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PVC Additives

PVC Additives
Performance, Chemistry, Developments, and Sustainability

by Michael Schiller

  • Publisher : Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG
  • Release : 2015-04-02
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 1569905444
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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PVC differs in its stabilization compared to other commodity plastics. Various metal compounds are suitable for the stabilization of PVC: lead, tin, calcium, magnesium, zinc, rare earths, and also almost-metal-free systems. These differences are described in the introductory part of this book, with their advantages, possibilities, and problems, from the perspective of the chemist but made understandable for salespeople and technicians. Numerous tables and figures are included, providing structures and physico-chemical data. A special section for beginners is dedicated to guiding formulations and test methods. A relatively short section deals with development trends in Europe. Sustainability is a major theme, and it is demonstrated that PVC has a strong potential to develop into a fully sustainable material. Another section deals with the everyday problems in the processing of PVC, such as the formation of specks, photo-effects, and plate-out. Plate-out is a common problem in the processing of PVC but only relatively few publications cover it. The causes, influencing factors, and mechanisms are still poorly understood. This section, unique in the literature, provides assistance in the selection and dosage of raw materials to PVC processor, based on the influencing factors during processing.

Environmental Technology and Engineering Techniques

Environmental Technology and Engineering Techniques
Basic Concepts and Health Interventions

by Moayad N. Khalaf,Michael Olegovich Smirnov,Porteen Kannan,A. K. Haghi

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2020-10-28
  • Pages : 348
  • ISBN : 100051773X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The crucial interdependence between humans and their environment is explored and illuminated in this revealing overview of the major environmental issues facing society in the twenty-first century. This volume presents a novel picture of some of the current advances in the research of theoretical and practical frameworks of environmental problems and solutions taken from the latest empirical findings. This new volume focuses on the aspects of new techniques that are particularly valuable for solving environmental problems. The complex environmental issues are presented in simple terms to helpreaders grasp the basics and solve relevant problems. Timely and comprehensive discussions of applications to real-world environmental concerns are a central focus of this research-oriented volume.

The Complete Technology Book on Industrial Polymers, Additives, Colourants and Fillers

The Complete Technology Book on Industrial Polymers, Additives, Colourants and Fillers
A Book

by NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers

  • Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
  • Release : 2006-01-01
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 8178330091
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Indian plastic and polymer industry has taken great strides. In the last few decades, the industry has grown to the status of a leading sector in the country with a sizable base. The material is gaining notable importance in different spheres of activity and the per capita consumption is increasing at a fast pace. Numerous plastics and fibers are produced from synthetic polymers; containers from propylene, coating materials from PVC, packaging film from polyethylene, experimental apparatus from Teflon, stockings from nylon fiber, there are too many to mention them all. The reason why plastics are popular is that they may offer such advantages as transparency, self lubrication, light weight, flexibility, economy in fabricating and decorating. Properties of plastics can be modified through the use of fillers, reinforcing agents and chemical additives. Silicones are by far the most important industrial polymers and are based on silicon, an element abundantly available on our planet. Polymers are classified in three broad groups; addition polymers, condensation polymers and special polymers. It is well known that the major consumption of additives is in PVC compounds. Approximately 80% of additives are being used in PVC; however the left over 20% is consumed in compounding of other thermoplastics. Plastic master batches and fillers have their own importance in plastic processing industries. Colorants are the materials that give colour and opacity to plastics are chemically characterized as either pigments or dyes. Pigments are finely pulverized natural or synthetic particles which may be of inorganic or organic origin and insoluble in the matrix in which they are dispersed. Permanent red 2B is a mono azo pigment that is widely used in thermoplastics because it is inexpensive and has high tinting strength and good bleed resistance. Fillers are commonly employed in opaque PVC compounds to reduce cost and to improve electrical insulation properties, to improve deformation resistance of cables, to increase the hardness of a flooring compound and to reduce tackiness of highly plasticized compounds. Various calcium carbonate are used for general purpose work, china clay is commonly employed for electrical insulation, and asbestos for flooring applications. Also employed occasionally are the silicas and silicates, talc, light magnesium carbonate and barites (barium sulfate). Polymer Energy system is an award winning, innovative, proprietary process to convert waste plastics into renewable energy. Polymers are the most rapidly growing sector of the materials industry. No wonder polymers are found in everything from compact discs to high tech aerospace applications. On the basis of value added, Indian share of plastic products industry is about 0.5% of national GDP. Some of the astonishing fundamentals of the book are industrial polymers, addition polymers polyolefins, polyethylene, chlorinated polyethylene, cross linked polyethylene, linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), high molecular weight polyethylene, high density polyethylene, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), stabilizers, plasticizers, extenders, mineral filled or glass bead/milled glass grades, antistatic/electro conductive grades, electroplatable grades, etc. The present book enlightens the processing of industrial polymers, additives, colourant and fillers. This book is an invaluable resource to new entrepreneurs, technocrats, researchers, professionals etc.

Plastics Additives

Plastics Additives
A Rapra Market Report

by Geoffrey Pritchard

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 197
  • ISBN : 9781859574997
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The additive families are considered with an outline of the technical issues and the trends driving the markets. The main marketplaces for each additive type are discussed and the trends outlined. It contains an overview of the significant trends in the four largest plastics market sectors: packaging, construction, automotive and electrical and electronics. The report focuses on the important issues within Europe, with comment on the relevant trends in North America and Asia. The report provides discussion of the trends in material consumption and specific additive groups. It also includes brief company news and information for some of the leading additive suppliers.

Polymer Modifiers and Additives

Polymer Modifiers and Additives
A Book

by Richard F. Grossman,John T. Lutz Jr.

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2000-11-08
  • Pages : 536
  • ISBN : 9780824799496
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"Outlines the benefits of using additives-individually or in combination-to modify the properties and processability of pure polymers, and discusses easy-to-understand theory and practical applications for immediate economic and performance improvements."

New Stabilizers for Pvc Based on Benzothiazole Complexes

New Stabilizers for Pvc Based on Benzothiazole Complexes
A Book

by Hadeel Adil,Emad Yousif,Jumat Salimon

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2011-05
  • Pages : 76
  • ISBN : 9783844323580
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The work described in this thesis, potasium-2-amino acetate benzothiazole chelate complexes were prepared. Infrared, ultraviolet visible, spectrophotometric techniques, magnetic susceptibility, atomic absorption conductivity measurement and other physical properties were used to characterize the free ligand and the above chelate complexes. All these compounds were act as stabilizer in PVC films. The rate of photodegradation and photostabilization of PVC film were monitored by measuring the carbonyl, polyene and hydroxyl indices (Ico, Ipo and IoH) values as afunction with irradiation time and ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry using the concentrations of additive 0.5% wt/wt. It is found that the carbonyl index, polyene index and hydroxyl index values increased with irradiation time, and this increase depend on the type of additives (free ligand and complexes). According to the experimental results obtained several mechanisms were suggested depending on the structure of the additives. Therefore HCl scavenging, UV absorption, peroxide decomposer and radical scavenger for photostabilizer additives were suggested.

Plastic Packaging

Plastic Packaging
Interactions with Food and Pharmaceuticals

by Otto G. Piringer,A. L. Baner

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-06-25
  • Pages : 632
  • ISBN : 3527621431
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics are the most important class of packaging materials. This successful handbook, now in its second edition, covers all important aspects of plastic packaging and the interdisciplinary knowledge needed by food chemists, pharmaceutical chemists, food technologists, materials scientists, process engineers, and product developers alike. This is an indispensable resource in the search for the optimal plastic packaging. Materials characteristics, additives and their effects, mass transport phenomena, quality assurance, and recent regulatory requirements from FDA and European Commission are covered in detail with ample data.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives
Supplements

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics Additives

Plastics Additives
An Industrial Guide

by Ernest W. Flick

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 154
  • ISBN : 0815514700
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book and its companion volumes contain plastics additives formulations based on information received from numerous industrial companies and other organizations. Each formulation is identified by a description of its end use.

Additives and Materials

Additives and Materials
A Book

by P.W. Dufton

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 1995
  • Pages : 151
  • ISBN : 9781859570340
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report examines the changes in the nature and technologies of fire retardant systems used in the complete range of plastics and rubber materials.

Handbook of Toxic Properties of Monomers and Additives

Handbook of Toxic Properties of Monomers and Additives
A Book

by Victor O. Sheftel

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 1995-04-18
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 9781566700757
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Covering nearly 800 potential food and water contaminants, this comprehensive handbook is a complete encyclopedia of the toxic effects of plastic ingredients. It is international in scope, covering all available toxicological data that fits existing requirements, including Russian toxicology data previously unknown to the West. The handbook will be helpful when evaluating toxic properties of plastic materials currently in use. It also provides a perspective on materials containing previously investigated ingredients. The handbook extends beyond the realm of toxicology by including information on a number of the widespread food and water contaminants, heavy metals, and solvents. It will also be helpful when evaluating toxic properties not only of existing materials but also of future materials that contain previously investigated ingredients.

PVC

PVC
Compounds, Processing and Applications

by J. Leadbitter,J. A. Day,J. L. Ryan

  • Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
  • Release : 1994
  • Pages : 154
  • ISBN : 9781859570296
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report reviews the composition and synthesis of PVC, composition and formulation technology, compounding and manufacturing technology, and the additional range of materials made possible by blending with other polymers. It is completed by around 500 abstracts selected from the Rapra Polymer Library database.

Plastics Additives and Testing

Plastics Additives and Testing
A Book

by Muralisrinivasan Natamai Subramanian

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-04-08
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 1118118901
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"A practical book for engineers and operators and discusses both inorganic and organic chemicals that are widely used as additives in plastics processing operations"--

Plastic Packaging Materials for Food

Plastic Packaging Materials for Food
Barrier Function, Mass Transport, Quality Assurance, and Legislation

by Otto G. Piringer,A. L. Baner

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-07-11
  • Pages : 606
  • ISBN : 3527613293
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plastics have developed into the most important class of packaging materials. Their relative impermeability for substances from the surroundings has great influence on the shelf life and the quality of the packed goods. At the same time the interaction between the contents and the various components of the packaging plays a decisive role. This particular book is indispensable in the search for the optimal plastic packaging. It facilitates the estimation of the influence on the goods which come from the surroundings and from the packaging. The authors do not restrict themselves only to the description of the phenomena of diffusion or transport in theory, but they show what they mean for practical applications. Food represents the central theme as main area of application for plastic packaging. It can be considered to be the "model substance" and the findings are to be applied to many other products and systems. The main rules and regulations for food packaging of the European Community and the United States are presented in this book. Furthermore the authors emphasize the testing methods for proving the mass transport and the sensory check of the quality of the products.

Polymer Additives

Polymer Additives
A Book

by Jiri E. Kresta

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 1461327970
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ever since the beginning of the plastics and rubber industry, it was realized that useful products could be produced only if cer tain additives were incorporated into polymers. With the help of these additives, when physically dispersed in a polymer matrix, it has been possible to improve stability against thermal, oxidative, UV, hydrolytic and biological degradation, mechanical properties, flammability, cost, and processibility of plastics. The enormous growth of the volume of plastics consumed by modern society, and new application areas for plastics, have created a demand for new, better additives and better understanding of their functions in polymer systems. As a result of these trends there is a need for sharing of information on progress achieved in the area of polymer additives among engineers and scientists of the plastics industry and academia. This book is based on expanded and updated papers originally presented at the International Symposium on Polymer Additives, which was held in Las Vegas, Nevada, and was sponsored by the American Chemical Society, Division of Polymeric Materials Science and Engi neering. The book is divided into five parts which cover advances in various areas of polymer additives. The first part is devoted to the progress in understanding of UV degradation and stabilization of various polymers. Oxidation degradation and stabilization of plastic materials is covered in the second part. New developments in the stabilization of PVC are presented in the third part.

Carraher's Polymer Chemistry

Carraher's Polymer Chemistry
A Book

by Charles E. Carraher Jr.

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017-10-12
  • Pages : 794
  • ISBN : 1498737455
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Carraher's Polymer Chemistry, Tenth Edition integrates the core areas of polymer science. Along with updating of each chapter, newly added content reflects the growing applications in Biochemistry, Biomaterials, and Sustainable Industries. Providing a user-friendly approach to the world of polymeric materials, the book allows students to integrate their chemical knowledge and establish a connection between fundamental and applied chemical information. It contains all of the elements of an introductory text with synthesis, property, application, and characterization. Special sections in each chapter contain definitions, learning objectives, questions, case studies and additional reading.

Synthetic Polymers

Synthetic Polymers
Technology, Properties, Applications

by D. Feldman,A. Barbalata

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 1996-05-31
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN : 9780412710407
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Synthetic Polymers is a comprehensive introduction to the technologies involved in the synthesis of the main classes of engineering high polymers used in such materials as plastics, fibers, rubbers, foams, adhesives and coatings. Besides the basic processes, this volume includes information on physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics - key factors with respect to obtaining the right end products. It also focuses on the main application of synthetic polymers in different engineering areas and gives data on production and consumption. Over 60 technological flowcharts are presented in a clear and concise manner, to provide the reader with essential information on relevant operations.

Additives for Plastics Handbook

Additives for Plastics Handbook
A Book

by J. Murphy

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2001-11-22
  • Pages : 484
  • ISBN : 0080498612
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Both technically and economically, additives form a large and increasingly significant part of the polymer industry, both plastics and elastomers. Since the first edition of this book was published, there have been wide-ranging developments, covering chemistry and formulation of new and more efficient additive systems and the safer use of additives, both by processors in the factory and, in the wider field, as they affect the general public. This new edition follows the successful formula of its predecessor, it provides a comprehensive view of all types of additives, concentrating mainly on their technical aspects (chemistry/formulation, structure, function, main applications) with notes on the commercial background of each. The field has been expanded to include any substance that is added to a polymer to improve its use, so including reinforcing materials (such as glass fibre), carbon black and titanium dioxide. This is a book which has been planned for ease of use and the information is presented in a way which is appropriate to the users' needs.

Polyvinylchloride

Polyvinylchloride
Environmental Aspects of a Common Plastic

by W. Totsch,H. Gaensslen

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 107
  • ISBN : 9401128847
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This paper combines data on production, on processing and formulating, on application, on the waste stream and on the possibilities for recycling polyvinyl chloride insofar as such data has relevance for an assessment of environmental impact. It is intended to help place the PVC debate on a factually well-founded basis. The paper describes many, but not all facets of the environmental effects of a common plastic. This book is based on work carried out at the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems Technology and Innovations Research and particularly on a report drawn up on the order of the Research Centre Julich (Gaensslen, H. , Sordo, M. , TOtsch, W. : Production, Processing and Recycling of PVC. Order Number 011/41072711/930, April 1989). We would like to express our thanks to Dr. Kollmann of KFA Julich for placement of this order. This book would not have come into being but for the assistance given by many colleagues. Magdalena Sordo carried out valuable preliminary work which forms the basis of many parts of the book. We would like to thank the following as representatives of our other colleagues: Eberhard BOhm for proof reading, Gunther Heger for the data base researches and Joachim Waibel for producing the illustrations. The book has been translated by H. P. Kaufmann, Technical Translations, Marketing & Advisory Services, London. We are especially grateful to Harold M. Clayton and his colleagues at Hydro Polymers Ltd for proof-reading the English manuscript. vii Contents Preface 1.

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices

Handbook of Polymer Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
A Book

by Kayvon Modjarrad,Sina Ebnesajjad

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-12-05
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 0323221696
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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While the prevalence of plastics and elastomers in medical devices is now quite well known, there is less information available covering the use of medical devices and the applications of polymers beyond medical devices, such as in hydrogels, biopolymers and silicones beyond enhancement applications, and few books in which these are combined into a single reference. This book is a comprehensive reference source, bringing together a number of key medical polymer topics in one place for a broad audience of engineers and scientists, especially those currently developing new medical devices or seeking more information about current and future applications. In addition to a broad range of applications, the book also covers clinical outcomes and complications arising from the use of the polymers in the body, giving engineers a vital insight into the real world implications of the devices they’re creating. Regulatory issues are also covered in detail. The book also presents the latest developments on the use of polymers in medicine and development of nano-scale devices. Gathers discussions of a large number of applications of polymers in medicine in one place Provides an insight into both the legal and clinical implications of device design Relevant to industry, academic and medical professionals Presents the latest developments in the field, including medical devices on a nano-scale