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Rationality

Rationality
What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters

by Steven Pinker

  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release : 2021-09-28
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0525562001
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “In our uncertain age, which can so often feel so dark and disturbing, Steven Pinker has distinguished himself as a voice of positivity.” – New York Times Can reading a book make you more rational? Can it help us understand why there is so much irrationality in the world? Steven Pinker, author of Enlightenment Now (Bill Gates’s "new favorite book of all time”) answers all the questions here Today humanity is reaching new heights of scientific understanding--and also appears to be losing its mind. How can a species that developed vaccines for Covid-19 in less than a year produce so much fake news, medical quackery, and conspiracy theorizing? Pinker rejects the cynical cliché that humans are simply irrational--cavemen out of time saddled with biases, fallacies, and illusions. After all, we discovered the laws of nature, lengthened and enriched our lives, and set out the benchmarks for rationality itself. We actually think in ways that are sensible in the low-tech contexts in which we spend most of our lives, but fail to take advantage of the powerful tools of reasoning we’ve discovered over the millennia: logic, critical thinking, probability, correlation and causation, and optimal ways to update beliefs and commit to choices individually and with others. These tools are not a standard part of our education, and have never been presented clearly and entertainingly in a single book--until now. Rationality also explores its opposite: how the rational pursuit of self-interest, sectarian solidarity, and uplifting mythology can add up to crippling irrationality in a society. Collective rationality depends on norms that are explicitly designed to promote objectivity and truth. Rationality matters. It leads to better choices in our lives and in the public sphere, and is the ultimate driver of social justice and moral progress. Brimming with Pinker’s customary insight and humor, Rationality will enlighten, inspire, and empower.

Whose Justice? Which Rationality?

Whose Justice? Which Rationality?
A Book

by Alasdair C. MacIntyre

  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Academic
  • Release : 1988
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Rationality and the Reflective Mind
A Book

by Keith Stanovich

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2011-02-03
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 9780195341140
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The author attempts to resolve the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. He shows how the insights of dual-process theory and evolutionary psychology can be combined to explain why humans are sometimes irrational even though they possess cognitive machinery of remarkable adaptiveness.

The Rationality Quotient

The Rationality Quotient
Toward a Test of Rational Thinking

by Keith E. Stanovich,Richard F. West,Maggie E. Toplak

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2016-09-30
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 0262034840
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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How to assess critical aspects of cognitive functioning that are not measured by IQ tests: rational thinking skills. Why are we surprised when smart people act foolishly? Smart people do foolish things all the time. Misjudgments and bad decisions by highly educated bankers and money managers, for example, brought us the financial crisis of 2008. Smart people do foolish things because intelligence is not the same as the capacity for rational thinking. The Rationality Quotient explains that these two traits, often (and incorrectly) thought of as one, refer to different cognitive functions. The standard IQ test, the authors argue, doesn't measure any of the broad components of rationality—adaptive responding, good judgment, and good decision making. The authors show that rational thinking, like intelligence, is a measurable cognitive competence. Drawing on theoretical work and empirical research from the last two decades, they present the first prototype for an assessment of rational thinking analogous to the IQ test: the CART (Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking). The authors describe the theoretical underpinnings of the CART, distinguishing the algorithmic mind from the reflective mind. They discuss the logic of the tasks used to measure cognitive biases, and they develop a unique typology of thinking errors. The Rationality Quotient explains the components of rational thought assessed by the CART, including probabilistic and scientific reasoning; the avoidance of “miserly” information processing; and the knowledge structures needed for rational thinking. Finally, the authors discuss studies of the CART and the social and practical implications of such a test. An appendix offers sample items from the test.

Rationality of Varieties

Rationality of Varieties
A Book

by Gavril Farkas,Gerard van der Geer,Mingmin Shen,Lenny Taelman

  • Publisher : Birkhäuser
  • Release : 2021-10-20
  • Pages : 433
  • ISBN : 9783030754204
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides an overview of the latest progress on rationality questions in algebraic geometry. It discusses new developments such as universal triviality of the Chow group of zero cycles, various aspects of stable birationality, cubic and Fano fourfolds, rationality of moduli spaces and birational invariants of group actions on varieties, contributed by the foremost experts in their fields. The question of whether an algebraic variety can be parametrized by rational functions of as many variables as its dimension has a long history and played an important role in the history of algebraic geometry. Recent developments in algebraic geometry have made this question again a focal point of research and formed the impetus to organize a conference in the series of conferences on the island of Schiermonnikoog. The book follows in the tradition of earlier volumes, which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog.

Bounded Rationality

Bounded Rationality
The Adaptive Toolbox

by Gerd Gigerenzer,Reinhard Selten

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 2002-07-26
  • Pages : 394
  • ISBN : 9780262571647
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In a complex and uncertain world, humans and animals make decisions under the constraints of limited knowledge, resources, and time. Yet models of rational decision making in economics, cognitive science, biology, and other fields largely ignore these real constraints and instead assume agents with perfect information and unlimited time. About forty years ago, Herbert Simon challenged this view with his notion of "bounded rationality." Today, bounded rationality has become a fashionable term used for disparate views of reasoning. This book promotes bounded rationality as the key to understanding how real people make decisions. Using the concept of an "adaptive toolbox," a repertoire of fast and frugal rules for decision making under uncertainty, it attempts to impose more order and coherence on the idea of bounded rationality. The contributors view bounded rationality neither as optimization under constraints nor as the study of people's reasoning fallacies. The strategies in the adaptive toolbox dispense with optimization and, for the most part, with calculations of probabilities and utilities. The book extends the concept of bounded rationality from cognitive tools to emotions; it analyzes social norms, imitation, and other cultural tools as rational strategies; and it shows how smart heuristics can exploit the structure of environments.

The Nature of Rationality

The Nature of Rationality
A Book

by Robert Nozick

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 1994-12-19
  • Pages : 226
  • ISBN : 0691020965
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The award-winning author of Anarchy, State, and Utopia continues his search for the connections between philosophy and "ordinary" experience and shows how principles function in our day-to-day thinking and in our efforts to live peacefully and productively with each other.

Reviving Rationality

Reviving Rationality
Saving Cost-Benefit Analysis for the Sake of the Environment and Our Health

by Michael A. Livermore,Richard L. Revesz

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2020-12-07
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 0197539440
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Politics and regulation -- A threatening synthesis -- Staying in bounds -- A retreat from reason -- The illusion of costs without benefits -- Erasing public health science -- Resurrecting discredited models -- Ignoring indirect benefits -- Trivializing climate change -- Manipulating transfers -- Future directions -- Improving the guardrails.

Rationality for Mortals

Rationality for Mortals
How People Cope with Uncertainty

by Gerd Gigerenzer

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2008-05-02
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 9780199716418
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Gerd Gigerenzer's influential work examines the rationality of individuals not from the perspective of logic or probability, but from the point of view of adaptation to the real world of human behavior and interaction with the environment. Seen from this perspective, human behavior is more rational than it might otherwise appear. This work is extremely influential and has spawned an entire research program. This volume (which follows on a previous collection, Adaptive Thinking, also published by OUP) collects his most recent articles, looking at how people use "fast and frugal heuristics" to calculate probability and risk and make decisions. It includes a newly writen, substantial introduction, and the articles have been revised and updated where appropriate. This volume should appeal, like the earlier volumes, to a broad mixture of cognitive psychologists, philosophers, economists, and others who study decision making.

Ecological Rationality

Ecological Rationality
Intelligence in the World

by Peter M. Todd,Gerd Gigerenzer

  • Publisher : OUP USA
  • Release : 2012-04-10
  • Pages : 590
  • ISBN : 0195315448
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"More information is always better, and full information is best. More computation is always better, and optimization is best." More-is-better ideals such as these have long shaped our vision of rationality. Yet humans and other animals typically rely on simple heuristics to solve adaptive problems, focusing on one or a few important cues and ignoring the rest, and shortcutting computation rather than striving for as much as possible. In this book, we argue that in an uncertain world, more information and computation are not always better, and we ask when, and why, less can be more. The answers to these questions constitute the idea of ecological rationality: how we are able to achieve intelligence in the world by using simple heuristics matched to the environments we face, exploiting the structures inherent in our physical, biological, social, and cultural surroundings.

Reason and Rationality

Reason and Rationality
A Book

by Jon Elster

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 79
  • ISBN : 9780691139005
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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One of the world's most important political philosophers, Jon Elster is a leading thinker on reason and rationality and their roles in politics and public life. In this short book, he crystallizes and advances his work, bridging the gap between philosophers who use the idea of reason to assess human behavior from a normative point of view and social scientists who use the idea of rationality to explain behavior. In place of these approaches, Elster proposes a unified conceptual framework for the study of behavior. Drawing on classical moralists as well as modern scholarship, and using a wealth of historical and contemporary illustrations, Reason and Rationality marks a new development in Elster's thinking while at the same time providing a brief, elegant, and accessible introduction to his work.

Rationality and Irrationality in Economics

Rationality and Irrationality in Economics
A Book

by Maurice Godelier

  • Publisher : Verso Books
  • Release : 2013-01-16
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN : 1781680256
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is the result of a research project begun by the author in 1958 with the aim of answering two questions: First, what is the rationality of the economic systems that appear and disappear throughout history—in other words, what is their hidden logic and the underlying necessity for them to exist, or to have existed? Second, what are the conditions for a rational understanding of these systems—in other words, for a fully developed comparative economic science? The field of investigation opened up by these two questions is vast, touching on the foundations of social reality and on how to understand them. The author, being a Marxist, sought the answers, as he writes, ‘not in philosophy or by philosophical means, but in and through examining the knowledge accumulated by the sciences.’ The stages of his journey from philosophy to economics and then to anthropology are indicated by the divisions of his book. Godelier rejects, at the outset, any attempt to tackle the question of rationality or irrationality of economic science and of economic realities from the angle of an a priori idea, a speculative definition of what is rational. Such an approach can yield only, he feels, an ideological result. Rather, he treats the appearance and disappearance of social and economic systems in history as being governed by a necessity ‘wholly internal to the concrete structures of social life.

Rationality in the Social Sciences

Rationality in the Social Sciences
The Schumpeter-Parsons Seminar 1939-40 and Current Perspectives

by Helmut Staubmann,Victor Lidz

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-11-30
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 331962377X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume presents for the first time a collection of historically important papers written on the concept of rationality in the social sciences. In 1939-40, the famed Austrian economist Joseph A. Schumpeter and the famous sociologist Talcott Parsons convened a faculty seminar at Harvard University on the topic of rationality. The first part includes their essays as well as papers by the Austrian phenomenologist Alfred Schütz, the sociologist Wilbert Moore, and the economist Rainer Schickele. Several younger economists and sociologists with bright futures also participated, including Alex Gerschenkron, John Dunlop, Paul M. Sweezy, and Wassily W. Leontief, who was later awarded the Nobel Prize for developing input-output analysis. The second part presents essays and commentaries written by today’s internationally noted social scientists and addressing the topic of rationality in social action from a broad range of perspectives. The book’s third and final part shares the recently discovered correspondence between the seminar principals regarding the original but failed plan to publish its proceedings. It also includes letters, not previously published, between Richard Grathoff, Walter M. Sprondel and Talcott Parsons on the rationality seminar and the exchanges between Parsons and Schütz.

The Rationality of Emotion

The Rationality of Emotion
A Book

by Ronald De Sousa

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 1990-03-14
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 9780262540575
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this urbane and witty book, Ronald de Sousa disputes the widespread notion that reason and emotion are natural antagonists. He argues that emotions are a kind of perception, that their roots in the paradigm scenarios in which they are learned give them an essentially dramatic structure, and that they have a crucial role to-play in rational beliefs, desires, and decisions by breaking the deadlocks of pure reason.The book's twelve chapters take up the following topics: alternative models of mind and emotion; the relation between evolutionary, physiological, and social factors in emotions; a taxonomy of objects of emotions; assessments of emotions for correctness and rationality; the regulation by emotions of logical and practical reasoning; emotion and time; the mechanism of emotional self-deception; the ethics of laughter; and the roles of emotions in the conduct of life. There is also an illustrative interlude, in the form of a lively dialogue about the ideology of love, jealousy, and sexual exclusiveness. A Bradford Book.

Minimal Rationality

Minimal Rationality
A Book

by Christopher Cherniak

  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • Release : 1990-03-14
  • Pages : 171
  • ISBN : 9780262530873
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In Minimal Rationality, Christopher Cherniak boldly challenges the myth of Man the the Rational Animal and the central role that the "perfectly rational agent" has had in philosophy, psychology, and other cognitive sciences, as well as in economics. His book presents a more realistic theory based on the limits to rationality which can play a similar generative role in the human sciences, and it seeks to determine the minimal rationality an actual agent must possess.

Rationality

Rationality
An Essay Towards an Analysis

by Jonathan Bennett,Jonathan Francis Bennett

  • Publisher : Hackett Publishing
  • Release : 1989
  • Pages : 123
  • ISBN : 9780872200661
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reprint. Originally published: London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964. (Studies in philosophical psychology)

Freedom and Rationality

Freedom and Rationality
Essays in Honor of John Watkins From his Colleagues and Friends

by F. D'Agostino,Ian Jarvie

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2011-09-27
  • Pages : 388
  • ISBN : 9789401075718
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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x philosophy when he inaugurated a debate about the principle of methodologi cal individualism, a debate which continues to this day, and which has inspired a literature as great as any in contemporary philosophy. Few collections of material in the general area of philosophy of social science would be considered complete unless they contained at least one of Watkins's many contributions to the discussion of this issue. In 1957 Watkins published the flrst of a series of three papers (1957b, 1958d and 196Oa) in which he tried to codify and rehabilitate metaphysics within the Popperian philosophy, placing it somewhere between the analytic and the empirical. He thus signalled the emergence of an important implica tion of Popper's thought that had not to that point been stressed by Sir Karl himself, and which marked off his followers from the antimetaphysical ideas of the regnant logical positivists. In 1965 years of work in political philosophy and in the history of philosophy in the seventeenth century were brought to fruition in Watkins's widely cited and admired Hobbes's System of Ideas (1965a, second edition 1973d). This book is an important contribution not just to our understanding of Hobbes's political thinking, but, perhaps more importantly, to our understanding of the way in which a system of ideas is constituted and applied. Watkins built on earlier work in developing an account of Hobbes's ideas in which was revealed and clarifled the unity of Hobbes's metaphysical, epistemological and political ideas.

Rationality and Prejudice

Rationality and Prejudice
A Book

by Robert Henry Thouless

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1964
  • Pages : 14
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Problems of Rationality

Problems of Rationality
A Book

by Donald Davidson

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 9780198237556
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Donald Davidson's unified theory of the interpretation of thought, meaning, and action holds that rationality is a necessary condition for both mind and interpretation. Davidson here develops this theory to illuminate value judgements and how we understand them.

The Rationality of Religious Belief

The Rationality of Religious Belief
Essays in Honour of Basil Mitchell

by William James Abraham,Former Lecturer and Tutor in the Philosophy of Religion Steven W Holtzer,Steven W. Holtzer

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 1987
  • Pages : 269
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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These essays represent an important contribution to modern philosophical theology. They begin with an appreciation of Basil Mitchell's work and then discuss the role of reason in the justification of Christian theism, giving special attention to the nature of informal reasoning in religion and science. The latter essays examine particular arguments raised by specific religious concepts, covering such topics as the problem of evil, conspicuous sanctity, atonement, and the Eucharist. Drawn from a wide spectrum of philosophers and theologians, the contributors include Maurice Wiles, Grace M. Jantzen, Gordon Kaufman, J.R. Lucas, Rom Harré, Richard Swinburne, and Michael Dummett.