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Plant Life under Changing Environment

Plant Life under Changing Environment
Responses and Management

by Durgesh Kumar Tripathi,Vijay Pratap Singh,Devendra Kumar Chauhan,Shivesh Sharma,Sheo Mohan Prasad,Nawal Kishore Dubey,Naleeni Ramawat

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-04-10
  • Pages : 1012
  • ISBN : 0128182059
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plant Life under Changing Environment: Responses and Management presents the latest insights, reflecting the significant progress that has been made in understanding plant responses to various changing environmental impacts, as well as strategies for alleviating their adverse effects, including abiotic stresses. Growing from a focus on plants and their ability to respond, adapt, and survive, Plant Life under Changing Environment: Responses and Management addresses options for mitigating those responses to ensure maximum health and growth. Researchers and advanced students in environmental sciences, plant ecophysiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, nano-pollution climate change, and soil pollution will find this an important foundational resource. Covers both responses and adaptation of plants to altered environmental states Illustrates the current impact of climate change on plant productivity, along with mitigation strategies Includes transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic and ionomic approaches

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment
A Book

by Parvaiz Ahmad,Mohd Rafiq Wani

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2013-12-04
  • Pages : 394
  • ISBN : 9781461485995
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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​​Abiotic stress has a detrimental impact on the living organisms in a specific environment and constitutes a major constraint to global agricultural production. The adverse environmental conditions that plants encounter during their life cycle not only disturb their metabolic reactions, but also hamper their growth and development on cellular and whole plant levels. These conditions are of great concern, particularly for those countries whose economies primarily rely on agriculture. Under abiotic stresses, plants amalgamate multiple external stress cues to bring about a coordinated response and establish mechanisms to mitigate such stresses by triggering a cascade of events leading to enhanced tolerance. Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants under Changing Environment, Volume 2 displays the ways by which plants utilize and integrate many common signals and subsequent pathways to cope with less favourable environmental conditions. The book also describes the use of contemporary tools for the improvement of plants under such stressed environments. Concise yet comprehensive, Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants under Changing Environment, Volume 2 is an indispensable resource for researchers, students, environmentalists and many others in this burgeoning area of research.

THE SECRET OF PLANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

THE SECRET OF PLANTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
A Book

by RISHIKESH UPADHYAY

  • Publisher : Notion Press
  • Release : 2020-04-14
  • Pages : 204
  • ISBN : 1648509215
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plants are sessile organisms that are unable to move but face the challenge of ever-changing or adverse environments. The study of the development of environmental changes in tolerant plants is fundamental for the maintenance and streamlining of high crop yields and plant adaptation in natural environments. The identification of genes that lead to changes or stress tolerance is urgently needed for the growth and development of plants in their natural environment. The Secret of Plants in the ENVIRONMENT addresses environmental concerns such as the different types of stress situations and plant adaptation to changing environments, including the positive and negative effects of stress on the growth of crops, the beginning stages of plant life cycles, and plant output. This book seeks to discuss the impact of environmental changes or stress on plant life, environmental stress physiology, and adaptation mechanisms. It highlights the impact of environmental stresses on plants and crops under changing environments and gives a comprehensive overview of how plants respond to such environments. In addition, it serves as a helpful guide to the students of BSc, MSc and to all professionals engaged in teaching and research on environmental-related subjects. It dwells on some important aspects of environmental change or stress as the main issue affecting the survival of plants at the early stages of their life cycle. Hence, the author hopes that both early-career scientists and research scholars interested in pursuing environmental science to an advanced stage would also benefit from the important information discussed in this book.

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Systems in Plants: Role and Regulation under Abiotic Stress

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Systems in Plants: Role and Regulation under Abiotic Stress
A Book

by M. Iqbal R. Khan,Nafees A. Khan

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-08-02
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9811052549
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The present edited book is an attempt to update the state of art of the knowledge on metabolism of ROS and antioxidants and their relationship in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses involving physiological, biochemical and molecular processes. The chapters are much focused on the current climate issues and how ROS metabolism can manipulate with antioxidant system to accelerate detoxification mechanism. It will enhance the mechanistic understanding on ROS and antioxidants system and will pave the path for agricultural scientists in developing tolerant crops to achieve sustainability under the changing environmental conditions. The increase in abiotic stress factors has become a major threat to sustainability of crop production. This situation has led to think ways which can help to come out with potential measures; for which it is necessary to understand the influence of abiotic stress factors on crops performance and the mechanisms by which these factors impact plants. It has now become evident that abiotic stress impacts negatively on plant growth and development at every stage of plant’s life. Plants adapt to the changing environment with the adjustment at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. The possible mechanisms involved in the negative effects of abiotic stress factors are excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They alter physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to poor performance of plants. Plants however, are able to cope with these adverse effects by inducing antioxidant systems as the priority. Nevertheless, the dual role of ROS has now been ascertained which provides an evidence for regulation of plant metabolism positively on a concentration-dependent manner. Under conditions of high ROS production, the antioxidant system plays a major role in diminishing the effects of ROS. Thus, ROS production and antioxidant system are interwoven with abiotic stress conditions. The antioxidants have the capacity to hold the stability in metabolism in order to avoid disruption due to environmental disturbances.

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment

Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment
A Book

by Parvaiz Ahmad,Mohd Rafiq Wani

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-12
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN : 1461485916
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The global population is growing at an alarming rate and is anticipated to reach about 9.6 billion by the end of 2050. Addressing the problem of food scarcity for budding population vis-à-vis environmental changes is the main challenge plant biologists face in the contemporary era. Plant growth and productivity are scarce in many areas of the world due to a wide range of environmental stresses. The productive land is dwindling progressively by various natural and anthropogenic means that lead to enormous crop losses worldwide. Plants often experience these stresses and have the ability to withstand them. However, when the stress exceeds the normal tolerance level, plants accumulate organic osmolytes, osmoprotectants, cryoprotectants and antioxidant enzymes, which helps them tolerate these stresses and assist in their acclimatization towards the particular ambiance needed for maintaining their growth and development. Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Volume 1 discuss drought and temperature stresses and their mitigation through different means. This volume illuminates how plants that are bombarded by diverse and changing environmental stimuli, undergo appropriate physiological alterations that enable their survival. The information covered in the book is also useful in building apposite strategies to counter abiotic and biotic stresses in plants. Written by a diverse group of internationally renowned scholars, Physiological Mechanisms and Adaptation Strategies in Plants Under Changing Environment, Volume 1 is a concise yet comprehensive resource that will be beneficial for the researchers, students, environmentalists and soil scientists of this field.

Climate Change and the Microbiome

Climate Change and the Microbiome
Sustenance of the Ecosphere

by D. K. Choudhary

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 3030768635
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sustainable Soil and Land Management and Climate Change

Sustainable Soil and Land Management and Climate Change
A Book

by Shah Fahad,Osman Sonmez,Shah Saud,Depeng Wang,Chao Wu,Muhammad Adnan,Veysel Turan

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2021-06-17
  • Pages : 194
  • ISBN : 1000393852
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The third volume of Sustainable Soil and Land Management and Climate Change presents a complete overview of plant soil interactions in a climate affected by greenhouse gas emissions and organic carbon. It presents approaches and managements strategies for the stabilization of soil organic matter. The latest in the respected Footprints of Climate Variability on Plant Diversity series, this book enhances the reader’s knowledge of the preservation of organic matter through microbial approaches as well as through soil and plant interactions. Written by teams of specialist scientists, it presents research outcomes, practical applications and future challenges for this important field. Features: Presents microbial tactics for the alleviation of potentially toxic elements in agricultural soils and for reclaiming saline soil. Provides an overview of scientific investigations into greenhouse gas emissions. Outlines priming techniques developed in response to a changing climate. This book is written for students of agronomy, soil science and the environmental sciences as well as researchers interested in management technologies to improve soil fertility.

Plant Growth Regulators

Plant Growth Regulators
Signalling Under Stress Conditions

by Tariq Aftab,Khalid Rehman Hakeem

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 498
  • ISBN : 3030611531
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Agriculture faces many challenges to fulfil the growing demand for sustainable food production and ensure high-quality nutrition for a rapidly growing population. To guarantee adequate food production, it is necessary to increase the yield per area of arable land. A method for achieving this goal has been the application of growth regulators to modulate plant growth. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are substances in specific formulations which, when applied to plants or seeds, have the capacity to promote, inhibit, or modify physiological traits, development and/or stress responses. They maintain proper balance between source and sink for enhancing crop yield. PGRs are used to maximize productivity and quality, improve consistency in production, and overcome genetic and abiotic limitations to plant productivity. Suitable PGRs include hormones such as cytokinins and auxins, and hormone-like compounds such as mepiquat chloride and paclobutrazol. The use of PGRs in mainstream agriculture has steadily increased within the last 20 years as their benefits have become better understood by growers. Unfortunately, the growth of the PGR market may be constrained by a lack of innovation at a time when an increase in demand for new products will require steady innovation and discovery of novel, cost-competitive, specific, and effective PGRs. A plant bio-stimulant is any substance or microorganism applied to plants with the aim to enhance nutrition efficiency, abiotic stress tolerance and/or crop quality traits, regardless of its nutrients content. Apart from traditional PGRs, which are mostly plant hormones, there are a number of substances/molecules such as nitric oxide, methyl jasmonate, brassinosteroids, seaweed extracts, strigolactones, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria etc. which act as PGRs. These novel PGRs or bio-stimulants have been reported to play important roles in stress responses and adaptation. They can protect plants against various stresses, including water deficit, chilling and high temperatures, salinity and flooding. This book includes chapters ranging from sensing and signalling in plants to translational research. In addition, the cross-talk operative in plants in response to varied signals of biotic and abiotic nature is also presented. Ultimately the objective of this book is to present the current scenario and the future plan of action for the management of stresses through traditional as well as novel PGRs. We believe that this book will initiate and introduce readers to state-of-the-art developments and trends in this field of study.

Microbes in Land Use Change Management

Microbes in Land Use Change Management
A Book

by Jay Shankar Singh,Shashank Tiwari,Chhatarpal Singh,Anil Kumar Singh

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-08-20
  • Pages : 598
  • ISBN : 0323858945
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Microbes in Land Use Change Management details the various roles of microbial resources in management of land uses and how the microbes can be used for the source of income due to their cultivation for the purpose of biomass and bioenergy production. Using various techniques, the disturbed and marginal lands may also be restored eco-friendly in present era to fulfil the feeding needs of mankind around the globe. Microbes in Land Use Change Management provides standard and up to date information towards the land use change management using various microbial technologies to enhance the productivity of agriculture. Needless to say that Microbes in Land Use Change Management also considers the areas including generation of alternative energy sources, restoration of degraded and marginal lands, mitigation of global warming gases and next generation -omics technique etc. Land use change affects environment conditions and soil microbial community. Microbial population and its species diversity have influence in maintaining ecosystem balance. The study of changes of microbial population provides an idea about the variation occurring in a specific area and possibilities of restoration. Meant for a multidisciplinary audience Microbes in Land Use Change Management shows the need of next-generation omics technologies to explore microbial diversity. Describes the role of microbes in generation of alternative source of energy Gives recent information related to various microbial technology and their diversified applications Provides thorough insight in the problems related to landscape dynamics, restoration of soil, reclamation of lands mitigation of global warming gases etc. eco-friendly way using versatility of microbes Includes microbial tools and technology in reclamation of degraded, disturbed and marginal lands, mitigation of global warming gases

Engineering Tolerance in Crop Plants Against Abiotic Stress

Engineering Tolerance in Crop Plants Against Abiotic Stress
A Book

by Shah Fahad,Osman Sönmez,Shah Saud,Depeng Wang,Chao Wu,Muhammad Adnan,Muhammad Arif,Amanullah

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2021-10-29
  • Pages : 310
  • ISBN : 1000462153
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite significant progress in increasing agricultural production, meeting the changing dietary preferences and increasing food demands of future populations remains a significant challenge. Salinity, drought, water logging, high temperature and toxicity are abiotic stresses that affect the crop yield and production. Tolerance for stress is a important characteristic that plants need to have in order to survive. Identification of proper techniques at a proper time can make it easy for scientists to increase crop productivity and yield. In Engineering Tolerance in Crop Plants against Abiotic Stress we have discussed the possible stresses and their impact on crops and portrayed distinctive abiotic stress tolerance in response to different techniques that can improve the performance of crops. Features of the Book: Provide a state-of-the-art description of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular status of the understanding of abiotic stress in plants. Address factors that threaten future food production and provide potential solution to these factors. Designed to cater to the needs of the students engaged in the field of environmental sciences, soil sciences, agricultural microbiology, plant pathology, and agronomy. New strategies for better crop productivity and yield. Understanding new techniques pointed out in this book will open the possibility of genetic engineering in crop plants with the concomitant improved stress tolerance.

Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology

Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology
A Book

by Mohammad Pessarakli

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2021-07-13
  • Pages : 1200
  • ISBN : 1000373045
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Continuous discoveries in plant and crop physiology have resulted in an abundance of new information since the publication of the third edition of the Handbook of Plant and Crop Physiology. Following its predecessors, the fourth edition of this well-regarded handbook offers a unique, comprehensive, and complete collection of topics in the field of plant and crop physiology. Divided into eleven sections, for easy access of information, this edition contains more than 90 percent new material, substantial revisions, and two new sections. The handbook covers the physiology of plant and crop growth and development, cellular and molecular aspects, plant genetics and production processes. The book presents findings on plant and crop growth in response to climatic changes, and considers the potential for plants and crops adaptation, exploring the biotechnological aspects of plant and crop improvement. This content is used to plan, implement, and evaluate strategies for increasing plant growth and crop yield. Readers benefit from numerous tables, figures, case studies and illustrations, as well as thousands of index words, all of which increase the accessibility of the information contained in this important handbook. New to the Edition: Contains 37 new chapters and 13 extensively revised and expanded chapters from the third edition of this book. Includes new or modified sections on soil-plant-water-nutrients-microorganisms physiological relations; and on plant growth regulators, both promoters and inhibitors. Additional new and modified chapters cover the physiological responses of lower plants and vascular plants and crops to metal-based nanoparticles and agrichemicals; and the growth responses of plants and crops to climate change and environmental stresses. With contributions from 95 scientists from 20 countries, this book provides a comprehensive resource for research and for university courses, covering plant and crop physiological responses under normal and stressful conditions ranging from cellular aspects to whole plants.

Hydrogen Sulfide in Plant Biology

Hydrogen Sulfide in Plant Biology
Past and Present

by Samiksha Singh,Vijay Pratap Singh,Durgesh Kumar Tripathi,Sheo Mohan Prasad,Devendra Kumar Chauhan,Nawal Kishore Dubey

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-06-12
  • Pages : 392
  • ISBN : 0323858635
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hydrogen Sulfide in Plant Biology: Past and Present includes 17 chapters, with topics from cross-talk and lateral root development under stress, to post-translational modifications and disease resistance. With emerging research on the different roles and applications of H2S, this title compiles the latest advances of this key signaling molecule. The development of a plant requires complex signaling of various molecules like H2S in order to achieve regulated and proper development, hence hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important signaling molecule that regulates nearly each and every stage of a plant’s lifecycle. Edited by leading experts in the field, this is a must-read for scientists and researchers interested in plant physiology, biochemistry and ecology. Discusses the emerging roles of H2S in plant biology Presents the latest research from leading laboratories across the globe Edited by a team of experts in plant signaling

Plant Stress Biology

Plant Stress Biology
Strategies and Trends

by Bhoopander Giri

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9811593809
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanobiotechnology

Nanobiotechnology
Mitigation of Abiotic Stress in Plants

by Jameel M. Al-Khayri

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 3030736067
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nanotechnology in Plant Growth Promotion and Protection

Nanotechnology in Plant Growth Promotion and Protection
Recent Advances and Impacts

by Avinash P. Ingle

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-09-06
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 1119745896
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discover the role of nanotechnology in promoting plant growth and protection through the management of microbial pathogens In Nanotechnology in Plant Growth Promotion and Protection, distinguished researcher and author Dr. Avinash P. Ingle delivers a rigorous and insightful collection of some of the latest developments in nanotechnology particularly related to plant growth promotion and protection. The book focuses broadly on the role played by nanotechnology in growth promotion of plants and their protection through the management of different microbial pathogens. You’ll learn about a wide variety of topics, including the role of nanomaterials in sustainable agriculture, how nano-fertilizers behave as soil feed, and the dual role of nanoparticles in plant growth promotion and phytopathogen management. You’ll also discover why nanotechnology has the potential to revolutionize the current agricultural landscape through the development of nano-based products, like plant growth promoters, nano-fertilizers, nano-pesticides, and nano-insecticides. Find out why nano-based products promise to be a cost-effective, economically viable, and eco-friendly approach to tackling some of the most intractable problems in agriculture today. You’ll also benefit from the inclusion of: A thorough introduction to the prospects and impacts of using nanotechnology to promote the growth of plants and control plant diseases An exploration of the effects of titanium dioxide nanomaterials on plant growth and the emerging applications of zinc-based nanoparticles in plant growth promotion Practical discussions of nano-fertilizer in enhancing the production potentials of crops and the potential applications of nanotechnology in plant nutrition and protection for sustainable agriculture A concise treatment of nanotechnology in seed science and soil feed Toxicological concerns of nanomaterials used in agriculture Perfect for undergraduate, graduate, and research students of nanotechnology, agriculture, plant science, plant physiology, and crops, Nanotechnology in Plant Growth Promotion and Protection will also earn a place in the libraries of professors and researchers in these areas, as well as regulators and policymakers.

Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Agriculture
Technical Progressions and Transitions

by Suhaib A. Bandh

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-10-20
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN : 3030830667
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses a number of recent technological and methodological progressions in achieving sustainable agriculture. It covers innovative and economically viable techniques for growers, laborers, consumers, policymakers, and others working to develop food-secure and ecologically sound agricultural practices to benefit humans and the environment. The key topics addressed include the increasing role of biofertilizers in sustainable agriculture, green synthesized nanoparticles for higher crop production rates, eco-friendly plant-based pesticides as alternatives to synthetic/chemical pesticides, use of genomics for improved plant breeding practices, and the use of biochar to increase the water-holding capacity in soil. The book concludes with an overview of satellite-based soil erosion practices to monitor and control the harmful impacts of land degradation, and a discussion of long-term strategies to reduce crop losses due to pest and insecticide damage. The book will be of interest to students and researchers in the field of environmental science, agriculture science, agronomy, and sustainable development.

Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science

Phenology: An Integrative Environmental Science
A Book

by Mark D. Schwartz

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-04-28
  • Pages : 564
  • ISBN : 9400706324
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Phenology is the study of plant and animal life cycle events, which are triggered by environmental changes, especially temperature. Wide ranges of phenomena are included, from first openings of leaf and flower buds, to insect hatchings and return of birds. Each one gives a ready measure of the environment as viewed by the associated organism. Thus, phenological events are ideal indicators of the impact of local and global changes in weather and climate on the earth's biosphere. Assessing our changing world is a complex task that requires close cooperation from experts in biology, climatology, ecology, geography, oceanography, remote sensing and other areas. This book is a synthesis of current phenological knowledge, designed as a primer on the field for global change and general scientists, students and interested members of the public. With contributions from a diverse group of over fifty phenological experts, covering data collection, current research, methods and applications, it demonstrates the accomplishments and potential of phenology as an integrative environmental science.

Crop Protection Under Changing Climate

Crop Protection Under Changing Climate
A Book

by Khawar Jabran,Singarayer Florentine,Bhagirath Singh Chauhan

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-08-04
  • Pages : 204
  • ISBN : 3030461114
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book addresses the impact of important climatic changes on plant pests (including weeds, diseases and insect pests), and their interactions with crop plants. Anthropogenic activities have seriously impacted the global climate. As a result, carbon dioxide (CO2) and temperature levels of the earth are on a continuous rise. The global temperature is expected to increase by a 3°C or more by the end of this century. The CO2 concentration was below 300 parts per million (ppm) before the start of the industrial era; however, recently it has exceeded 400 ppm. This is highest ever in human history. Other than global warming and elevated CO2 concentrations, anthropogenic activities have also disturbed the global water cycle, ultimately, impacting the quantity and distribution of rainfall. This has resulted in drought conditions in many parts of the world. Global warming, elevated CO2 concentration and drought are considered the most important recent climatic changes that are impacting global ecosystems and human societies. Among other impacts, the effects of climatic changes on pests, pest-crop interactions and pest control are important with relevance to global food security, and hence require immediate attention by plant scientists. This book discusses innovative and the most effective pest control methods under an environment of changing climate and elaborates on the impact of drought on plant pests and their control.

Plants in Time, Their History and Mystery

Plants in Time, Their History and Mystery
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1969
  • Pages : 63
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discusses the first plant life on our planet and how this life disappeared or adapted itself to a changing environment.

Interacting Stresses on Plants in a Changing Climate

Interacting Stresses on Plants in a Changing Climate
A Book

by Michael B. Jackson,Colin R. Black

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 771
  • ISBN : 3642785336
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Books dealing with climatic change are commonplace, as are those concerned with effects of environmental stresses on plants. The present volume distinguishes itself from earlier publications by highlighting several interrelated environmental stresses that are changing in intensity as the climate warms in response to the accumulation of 'greenhouse' gases. The stresses examined at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop upon which this book is based include atmospheric pollutants, flooding and sub mergence, drought and cold. In future, successful farming or landscape management will ultimately depend on strategies that offset the effects of these and other environmental constraints, while exploiting more favourable features. However, the to predicted speed of climate change may exceed the rate at which new approaches farming, forestry, landscape management and genetic conservation can be developed through experience and retroactive response. The alternative is to anticipate future needs and thus identify appropriate management and legislative strategies by research and discussion. The contents of this volume contribute to these vital processes, upon which the productivity of agroecosystems and conservation of natural ecosystems may increasingly depend. Those with any lingering doubts concerning the gravity of the likely future situation are especially encouraged to read the opening chapter. For convenience, chapters discussing pollution, flooding, drought and cold are grouped in separate sections. However, many authors have taken care to emphasise that interactions between the changing combinations of stresses pose particular problems for plants and plant communities.