the current state-of-the-art research on each topic. Focuses on direct applications to devices that have potential to replace CMOS devices for computing applications such as memory, logic and higher order information processing. Discusses spin-based devices where the spin degree of freedom of charge carriers are exploited for device operation and ultimately information processing. Describes magnet switching methodologies to minimize energy dissipation. Comprehensive bibliographies included for each chapter enabling readers to conduct further research in this field. Written by internationally recognized experts, this book provides an overview of a rapidly burgeoning field for electronic device engineers, field-based applied physicists, material scientists and nanotechnologists. Furthermore, its clear and concise form equips readers with the basic understanding required to comprehend the present stage of development and to be able to contribute to future development. Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing is also an indispensable resource for students and researchers interested in computer hardware, device physics and circuits design.

Introduction to Magnetic Random-Access Memory

Introduction to Magnetic Random-Access Memory
A Book

by Bernard Dieny,Ronald B. Goldfarb,Kyung-Jin Lee

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-12-12
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 111900974X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) is poised to replace traditional computer memory based on complementary metal-oxide semiconductors (CMOS). MRAM will surpass all other types of memory devices in terms of nonvolatility, low energy dissipation, fast switching speed, radiation hardness, and durability. Although toggle-MRAM is currently a commercial product, it is clear that future developments in MRAM will be based on spin-transfer torque, which makes use of electrons’ spin angular momentum instead of their charge. MRAM will require an amalgamation of magnetics and microelectronics technologies. However, researchers and developers in magnetics and in microelectronics attend different technical conferences, publish in different journals, use different tools, and have different backgrounds in condensed-matter physics, electrical engineering, and materials science. This book is an introduction to MRAM for microelectronics engineers written by specialists in magnetic materials and devices. It presents the basic phenomena involved in MRAM, the materials and film stacks being used, the basic principles of the various types of MRAM (toggle and spin-transfer torque; magnetized in-plane or perpendicular-to-plane), the back-end magnetic technology, and recent developments toward logic-in-memory architectures. It helps bridge the cultural gap between the microelectronics and magnetics communities.

Mathematical Modelling and Scientific Computing with Applications

Mathematical Modelling and Scientific Computing with Applications
ICMMSC 2018, Indore, India, July 19–21

by Santanu Manna,Biswa Nath Datta,Sk. Safique Ahmad

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-02-14
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 9811513384
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book contains original research papers presented at the International Conference on Mathematical Modelling and Scientific Computing, held at the Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India, on 19–21 July 2018. Organized into 30 chapters, the book presents the recent progress and the most advanced innovations, trends, and real-world challenges encountered and solutions embraced in the applications of mathematics and scientific computing. The book will be of interests to a wide variety of researchers, students and the practicing engineers working in diverse areas of science and engineering, ranging from applied and computational mathematics, vibration problem, computer science, and numerical optimization to physics, chemistry, biology, electrical, civil, mechanical, chemical, seismology, aerospace, and medical sciences. The aim of the conference is to bring together leading academicians, scientists, researchers, engineers, and industry partners from all over the globe to exchange and share their experiences and research results on various aspects of applied mathematics and scientific computation, like, differential equation, modeling, simulation, dynamical systems, numerical analysis, matrix theory, inverse problems, and solid and fluid mechanics, computational engineering.

Langevin Equation, The: With Applications To Stochastic Problems In Physics, Chemistry And Electrical Engineering (Fourth Edition)

Langevin Equation, The: With Applications To Stochastic Problems In Physics, Chemistry And Electrical Engineering (Fourth Edition)
A Book

by Kalmykov Yuri P,Coffey William T

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2017-03-22
  • Pages : 928
  • ISBN : 9813222018
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Our original objective in writing this book was to demonstrate how the concept of the equation of motion of a Brownian particle — the Langevin equation or Newtonian-like evolution equation of the random phase space variables describing the motion — first formulated by Langevin in 1908 — so making him inter alia the founder of the subject of stochastic differential equations, may be extended to solve the nonlinear problems arising from the Brownian motion in a potential. Such problems appear under various guises in many diverse applications in physics, chemistry, biology, electrical engineering, etc. However, they have been invariably treated (following the original approach of Einstein and Smoluchowski) via the Fokker–Planck equation for the evolution of the probability density function in phase space. Thus the more simple direct dynamical approach of Langevin which we use and extend here, has been virtually ignored as far as the Brownian motion in a potential is concerned. In addition two other considerations have driven us to write this new edition of The Langevin Equation. First, more than five years have elapsed since the publication of the third edition and following many suggestions and comments of our colleagues and other interested readers, it became increasingly evident to us that the book should be revised in order to give a better presentation of the contents. In particular, several chapters appearing in the third edition have been rewritten so as to provide a more direct appeal to the particular community involved and at the same time to emphasize via a synergetic approach how seemingly unrelated physical problems all involving random noise may be described using virtually identical mathematical methods. Secondly, in that period many new and exciting developments have occurred in the application of the Langevin equation to Brownian motion. Consequently, in order to accommodate all these, a very large amount of new material has been added so as to present a comprehensive overview of the subject.

Spintronics in Nanoscale Devices

Spintronics in Nanoscale Devices
A Book

by Eric R. Hedin,Yong S. Joe

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-04-19
  • Pages : 223
  • ISBN : 9814411701
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov–Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications. This book provides researchers investigating this cutting-edge field with detailed background descriptions of spin-based effects and devices and their theoretical analysis in nanoelectronic circuits.

Magnetism of Surfaces, Interfaces, and Nanoscale Materials

Magnetism of Surfaces, Interfaces, and Nanoscale Materials
A Book

by Robert E. Camley,Zbigniew Celinski,Robert L. Stamps

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-10-27
  • Pages : 476
  • ISBN : 0444626395
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the past 30 years, magnetic research has been dominated by the question of how surfaces and interfaces influence the magnetic and transport properties of nanostructures, thin films and multilayers. The research has been particularly important in the magnetic recording industry where the giant magnetoresistance effect led to a new generation of storage devices including hand-held memories such as those found in the ipod. More recently, transfer of spin angular momentum across interfaces has opened a new field for high frequency applications. This book gives a comprehensive view of research at the forefront of these fields. The frontier is expanding through dynamic exchange between theory and experiment. Contributions have been chosen to reflect this, giving the reader a unified overview of the topic. Addresses both theory and experiment that are vital for gaining an essential understanding of topics at the interface between magnetism and materials science Chapters written by experts provide great insights into complex material Discusses fundamental background material and state-of-the-art applications, serving as an indispensable guide for students and professionals at all levels of expertise Stresses interdisciplinary aspects of the field, including physics, chemistry, nanocharacterization, and materials science Combines basic materials with applications, thus widening the scope of the book and its readership

Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials

Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials
A Book

by Challa S.S.R. Kumar

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-04-24
  • Pages : 566
  • ISBN : 3662527804
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sixth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about Magnetic Characterization Techniques for Nanomaterials. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

Thermal Fluctuations And Relaxation Processes In Nanomagnets

Thermal Fluctuations And Relaxation Processes In Nanomagnets
A Book

by William T Coffey,Yuri P Kalmykov,Sergei V Titov

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2020-05-21
  • Pages : 708
  • ISBN : 9811217297
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Presenting in a coherent and accessible fashion current results in nanomagnetism, this book constitutes a comprehensive, rigorous and readable account, from first principles of the classical and quantum theories underlying the dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles subject to thermal fluctuations.Starting with the Larmor-like equation for a giant spin, both the stochastic (Langevin) equation of motion of the magnetization and the associated evolution (Fokker-Planck) equation for the distribution function of the magnetization orientations of ferromagnetic nanoparticles (classical spins) in a heat bath are developed along with their solution (using angular momentum theory) for arbitrary magnetocrystalline-Zeeman energy. Thus, observables such as the magnetization reversal time, relaxation functions, dynamic susceptibilities, etc. are calculated and compared with the predictions of classical escape rate theory including in the most general case spin-torque-transfer. Regarding quantum effects, which are based on the reduced spin density matrix evolution equation in Hilbert space as is described at length, they are comprehensively treated via the Wigner-Stratonovich formulation of the quantum mechanics of spins via their orientational quasi-probability distributions on a classically meaningful representation space. Here, as suggested by the relevant Weyl symbols, the latter is the configuration space of the polar angles. Hence, one is led, by mapping the reduced density matrix equation onto that space, to a master equation for the quasi-probability evolution akin to the Fokker-Planck equation which may be solved in a similar way. Thus, one may study in a classical-like manner the evolution of observables with spin number ranging from an elementary spin to molecular clusters to the classical limit, viz. a nanoparticle. The entire discussion hinges on the one-to-one correspondence between polarization operators in Hilbert space and the spherical harmonics allied to concepts of spin coherent states long familiar in quantum optics.Catering for the reader with only a passing knowledge of statistical and quantum mechanics, the book serves as an introductory text on a complicated subject where the literature is remarkably sparse.

Handbook of Magnetic Materials

Handbook of Magnetic Materials
A Book

by Ekkes Brück

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-11-13
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 0444639284
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Magnetic Materials, Volume 26, covers the expansion of magnetism over the last few decades and its applications in research, notably the magnetism of several classes of novel materials that share the presence of magnetic moments with truly ferromagnetic materials. The book is an ideal reference for scientists active in magnetism research, providing readers with novel trends and achievements in magnetism. Each article contains an extensive description given in graphical, as well as, tabular form, with much emphasis placed on the discussion of the experimental material within the framework of physics, chemistry and material science. Comprises topical review articles written by leading authorities Includes a variety of self-contained introductions to a given area in the field of magnetism without requiring recourse to the published literature Introduces given topics in the field of magnetism Describes novel trends and achievements in magnetism

Atomistic Spin Dynamics

Atomistic Spin Dynamics
Foundations and Applications

by Olle Eriksson,Anders Bergman,Johan Hellsvik,Lars Bergqvist

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2017-02-23
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 0198788665
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of this book is to provide a theoretical foundation and an understanding of atomistic spin-dynamics (ASD), and to give examples of where the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation can and should be used. As argued in the text, a description of magnetism in an atomistic way is very natural and allows for an interpretation of experimental results in a clear and deep way. This description also allows for calculations, from first principles, of all parameters needed to perform the spin-dynamics simulations, without using experimental results as input to the simulations. As shown in the book, we are now at a very exciting situation, where it is possible to perform accurate and efficient atomistic simulations on a length- and time-scale which is balancing on the edge of what is experimentally possible. In this way, ASD simulations can both validate and be validated by state-of-the art experiments, and ASD simulations also have the possibility to act as a predictive tool that is able to explain the magnetization dynamics in experimentally inaccessible situations. The purpose of this book has been to communicate technically relevant concepts. An even larger motivation is to communicate an inspiration to magnetism and magnetization dynamics, and the emerging technological fields that one may foresee, e.g. in magnonics, solitonics and skyrmionics.

Stochastic Ferromagnetism

Stochastic Ferromagnetism
Analysis and Numerics

by Lubomir Banas,Zdzislaw Brzezniak,Mikhail Neklyudov,Andreas Prohl

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
  • Release : 2013-12-18
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 3110307103
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This monograph examines magnetization dynamics at elevated temperatures which can be described by the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation (SLLG). The first part of the book studies the role of noise in finite ensembles of nanomagnetic particles: we show geometric ergodicity of a unique invariant measure of Gibbs type and study related properties of approximations of the SLLG, including time discretization and Ginzburg-Landau type penalization. In the second part we propose an implementable space-time discretization using random walks to construct a weak martingale solution of the corresponding stochastic partial differential equation which describes the magnetization process of infinite spin ensembles. The last part of the book is concerned with a macroscopic deterministic equation which describes temperature effects on macro-spins, i.e. expectations of the solutions to the SLLG. Furthermore, comparative computational studies with the stochastic model are included. We use constructive tools such as e.g. finite element methods to derive the theoretical results, which are then used for computational studies. The numerical experiments motivate an interesting interplay between inherent geometric and stochastic effects of the SLLG which still lack a rigorous analytical understanding: the role of space-time white noise, possible finite time blow-up behavior of solutions, long-time asymptotics, and effective dynamics.

Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices

Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices
A Book

by An Chen,James Hutchby,Victor Zhirnov,George Bourianoff

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-01-27
  • Pages : 576
  • ISBN : 1118447743
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Emerging Nanoelectronic Devices focuses on the future direction of semiconductor and emerging nanoscale device technology. As the dimensional scaling of CMOS approaches its limits, alternate information processing devices and microarchitectures are being explored to sustain increasing functionality at decreasing cost into the indefinite future. This is driving new paradigms of information processing enabled by innovative new devices, circuits, and architectures, necessary to support an increasingly interconnected world through a rapidly evolving internet. This original title provides a fresh perspective on emerging research devices in 26 up to date chapters written by the leading researchers in their respective areas. It supplements and extends the work performed by the Emerging Research Devices working group of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Key features: Serves as an authoritative tutorial on innovative devices and architectures that populate the dynamic world of “Beyond CMOS” technologies. Provides a realistic assessment of the strengths, weaknesses and key unknowns associated with each technology. Suggests guidelines for the directions of future development of each technology. Emphasizes physical concepts over mathematical development. Provides an essential resource for students, researchers and practicing engineers.

The Physics of Solids

The Physics of Solids
A Book

by J. B. Ketterson

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-10-28
  • Pages : 800
  • ISBN : 0191060550
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This comprehensive text covers the basic physics of the solid state starting at an elementary level suitable for undergraduates but then advancing, in stages, to a graduate and advanced graduate level. In addition to treating the fundamental elastic, electrical, thermal, magnetic, structural, electronic, transport, optical, mechanical and compositional properties, we also discuss topics like superfluidity and superconductivity along with special topics such as strongly correlated systems, high-temperature superconductors, the quantum Hall effects, and graphene. Particular emphasis is given to so-called first principles calculations utilizing modern density functional theory which for many systems now allow accurate calculations of the electronic, magnetic, and thermal properties.

Metrology and Physical Constants

Metrology and Physical Constants
A Book

by A. Di Giuseppe

  • Publisher : IOS Press
  • Release : 2013-10-21
  • Pages : 568
  • ISBN : 1614993262
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The reliability and accuracy of systems of measurement continue to advance. We are about to enter a period of the most stable measurement system we can imagine with the anticipated new definitions of the SI units of measurement; a direct link between fundamental physics and metrology which will eliminate the current definition of the kilogram, until now based upon an artifact. This book presents selected papers from Course 185 of the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics, held in Varenna, Italy, in July 2012 and jointly organized with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The papers delivered at the school covered some of the most advanced topics in the discipline of metrology, including nano-technologies; quantum information and quantum devices; biology and medicine; food; surface quality; ionising radiation for health, environment, art and archaeology; and climate. The continuous and striking advances in basic research concerning atomic frequency standards operating both in the visible range and at microwave levels and the applications to satellite systems are also considered, in the framework of a historical review of the international organization of metrology, as are the problems inherent in uncertainty statements and definitions. This book will be of interest to all those whose work involves scientific measurement at the highest levels of accuracy.

Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation: Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources

Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation: Towards the Fourth Generation Light Sources
Proceedings of the 6th International School “Synchrotron Radiation and Magnetism”, Mittelwihr (France), 2012

by Eric Beaurepaire,Hervé Bulou,Loic Joly,Fabrice Scheurer

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-26
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 3319030329
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Advances in the synthesis of new materials with often complex, nano-scaled structures require increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can probe the electronic states, the atomic magnetic moments and the magnetic microstructures responsible for the properties of these materials. At the same time, progress in synchrotron radiation techniques has ensured that these light sources remain a key tool of investigation, e.g. synchrotron radiation sources of the third generation are able to support magnetic imaging on a sub-micrometer scale. With the Sixth Mittelwihr School on Magnetism and Synchrotron Radiation the tradition of teaching the state-of-the-art on modern research developments continues and is expressed through the present set of extensive lectures provided in this volume. While primarily aimed at postgraduate students and newcomers to the field, this volume will also benefit researchers and lecturers actively working in the field.