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Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia
A Book

by Nina Vardjan,Robert Zorec

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-07-13
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 0128134267
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia integrates what is known about the active role of astroglia in the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system and outlines the most recent advances in the field. It discusses the molecular mechanisms underlying norepinephrine-induced receptor activation in astroglia, cellular metabolism and CNS energy provision, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, gliosignalling and neuronal activity, and astroglial networks, gap junctions, and morphological plasticity. The book also addresses the role of astroglial adrenergic receptor activation in memory formation, cognition, regulation of sleep homeostasis, and lastly in neurological disorders, including trauma (cellular edema), neurodegeneration (Alzheimer’s disease), and neuroinflammation (multiple sclerosis). Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia is a valuable source of new knowledge for a wide audience, including graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in neuroscience, life sciences, and the biological and biomedical sciences. Covers what is currently known about the role of astroglia in the noradrenergic system Provides biochemical and physiological mechanistic data to understand how noradrenergic signals acting on astroglia produce observed effects Includes figures and tables of structures, mechanisms and processes related to astroglia and noradrenergic signaling in CNS

Physiology of Astroglia

Physiology of Astroglia
Channels, Receptors, Transporters, Ion Signaling and Gliotransmission

by Alexei Verkhratsky,Vladimir Parpura

  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release : 2015-03-01
  • Pages : 172
  • ISBN : 1615046739
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Astrocytes can be defined as the glia inhabiting the nervous system with the main function in the maintenance of nervous tissue homeostasis. Classified into several types according to their morphological appearance, many of astrocytes form a reticular structure known as astroglial syncytium, owing to their coupling via intercellular channels organized into gap junctions. Not only do astrocytes establish such homocellular contacts, but they also engage in intimate heterocellular interactions with neurons, most notably at synaptic sites. As synaptic structures house the very core of information transfer and processing in the nervous system, astroglial perisynaptic positioning assures that these glial cells can nourish neurons and establish bidirectional communication with them, functions outlined in the concepts of the astrocytic cradle and multi-partite synapse, respectively. Astrocytes possess a rich assortment of ligand receptors, ion and water channels, and ion and ligand transporters, which collectively contribute to astrocytic control of homeostasis and excitability. Astroglia control glutamate and adenosine homeostasis to exert modulatory actions affecting the real-time operation of synapses. Fluctuations of intracellular calcium can lead to the release of various chemical transmitters from astrocytes through a process termed gliotransmission. Sodium fluctuations are closely associated to those of calcium with both dynamic events interfacing signaling and metabolism. Astrocytes appear fully integrated into the brain cellular circuitry, being an indispensable part of neural networks.

Enteric Glia

Enteric Glia
A Book

by Brian D. Gulbransen

  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release : 2014-07-01
  • Pages : 70
  • ISBN : 1615046615
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a complex neural network embedded in the gut wall that orchestrates the reflex behaviors of the intestine. The ENS is often referred to as the “little brain” in the gut because the ENS is more similar in size, complexity and autonomy to the central nervous system (CNS) than other components of the autonomic nervous system. Like the brain, the ENS is composed of neurons that are surrounded by glial cells. Enteric glia are a unique type of peripheral glia that are similar to astrocytes of the CNS. Yet enteric glial cells also differ from astrocytes in many important ways. The roles of enteric glial cell populations in the gut are beginning to come to light and recent evidence implicates enteric glia in almost every aspect of gastrointestinal physiology and pathophysiology. However, elucidating the exact mechanisms by which enteric glia influence gastrointestinal physiology and identifying how those roles are altered during gastrointestinal pathophysiology remain areas of intense research. The purpose of this e-book is to provide an introduction to enteric glial cells and to act as a resource for ongoing studies on this fascinating population of glia. Table of Contents: Introduction / A Historical Perspective on Enteric Glia / Enteric Glia: The Astroglia of the Gut / Molecular Composition of Enteric Glia / Development of Enteric Glia / Functional Roles of Enteric Glia / Enteric Glia and Disease Processes in the Gut / Concluding Remarks / References / Author Biography

Physiology of Astroglia

Physiology of Astroglia
Channels, Receptors, Transporters, Ion Signaling and Gliotransmission

by Alexei Verkhratsky,Vladimir Parpura

  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release : 2015-03-01
  • Pages : 172
  • ISBN : 1615046739
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Astrocytes can be defined as the glia inhabiting the nervous system with the main function in the maintenance of nervous tissue homeostasis. Classified into several types according to their morphological appearance, many of astrocytes form a reticular structure known as astroglial syncytium, owing to their coupling via intercellular channels organized into gap junctions. Not only do astrocytes establish such homocellular contacts, but they also engage in intimate heterocellular interactions with neurons, most notably at synaptic sites. As synaptic structures house the very core of information transfer and processing in the nervous system, astroglial perisynaptic positioning assures that these glial cells can nourish neurons and establish bidirectional communication with them, functions outlined in the concepts of the astrocytic cradle and multi-partite synapse, respectively. Astrocytes possess a rich assortment of ligand receptors, ion and water channels, and ion and ligand transporters, which collectively contribute to astrocytic control of homeostasis and excitability. Astroglia control glutamate and adenosine homeostasis to exert modulatory actions affecting the real-time operation of synapses. Fluctuations of intracellular calcium can lead to the release of various chemical transmitters from astrocytes through a process termed gliotransmission. Sodium fluctuations are closely associated to those of calcium with both dynamic events interfacing signaling and metabolism. Astrocytes appear fully integrated into the brain cellular circuitry, being an indispensable part of neural networks.

Glia in Health and Disease

Glia in Health and Disease
A Book

by Margaret S. Ho,Alexei Verkhratsky,Shumin Duan,Vladimir Parpura

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-08-16
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889458504
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Dynamics and Modulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Mammalian CNS

Dynamics and Modulation of Synaptic Transmission in the Mammalian CNS
A Book

by Maria Elisa Calcagnotto,Alberto A. Rasia-Filho,Idan Segev

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-06-21
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889458911
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Synapse

The Synapse
Structure and Function

by Virginia M. Pickel,Menahem Segal

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-11-16
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 0124186823
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Synapse summarizes recent advances in cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission and provides new insights into neuronal plasticity and the cellular basis of neurological diseases. Part 1 provides an in-depth look at structural differences and distribution of various pre- and post-synaptic proteins found at glutamatergic synapses. Part 2 is dedicated to dendritic spines and their associated perisynaptic glia, which together constitute the tripartite synapse. The spines are portrayed as major sites for calcium sequestration and local protein synthesis. Part 3 highlights the important regional and cellular differences between glutamatergic transmission and that of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine that are commonly found in axon terminals without synaptic membrane specializations. Part 4 provides an overview of the synapse from the time of formation to degeneration under the powerful influence of aging or hormonal decline that leads to severe deficits in cognitive function. Each chapter is illustrated with drawings and images derived from calcium imaging, electron microscopic immunolabeling, or electrophysiology. This book is a valuable reference for neuroscientists and clinical neurologists in both research and clinical settings. A comprehensive reference focused on the structure and function of the synapse Covers the links between the synapse and neural plasticity and the cellular basis of neurologic disease Detailed coverage of dendritic spines and associated perisynaptic glia—the tripartite synapse Includes in-depth coverage of synapse degeneration due to aging or hormonal decline related to severe cognitive impairment

Glia in Health and Disease

Glia in Health and Disease
A Book

by Margaret S. Ho,Alexei Verkhratsky,Shumin Duan,Vladimir Parpura

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-08-16
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889458504
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Cognitive Neurosciences

The Cognitive Neurosciences
A Book

by David Poeppel,George R. Mangun,Michael S. Gazzaniga

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2020-05-12
  • Pages : 1152
  • ISBN : 0262043254
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The sixth edition of the foundational reference on cognitive neuroscience, with entirely new material that covers the latest research, experimental approaches, and measurement methodologies. Each edition of this classic reference has proved to be a benchmark in the developing field of cognitive neuroscience. The sixth edition of The Cognitive Neurosciences continues to chart new directions in the study of the biological underpinnings of complex cognition—the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the nervous system and the psychological reality of the mind. It offers entirely new material, reflecting recent advances in the field, covering the latest research, experimental approaches, and measurement methodologies. This sixth edition treats such foundational topics as memory, attention, and language, as well as other areas, including computational models of cognition, reward and decision making, social neuroscience, scientific ethics, and methods advances. Over the last twenty-five years, the cognitive neurosciences have seen the development of sophisticated tools and methods, including computational approaches that generate enormous data sets. This volume deploys these exciting new instruments but also emphasizes the value of theory, behavior, observation, and other time-tested scientific habits. Section editors Sarah-Jayne Blakemore and Ulman Lindenberger, Kalanit Grill-Spector and Maria Chait, Tomás Ryan and Charan Ranganath, Sabine Kastner and Steven Luck, Stanislas Dehaene and Josh McDermott, Rich Ivry and John Krakauer, Daphna Shohamy and Wolfram Schultz, Danielle Bassett and Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Marina Bedny and Alfonso Caramazza, Liina Pylkkänen and Karen Emmorey, Mauricio Delgado and Elizabeth Phelps, Anjan Chatterjee and Adina Roskies

Cumulated Index Medicus

Cumulated Index Medicus
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1995
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases
A Book

by Alexei Verkhratsky,Margaret S. Ho,Robert Zorec,Vladimir Parpura

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-10-03
  • Pages : 405
  • ISBN : 9811399131
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of the role of neuroglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroglia are the most abundant cells in the nervous system and consist of several distinct cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,and microglia. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroglia participate in the neurodegenerative process, and as such are essential players in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s. Intended for researchers and students, the book presents recent advances concerning the biology of neuroglia as well as their interaction with neurons during disease progression. In addition, to highlight the function of neuroglia in different types of neurodegenerative disease, it also discusses their mechanisms and effects on protecting or damaging neurons.

The Enteric Nervous System

The Enteric Nervous System
A Book

by John Barton Furness

  • Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
  • Release : 2006-01-09
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 1405133767
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Covers all aspects of the structure, function, neurochemistry, transmitter identification and development of the enteric nervous system This book brings together extensive knowledge of the structure and cell physiology of the enteric nervous system and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the roles of the enteric nervous system in the control of motility, secretion and blood supply in the gastrointestinal tract. It includes sections on the enteric nervous system in disease, genetic abnormalities that affect enteric nervous system function, and targets for therapy in the enteric nervous system. It also includes many newly created explanatory diagrams and illustrations of the organization of enteric nerve circuits. This new book is ideal for gastroenterologists (including trainees/fellows), clinical physiologists and educators. It is invaluable for the many scientists in academia, research institutes and industry who have been drawn to work on the gastrointestinal innervation because of its intrinsic interest, its economic importance and its involvement in unsolved health problems. It also provides a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate teaching.

Astrocytes in (Patho)Physiology of the Nervous System

Astrocytes in (Patho)Physiology of the Nervous System
A Book

by Vladimir Parpura,Philip G. Haydon

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-12-11
  • Pages : 738
  • ISBN : 9780387794921
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Astrocytes were the original neuroglia that Ramón y Cajal visualized in 1913 using a gold sublimate stain. This stain targeted intermediate filaments that we now know consist mainly of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a protein used today as an astrocytic marker. Cajal described the morphological diversity of these cells with some ast- cytes surrounding neurons, while the others are intimately associated with vasculature. We start the book by discussing the heterogeneity of astrocytes using contemporary tools and by calling into question the assumption by classical neuroscience that neurons and glia are derived from distinct pools of progenitor cells. Astrocytes have long been neglected as active participants in intercellular communication and information processing in the central nervous system, in part due to their lack of electrical excitability. The follow up chapters review the “nuts and bolts” of ast- cytic physiology; astrocytes possess a diverse assortment of ion channels, neu- transmitter receptors, and transport mechanisms that enable the astrocytes to respond to many of the same signals that act on neurons. Since astrocytes can detect chemical transmitters that are released from neurons and can release their own extracellular signals there is an increasing awareness that they play physiological roles in regulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In addition to these physiological roles, it is becoming increasingly recognized that astrocytes play critical roles during pathophysiological states of the nervous system; these states include gliomas, Alexander disease, and epilepsy to mention a few.

Astrocyte

Astrocyte
Physiology and Pathology

by Maria Teresa Gentile,Luca Colucci D’Amato

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-03-21
  • Pages : 242
  • ISBN : 9535138855
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A team of authors from prestigious academic schools contributed to draw up a project that would give a detailed account of astrocyte's morphology and physiology, examining thoroughly all the astrocyte's types; giving an accurate description of their morphology, location, function in the brain; and illustrating their physiology and pathology in terms of dealing with neurons through "gliotransmitters," ionic channels, and membrane receptors expression. This book gives an overview of the crucial role of astrocytes in the physiology of the CNS and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders suggesting that the shift from a neurocentric view to one that incorporates astrocytes in disease models for drug discovery is a critical step in renewing drug development strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Fundamental Neuroscience

Fundamental Neuroscience
A Book

by Larry Squire,Darwin Berg,Floyd E. Bloom,Sascha du Lac,Anirvan Ghosh,Larry R. Squire,Nicholas C. Spitzer,Susan K. McConnell,James L. Roberts,Michael J. Zigmond

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2002-11-19
  • Pages : 1426
  • ISBN : 0080521800
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With over 300 training programs in neuroscience currently in existence, demand is great for a comprehensive textbook that both introduces graduate students to the full range of neuroscience, from molecular biology to clinical science, but also assists instructors in offering an in-depth course in neuroscience to advanced undergraduates. The second edition of Fundamental Neuroscience accomplishes all this and more. The thoroughly revised text features over 25% new material including completely new chapters, illustrations, and a CD-ROM containing all the figures from the text. More concise and manageable than the previous edition, this book has been retooled to better serve its audience in the neuroscience and medical communities. Key Features * Logically organized into 7 sections, with uniform editing of the content for a "one-voice" feel throughout all 54 chapters * Includes numerous text boxes with concise, detailed descriptions of specific experiments, disorders, methodological approaches, and concepts * Well-illustrated with over 850 full color figures, also included on the accompanying CD-ROM

Acetylcholine in the Cerebral Cortex

Acetylcholine in the Cerebral Cortex
A Book

by Université de Montréal. Centre de recherche en sciences neurologiques. International Symposium,Centre de recherche en sciences neurologiques (Montréal, Canada). Symposium

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 327
  • ISBN : 9780444511256
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Comprehensive exposé, by leading neuroscientists, of current knowledge on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the cerebral cortex. All aspects of the subject are covered, from its most elementary, at the molecular and cellular levels, to its systemic and holistic implications, including its role in cognition and involvement in human diseases and therapeutics. The twenty-two chapters are grouped under four main headings : I. Functional Morphology of the Acetylcholine Innervation in Cerebral Cortex (Including Hippocampus); II. Modes of Action of Acetylcholine in the Cerebral Cortex; III. Cortical Properties and Functions Modulated by Acetylcholine, and IV. Clinical, Pathological and Therapeutic Implications. This broad perspective updates the reader on recent advances and future trends in the study of a major neuromodulatory system in brain.

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide
A Book

by Yogesh Dwivedi

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-06-25
  • Pages : 482
  • ISBN : 143983881X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

Brain Glycogen Metabolism

Brain Glycogen Metabolism
A Book

by Mauro DiNuzzo,Arne Schousboe

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2019-10-31
  • Pages : 443
  • ISBN : 3030274802
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book aims to provide a state-of-the-art summary of what is currently known about brain glycogen metabolism, detailing the recent advances in our understanding of why glycogen is so critical for normal brain function. The role of glycogen in cellular neurophysiology remains largely unclear and its specific contribution to the energy demand of brain cells is still elusive.Glycogen is the sole cerebral glucose reserve and is emerging as a fundamental component of brain energy metabolism. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glycogen metabolism in the brain impairs memory formation and increases susceptibility to epileptic seizures and cortical spreading depression. Glycogen is also directly implicated in abnormal neuronal excitability and mental retardation that characterize brain disorders like Lafora disease and Pompe disease.

On Astrocytes and Glutamate Neurotransmission

On Astrocytes and Glutamate Neurotransmission
New Waves in Brain Information Processing

by Elisabeth Hansson,Torsten Olsson,Lars Ronnback,Lars Rönnbäck

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 1997-06-15
  • Pages : 191
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain Energy Metabolism

Brain Energy Metabolism
A Book

by Johannes Hirrlinger,Helle S. Waagepetersen

  • Publisher : Humana Press
  • Release : 2014-09-16
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 9781493910588
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain Energy Metabolism addresses its challenging subject by presenting diverse technologies allowing for the investigation of brain energy metabolism on different levels of complexity. Model systems are discussed, starting from the reductionist approach like primary cell cultures which allow assessing of the properties and functions of a single brain cell type with many different types of analysis, however, at the expense of neglecting the interaction between cell types in the brain. On the other end, analysis in animals and humans in vivo is discussed, maintaining the full complexity of the tissue and the organism but making high demands on the methods of analysis. Written for the popular Neuromethods series, chapters include the kind of detailed description and key implementation advice that aims to support reproducible results in the lab. Meticulous and authoritative, Brain Energy Metabolism provides an ideal guide for researchers interested in brain energy metabolism with the hope of stimulating more research in this exciting and very important field.