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Psychostimulants

Psychostimulants
A Book

by George F. Koob,Michael A. Arends,Mandy L. McCracken,Michel Le Moal

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-05-05
  • Pages : 262
  • ISBN : 0128169915
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A current survey and synthesis of the most important findings in our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of addiction are detailed in our Neurobiology of Addiction series, each volume addressing a specific area of addiction. Psychostimulants, Volume 2 in the series, explores the molecular and cellular systems in the brain responsible for psychostimulant addiction, including both direct/indirect sympathomimetics and nonsympathomimetics. This volume introduces the readers to the history of psychostimulant use. The authors clearly differentiate the neurobiological effects into three distinct stages of the addiction cycle: binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation. Highlights recent advances in psychostimulant addiction Includes neurocircuitry, cellular and molecular neurobiological mechanisms of psychostimulant addiction Defines the abuse and addiction potentials of both direct and indirect sympathomimetics and nonsympathomimetics

New Concepts of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity

New Concepts of Psychostimulants Induced Neurotoxicity
A Book

by Hari Shanker Sharma

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2009-11-05
  • Pages : 472
  • ISBN : 9780080922904
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Published since 1959, International Review of Neurobiology is a well-known series appealing to neuroscientists, clinicians, psychologists, physiologists, and pharmacologists. Led by an internationally renowned editorial board, this important serial publishes both eclectic volumes made up of timely reviews and thematic volumes that focus on recent progress in a specific area of neurobiology research. With recent advancements in new knowledge, it has become evident that psychostimulants and related drugs of abuse are influencing our central nervous system (CNS) remarkably and could alter their function for a longtime. This volume is the first to focus on substance abuse induced brain pathology in the widest sense as it covers alterations in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell functions under the influence of acute or chronic usage of substance abuse.

An Approach in Determining the Effects of Psychostimulants on Cerebral Electrical Activity in the Non-human Primate(Une Approche Des Effets De Psychostimulants Sur L'Activite Electrique Cerebrale Chez Le Primate Non Humain).

An Approach in Determining the Effects of Psychostimulants on Cerebral Electrical Activity in the Non-human Primate(Une Approche Des Effets De Psychostimulants Sur L'Activite Electrique Cerebrale Chez Le Primate Non Humain).
A Book

by D. Lagarde,C. Milhaud,ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT NEUILLY-SUR-SEINE (FRAN CE)

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1988
  • Pages : 11
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of this work was to determine the very original properties of this new psychostimulant agent against two other conventional stimulants; viz., caffeine and d-amphetamine. (The drug d-amphetamine is still given to aircrew in France; and, of course, it has well-known side effects.) The new drug was studied in our laboratory in the non-human primate, the rhesus monkey. At the dosage indicated -- 25 mg/kg -- there were no side effects in the performance of the animal nor in its vegetative parameters; viz., in blood pressure and heart rate. The main effect of the drug was that it kept the animal awake, though not as a stimulant. This effect would give the impression that the drug is not comprised of an amphetamine-like type of molecule. It's an action which is quite specific - as based on other studies in apes and rats -- in that is appears to work on post-synaptic brain centres at that level of dosage. Of course, at a higher dosage it would probably have a doping effect. (js).

Behavioral Actions of Psychostimulants Within the Lateral Hypothalamus

Behavioral Actions of Psychostimulants Within the Lateral Hypothalamus
Relevance to Reinstatement of Drug Seeking

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Psychostimulants are a widely abused class of drugs. These drugs exert robust arousal-enhancing, reinforcing, and locomotor-activating effects. These behavioral actions involve drug-induced elevations in extracellular norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) within a variety of cortical and subcortical regions. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) receives both NE and DA input and substantial evidence implicates this region in both appetitive- and arousal-related processes. Additional work demonstrates that systemically administered amphetamine (AMPH) activates neurons within the LH. Combined, these observations suggest the LH may be a site of action in the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. The studies described in Chapter 2 were designed to determine the degree to which psychostimulants act within the LH to promote arousal, reinforcement and locomotor-activation. Additional studies in Chapter 3 were undertaken to investigate the potential role NE plays in stimulant-like arousal within the LH. A significant challenge in the treatment of psychostimulant abuse is the prevention of relapse. Relapse, or the reinstatement of drug seeking behavior, can be triggered by re-exposure to drug, stress and/or contextually-conditioned cues in humans and animals. Extensive work demonstrates an important role of DA in drug-induced reinstatement and NE in stressor-induced reinstatement of drug seeking behavior. Recent work implicates the LH in the reinstatement of psychostimulant seeking behavior. Thus, additional studies described in Chapter 4 were designed to examine the degree to which psychostimulants act within the LH to reinstate drug seeking. Combined, the studies in this thesis demonstrate that psychostimulants act within the LH to elicit affectively-neutral arousal and to reinstate drug seeking behavior, and this likely occurs, in part, through actions of NE in the LH. These results provide novel insight into the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral actions of a widely-abused class of drugs and further support the hypothesis that the LH plays a key role in drug abuse.

Responding to Challenging Situations Related to the Use of Psychostimulants

Responding to Challenging Situations Related to the Use of Psychostimulants
A Practical Guide for Frontline Workers

by Department of Health and Ageing Staff

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 37
  • ISBN : 9781741866346
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Psychostimulants and Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

Modulation of Synaptic Transmission by Psychostimulants and Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens
A Book

by Saleem M. Nicola

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 484
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Psychostimulants As Antidepressants

Psychostimulants As Antidepressants
A Book

by Craig Russell

  • Publisher : Mason Crest Publishers
  • Release : 2007-09
  • Pages : 112
  • ISBN : 9781422204160
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sometimes antidepressants aren't enough. In these cases, doctors often turn to drugs called psychostimulants. This book helps you'll learn what psychostimulants are and why they are used to help treat depression. It also informs about the possible risks and side effects of these drugs, as well as their potential for abuse.

Monitoring Illicit Psychostimulants and Related Health Issues

Monitoring Illicit Psychostimulants and Related Health Issues
A Book

by Tibor Markus Brunt

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 223
  • ISBN : 9789088913556
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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CBD Properties on Psychostimulant Addictions: All You Need to Know about CBD Properties on Psycho Add

CBD Properties on Psychostimulant Addictions: All You Need to Know about CBD Properties on Psycho Add
A Book

by Ferdinand H. Quinones MD

  • Publisher : Independently Published
  • Release : 2019-02-12
  • Pages : 74
  • ISBN : 9781796707908
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. Cocaine addiction started becoming prominent in the 1970s when drug cartels in South America began mass producing the drug and exporting it to the United States. Since then, the problem has progressively gotten worse. Today, over four million people in the U.S. are in need of treatment. Likewise, addiction to amphetamine is on the rise, with more than three million Americans suffering from them.When cocaine and amphetamine enter the bloodstream, the drugs interfere with the brain's dopamine transporter (DAT), the protein responsible for removing dopamine from the neural synapses and storing it back into the nerve cells. By blocking the DAT, psychostimulants keep dopamine in our systems and produce intense feelings of euphoria. There are nearly 8 million people in the United States in need of treatment for a psychostimulant addiction; however, there are no FDA approved drugs on the market. There is a need to develop a new, first-in-class treatment to help these people that have long been neglected.Illicit psychostimulant addiction remains a significant problem worldwide, despite decades of research into the neural underpinnings and various treatment approaches. The purpose of this review is to provide a succinct overview of the neurocircuitry involved in drug addiction, as well as the acute and chronic effects of cocaine and amphetamines within this circuitry in humans. Investigational pharmacological treatments for illicit psychostimulant addiction are also reviewed. Our current knowledge base clearly demonstrates that illicit psychostimulants produce lasting adaptive neural and behavioral changes that contribute to the progression and maintenance of addiction. However, attempts at generating pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction have historically focused on intervening at the level of the acute effects of these drugs. The lack of approved pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction highlights the need for new treatment strategies, especially those that prevent or ameliorate the adaptive neural, cognitive, and behavioral changes caused by chronic use of this class of illicit drugsIn this book, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions.Psychostimulants play a central role in the management of ADHD. Here we review the evidence pertaining to the use of methylphenidate, dexamphetamine and related amphetamine salts, the prodrug lisdexamfetamine and modafinil for the management of comorbid ADHD and non-ADHD indications. There is a growing consensus that stimulant medications are helpful at improving the emotional dysregulation and lability, and oppositional and conduct symptoms that are often associated with ADHD.

Psychostimulants Information for Health Workers (Booklet)

Psychostimulants Information for Health Workers (Booklet)
A Book

by Turning Point Alcohol And Drug Centre Staff

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 52
  • ISBN : 9780734529299
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry

The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry
A Book

by Robert E. Hales

  • Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 1786
  • ISBN : 1585622575
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Its previous edition hailed as "the best reference for the majority of practicing psychiatrists" (Doody's Book Reviews) and a book that "more than any other, provides an approach to how to think about psychiatry that integrates both the biological and psychological" (JAMA), The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry has been meticulously revised to maintain this preeminence as an accessible and authoritative educational reference and clinical compendium. It combines the strengths of its three editors -- Robert Hales in clinical and community psychiatry, Stuart Yudofsky in neuropsychiatry, and new co-editor Glen Gabbard in psychotherapy -- in recruiting outstanding authors to summarize the latest developments in psychiatry and features 101 contributors, 65 of whom are new to this edition. The book boasts a new interior design, with more figures and color throughout to aid comprehension. Each chapter ends with 5-10 key points, 5-10 recommended readings, and helpful Web sites not only for the clinician but also for patients and family members. The book also includes complimentary access to the full text online. Online benefits include powerful searching, electronic bookmarking, and access by username and password from wherever you have Web access -- especially convenient for times when the print copy of your textbook is not where you are. The online version is accompanied by a downloadable PowerPoint presentation, which contains a wealth of material to enhance classroom presentation, study, and clinical use. Among the improvements to this edition's content: • Of the text's 44 chapters, 23 either feature new topics or have new authors, making this the most completely revised edition yet.• New basic-science chapters on cellular and molecular biology of the neuron and on neuroanatomy for the psychiatrist conveniently distill essential information on the biological foundations of psychiatric disorders for clinicians.• A new chapter on human sexuality and sexual dysfunctions, and another new chapter on treatment of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender patients, equips clinicians to address the entire spectrum of sexual issues and their attendant mental health concerns.• New chapters on nonpharmacological somatic treatments, supportive psychotherapy, and combination psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy augment the section on psychiatric treatments.• A new chapter on the assessment of dangerousness -- an individual's propensity to commit violent acts -- presents helpful guidelines for appropriately evaluating and minimizing the risk of violence in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Why The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry will be your first choice among comprehensive psychiatry textbooks: • Complimentary Access to the Full Text Online -- Online benefits include powerful searching, electronic bookmarking, and download to PDA.• PowerPoint Presentation -- Online version is accompanied by a downloadable PowerPoint presentation, which contains a wealth of material to help you enhance classroom presentation, study, and in clinical use. • Self-Assessment -- An interactive online Self-Assessment allows you to assess your knowledge of each chapter, with links back to the textbook when more study is needed.• Summary Points -- Each chapter ends with 5-10 key points, 5-10 recommended readings, and helpful web sites not only for the clinician but also for referral to patients and family members. • Co-Editor Glen O. Gabbard, M.D. -- As the third Co-Editor, Dr. Gabbard adds depth and perspective to psychotherapeutic approaches.• Chapter Authors -- Partnership of senior and junior faculty brings fresh insights tempered by wisdom and experience.• Peer-Reviewed -- Rigorously peer reviewed and updated to reflect the rapidly changing profession. • Disclosure of Interest Statements -- Disclosure from each chapter author assures you that potential biases have been removed.• Comprehensive But Concise -- Inclusion of essential information eases information overload.• Better Layout -- Larger type for text makes book easier to read and color figures are provided throughout the text. It's no wonder that this text has established itself as both a leading scholarly reference and an indispensable clinical resource. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry is a proven teaching tool and an essential component of every practitioner's library.

The Neurobiology of Cocaine

The Neurobiology of Cocaine
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

by Ronald P. Hammer, Jr.

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 1995-07-17
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 9780849383113
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Representing the latest data from active research groups, The Neurobiology of Cocaine is designed to educate students and inform experts in a rapidly changing field. This volume presents current research regarding the mechanisms of cocaine's action in the brain. Recent developments of cellular, molecular, and brain imaging methods provide new evidence that chemical and molecular substrates underlie cocaine reinforcement, dependence, and withdrawal. This book explores the biological bases of such effects, describing the brain circuits affected by cocaine, neuroendocrine and neurophysiological actions of cocaine, neurochemistry and pharmacology of cocaine, and cocaine effects on signal transduction, gene expression, and protein phosphorylation. This up-to-date text also describes the recently cloned class of neurotransporters affected by cocaine and characterizes their interaction with the drug. These reports focus on the effects of chronic exposure and subsequent withdrawal, which are differentiated from acute cocaine actions. Thus, they provide information on brain mechanisms likely active during long-term use and abuse in humans. Such commonalities are illustrated by a discussion of cocaine action in the human brain as visualized by positron emission tomography. This volume is a must for anyone interested in the mechanisms underlying cocaine abuse.

Psychiatric Nursing

Psychiatric Nursing
Contemporary Practice

by Mary Ann Boyd

  • Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Release : 2008
  • Pages : 952
  • ISBN : 9780781791694
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The AJN Book of the Year award-winning textbook, Psychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice, is now in its thoroughly revised, updated Fourth Edition. Based on the biopsychosocial model of psychiatric nursing, this text provides thorough coverage of mental health promotion, assessment, and interventions in adults, families, children, adolescents, and older adults. Features include psychoeducation checklists, therapeutic dialogues, NCLEX® notes, vignettes of famous people with mental disorders, and illustrations showing the interrelationship of the biologic, psychologic, and social domains of mental health and illness. This edition reintroduces the important chapter on sleep disorders and includes a new chapter on forensic psychiatry. A bound-in CD-ROM and companion Website offer numerous student and instructor resources, including Clinical Simulations and questions about movies involving mental disorders.

Association Between Psychostimulants and Suicide Related Events in Individuals with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Association Between Psychostimulants and Suicide Related Events in Individuals with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
A Book

by Christine Leigh Bagley

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 117
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common condition among the pediatric population with escalating use of psychostimulant agents to treat ADHD. No previous studies have directly aimed to evaluate the potential association between psychostimulant medications and suicide related events. Over the past decade there has been an increasing awareness for the potential of prescription medications to increase the risk of suicide related events, including agents such as antidepressants, leukotriene modifying agents, atomoxetine, and antiepileptics. Given the lack of data to support or refute the association between psychostimulants and suicide related events, additional, more definitive studies are warranted. Therefore, it was the objective of this dissertation to determine if a potential association exists between psychostimulants and suicide related events utilizing three different methodologies. This series of analyses were the first well-conducted observational studies investigating this association. We conducted an ecologic study utilizing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) adverse event data, a time series analysis describing overall Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and treatment characteristics as well as suicide attempt trends using aggregated medical claims data, and a nested case-control study utilizing person level medical claims data. Each aim provided additional insight on the potential association of suicide related events and psychostimulants. Our first analysis using FDA data indicated that psychostimulants had no statistically significant association with suicide related events with the exception of lisdexamfetamine. Our second study showed that the percentage of suicide attempts and psychostimulant coverage declined over time among our ADHD cohort. Our third analysis, a case control study in an ADHD cohort of children and adolescents showed that psychostimulants are not associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt. Based on our findings across all analyses and accounting for the limitations of each, we conclude that psychostimulant treatment is not associated with an increased risk of suicide related events. In fact, while not statistically significant our findings suggest a potentially protective role in this association thus further supporting the safety of these agents which play a beneficial in the treatment of ADHD.

Buck's 2022 ICD-10-CM for Physicians - E-Book

Buck's 2022 ICD-10-CM for Physicians - E-Book
A Book

by Elsevier

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2021-11-04
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 0323811299
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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At-a-glance Guide to the 2022 ICD-10-CM Updates in the front of the book lists all new, revised, and deleted codes, providing at-a-glance lookup of the coding changes. Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting (OGCRs) are listed in full in the Introduction, at the beginning of each chapter, and integrated within the code set, providing easier reference to coding rules when they are needed most. Unique! Full-color anatomy plates (including Netter's Anatomy art) are included in a separate section for easy reference and cross-referenced within the Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries, to help users understand anatomy and how it may affect choosing codes. Full-color design includes consistent color-coded symbols and text, providing easier access to codes and coding information. American Hospital Association's Coding Clinic(R) citations include official ICD-10-CM coding advice relating to specific codes and their usage. More than 180 illustrations provide visual orientation and enhance understanding of specific coding situations. Items are included throughout the Tabular List to ensure accurate coding, providing additional information on common diseases and conditions. Additional elements within specific codes define terms and add coding instructions relating to difficult terminology, diseases and conditions, or coding in a specific category. Symbols and highlights draw attention to codes that may require special consideration before coding, including: new, revised, and deleted Unacceptable Principle Diagnosis Codes that call for the use of additional character(s) Includes, Excludes 1 and Excludes 2 Use Additional Unspecified Code First and Code Also Placeholder X symbol reminds users to assign placeholder X for codes less than 6 characters that require a 7th character. Manifestation code symbol identifies conditions for which it is important to record both the etiology and the symptom of the disease. HCC symbol indicates diagnoses in the Tabular List associated with Hierarchical Condition Categories. Age and Sex edits from the Definition of Medicare Code Edits help to ensure accuracy by denoting codes that are used only with patients of a specific age or sex.

Dose-Dependent Effects of Psychostimulants on Affect Following Repeated Administration to Laboratory Rats

Dose-Dependent Effects of Psychostimulants on Affect Following Repeated Administration to Laboratory Rats
A Book

by Cristian Cervantes Aldana

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Psychostimulants produce strong pleasurable effects in users which are thought to play a role in the development of drug addiction. Two highly rewarding and abused psychostimulant drugs are methamphetamine and d-amphetamine. Although there has been extensive investigation of the rewarding effects of these drugs, we used a relatively new approach, drug-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), to examine the dose-dependent rewarding and aversive effects of these drugs following a single and repeated administration. The inverted-U shaped dose-response curve is seen across many drugs of abuse and behaviors, however this phenomenon has not been reported with USVs. Broadly, it was hypothesized that animals treated with methamphetamine or d-amphetamine would show inverted U dose-dependent responses with ambulations and 50 kHz USVs and that repeated administration of methamphetamine or d-amphetamine would lead to complex changes across doses and behaviors. We conducted two experiments, identical in methodology, with the only difference being the drug (methamphetamine and d-amphetamine). The four major results obtained from the present thesis were: 1) acute administration of methamphetamine and d-amphetamine produced an inverted U dose-response with locomotor activity and reward-related ultrasonic vocalizations (FM 50 kHz USVs); 2) acute administration of the highest dose of methamphetamine or d-amphetamine produced aversive effects and an interplay of reward (FM 50 kHz USVs) and aversion (22 kHz USVs) that helps to explain the inverted U shaped dose response; 3) repeated administration of methamphetamine and d- amphetamine produced sensitization to locomotor effects and USVs at low and moderate doses; and 4) sensitization persisted following a period without drug administration. These data provide a revealing picture of the complex relationship between dose and response, with particular attention to the affective component in drug addiction and abuse.

Psychostimulants

Psychostimulants
Management of Acute Behavioural Disturbances : Guidelines for Police Services

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 24
  • ISBN : 9780642825230
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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2018 ICD-10-CM Hospital Professional Edition - E-Book

2018 ICD-10-CM Hospital Professional Edition - E-Book
A Book

by Carol J. Buck

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2017-09-08
  • Pages : 1712
  • ISBN : 0323567835
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ideal for radiology residents and medical students, as well as anyone who reads or orders radiology imaging studies, this user-friendly reference covers the basics of how to approach, read, and interpret radiological images. Using concise, step-by-step explanations and an enjoyable writing style, expert radiologist Dr. Fred A Mettler, Jr., walks you through a sequential thought process for all common indications for radiologic studies and their interpretation. Featuring thorough updates from cover to cover, this resource covers the fundamental information you need to know, as well as recent advances in the field.

The Role of Psychostimulants in Addiction-related Learning and Memory in Mice

The Role of Psychostimulants in Addiction-related Learning and Memory in Mice
A Book

by Tristan Shuman

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 194
  • ISBN : 9781267426956
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Learning requires some form of long-lasting modification of neural activity that underlies a change in behavior. The mechanisms of long-lasting changes in the brain are likely to be conserved indicating that there is likely to be overlap in the mechanisms of memory and drug addiction. This dissertation will demonstrate how psychostimulants can modulate memory processes and create addiction-like memories in mice. First, we showed that a low dose of modafinil, a psychomotor stimulant, selectively enhances contextual fear memories, while a high dose disrupts this memory. This high dose can, however, enhance water maze learning. Second, we demonstrated that modafinil can induce a conditioned place preference and can elicit locomotor sensitization in cocaine-trained animals. These results indicate that modafinil can induce and modulate both contextual and addiction-related memory processes. To further explore the action of modafinil and other psychostimulants, we conducted a literature review to identify regions of the brain involved in the induction and expression of addiction-related memories. We found a diverse range of brain areas implicated in drug addiction but also a lack of consistency perhaps due to limitations of classical techniques. In order to localize the neural correlate of addiction-related memories, we used a histone-GFP mouse that expresses a long-term tag of neuronal activity within a specified tagging window. We tagged neurons active during initial drug exposure and compared them to a marker of neurons active during place preference testing, using the immediate early gene zif. When cocaine was paired with the conditioning context rather than the home cage neurons in the dorsal striatum were more likely to be activated during both time points. This indicates that the dorsal striatum is one site of neural plasticity that underlies conditioned place preference to cocaine. Finally, to localize the neural correlate of locomotor sensitization we tagged initial exposure to cocaine and compared these neurons to immediate early gene expression after a subsequent exposure to cocaine. The medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens shell appear to store a memory of the drug experience, but are unlikely to be involved in the contextual control of sensitization.

Drug Aware Psychostimulants Post Campaign Evaluation

Drug Aware Psychostimulants Post Campaign Evaluation
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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