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Remediation of Contaminated Environments

Remediation of Contaminated Environments
A Book

by Gabriele Voigt,Sergey Fesenko

  • Publisher : Elsevier Science
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 477
  • ISBN : 9780080448626
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Following nuclear weapon tests, radiation accidents, functioning of mining, milling and processing industries related to fissile and fossil materials productions environments across the globe are contaminated by radionuclides representing a potential radiation exposure to humans. The book will comprise a wide spectrum of issues such as site characterization of contaminated sites before and after remediation, safety requirements, remediation planning, effectiveness of individual measures in different environments, social, ethical and economic considerations etc. It will describe modern decision aiding technologies and environmental decision support systems that can be effectively used for remediation planning and optimizing. A review of potentially effective remediation measures will be given applicable to different categories of contaminated environments and contaminants. Associated side effects (environmental and social) will also be considered. Special emphasis will be given to decommissioning of enterprises and waste management. Several case studies, demonstrating successful applications in remediation of contaminated locations of different origins: radiation accidents and incidents, areas of uranium, sand and tin mining, nuclear test sites etc., will be presented and discussed. Human based remediation measures, comprising perception of this activity by the population; to stakeholders and population involvement to making decisions on environmental safety and remediation of contaminated sites will be considered.

Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater

Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater
A Book

by Deyi Hou

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2019-11-27
  • Pages : 472
  • ISBN : 9780128179826
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sustainable Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater: Materials, Processes, and Assessment provides the remediation tools and techniques necessary for simultaneously saving time and money and maximizing environmental, social and economic benefits. The book integrates green materials, cleaner processes, and sustainability assessment methods for planning, designing and implementing a more effective remediation process for both soil and groundwater projects. With this book in hand, engineers will find a valuable guide to greener remediation materials that render smaller environmental footprint, cleaner processes that minimize secondary environmental impact, and sustainability assessment methods that can be used to guide the development of materials and processes. Addresses materials, processes, and assessment needs for implementing a successful sustainable remediation process Provides an integrated approach for the unitization of various green technologies, such as green materials, cleaner processes and sustainability assessment Includes case studies based on full-scale commercial soil and groundwater remediation projects

Soil Remediation and Rehabilitation

Soil Remediation and Rehabilitation
Treatment of Contaminated and Disturbed Land

by Helmut Meuser

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-11
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 9400757514
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive overview of remediation and rehabilitation techniques and strategies for contaminated and anthropogenically disturbed land. Rehabilitation approaches in the urban environment, such as brownfield redevelopment and urban mining, are discussed. In relation to contaminated land, techniques for soil containment and decontamination of soil, soil vapour and groundwater are comprehensively and systematically presented. Complicated treatment techniques are schematically depicted and can be readily understood. Agricultural, silvicultural and environmentally sustainable rehabilitation strategies for reclaiming disturbed land/terrain in former mining or natural-resource extraction areas, such as open-cast mines, quarries, harvested peatlands, and subsided mining terrain (sinkholes), are introduced. This book will be a useful tool for students, researchers, private consultants and public authorities engaged in the treatment of contaminated or disturbed land.

Biotechnology for the Environment: Soil Remediation

Biotechnology for the Environment: Soil Remediation
A Book

by Spiros Agathos,Walter Reineke

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2002-11-30
  • Pages : 142
  • ISBN : 9781402010514
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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At the dawn of the 21st century, biotechnology is emerging as a key enabling technology for sustainable environmental protection and stewardship. Biotechnology for the Environment: Soil Remediation offers a state-of-the-art account of environmental biotechnology both in emerging and in more mature technological applications of soil remediation and cleanup of contaminated sites. Harnessing the potential of microorganisms and plants as eco-efficient and robust cleanup agents in a variety of practical situations is not only possible but is becoming widespread practice. Chapters are featured on current experience and trends in bioremediation of contaminated soil, life cycle assessment software tools for remediation planning, ex situ cleanup technologies using slurry reactors, implementation of anaerobic and aerobic in situ processes including monitored natural attenuation, complementary technologies on pesticide immobilisation in soil or humification of nitroaromatics, and, finally, phytoremediation of recalcitrant organic compounds and heavy metals. For more information on Strategy and Fundamentals, see Focus on Biotechnology Volume 3A, and for more information on Waste Water and Waste Gas Handling, see Focus on Biotechnology Volume 3C.

Environmental Remediation Technologies for Metal-Contaminated Soils

Environmental Remediation Technologies for Metal-Contaminated Soils
A Book

by Hiroshi Hasegawa,Ismail Md. Mofizur Rahman,Mohammad Azizur Rahman

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-09-28
  • Pages : 254
  • ISBN : 4431557598
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book presents a comprehensive and detailed description of remediation techniques for metal-contaminated soils derived from both natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Using a methodical, step-by-step presentation, the book starts by overviewing the origin of toxicants and the correlated comparative extent of contamination to the environment. The legal provisions as proposed or applied in different countries are then discussed to explain the global regulatory situation regarding soil contamination and the extent of consequent concern. The core part of this publication describes the major techniques for in situ or ex situ treatment of the contaminated soil to meet the regulatory limits. Finally, risk evaluation is incorporated, giving special attention to possible impacts during or after implementation of the remediation strategies. The intrusion of metals in soils mostly occurs from various anthropogenic activities, e.g., agricultural practices, industrial activities, and municipal waste disposal. The volumes of metal-contaminated soil are becoming greater than before and are ever-increasing due to rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, and/or population booms in certain parts of the world. Hence, the options previously proposed, such as isolation of the contaminated site or movement of the contaminated mass to a secure disposal site after excavation, are becoming unsuitable from the economic point of view, and instead, decontamination alternatives are preferred. This book will help readers such as scientists and regulators to understand the details of the remediation techniques available to deal with the soils contaminated by toxic metals.

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites
A Book

by L. Van Velzen

  • Publisher : Woodhead Pub Limited
  • Release : 2015-02-05
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN : 9781782422310
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nuclear sites become contaminated with radionuclides due to accidents and activities carried out without due consideration for the environment. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) released by industrial processes such as coal power production and fertilizer manufacture may also require clean-up. Environmental remediation and restoration aim to reduce exposure to radiation from contaminated soil or groundwater. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area. Part 1 provides an introduction to the different types of contaminated site and their characteristics. Part 2 addresses environmental restoration frameworks and processes. Part 3 then reviews different remediation techniques and methods of waste disposal. Explores types and characteristics of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Provides an in depth guide to environmental restoration frameworks and processes including stakeholder involvement, risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in the remediation and restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Offers coverage of remediation techniques and waste disposal from electrokinetic remediation to in situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclides contaminated soils

Bioremediation Technology

Bioremediation Technology
Recent Advances

by M. H. Fulekar

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-03-05
  • Pages : 378
  • ISBN : 9048136784
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Environmental pollutants have become a major global concern. The modern growth of industrialization, urbanization, modern agricultural development and energy generation have resulted in indiscriminate exploitation of natural resources for fulfilling the human desires and needs, which have contributed in disturbing the ecological balance on which the quality of environment depends. The modern technological advancements in chemical processes/operations have been raised to new products and also new pollutants in abundant level which are above the self cleaning capacity of the environment. One of the major issues in present times is the threat to human lives, due to the progressive deterioration of the environment. This book discusses bioremediation technology-based remediation to restore contaminated sites and protect the environment. It studies the opportunities for more efficient biological processes in molecular biology and ecology. Notable accomplishments of these studies include the cleaning up of polluted water and contaminated land. The book includes invited papers by eminent contributors who provide cost-effective bioremediation strategies to immobilize contaminants for cleanup of environment. The book is directed towards postgraduate students in biotechnology/life sciences/environmental sciences/biosciences and researchers in universities and research institutes and industries.

Microbial Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon- Contaminated Marine Environments

Microbial Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon- Contaminated Marine Environments
A Book

by Mouna Mahjoubi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Petroleum pollution has become a serious environmental problem, which can cause harmful damage to the environment and human health. This pollutant is introduced into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Various physicochemical and biological treatments were developed for the cleanup of contaminated environments. However, bioremediation is based on the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms, and it is considered as the most basic and reliable way to eliminate contaminants, particularly petroleum and its recalcitrant compounds. It is more effective alternative comparing to classical remediation techniques. A high diversity of potential hydrocarbon degrader's microorganisms was reported, and bacteria constitute the most abundant group, which has been well studied for hydrocarbon degradation. Several bioremediation approaches through bioaugmentation or/and biostimulation have been successfully applied. The interest on the optimizing of different parameters to achieve successful bioremediation technologies has been increased. In this chapter, we summarize the diversity and the hydrocarbon degradation potential of microorganism involved in the remediation of contaminated environments. We also present an overview of the efficient bioremediation strategies used for the decontamination of polluted marine environments.

Innovative Approaches to the On-Site Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sites

Innovative Approaches to the On-Site Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sites
A Book

by Danny Reible,Katerina Demnerova

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 263
  • ISBN : 940100255X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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2 DANNY D. REIBLEI AND KATERINA DEMNEROVA 1 Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 2 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic On May 24, 2001, a total of 102 students and lecturers participated in an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under our direction. The Institute was focused on in situ and onsite management of contaminated sites. The objective of the Institute was to balance state of the art science with techniques for field application of a variety of technologies for in situ assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. Many of the lecturers were drawn from the ranks of the Hazardous Substance Research Centers, multi-university consortia that have been funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to conduct research and technology transfer designed to promote risk-based management and control of hazardous substances for the nation. The Centers have made special contributions to the areas of in situ and onsite assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. Such approaches have the potential for being significantly less expensive than other assessment and remediation approaches while maintaining accuracy and effectiveness. Cost-effective remedial and management approaches that are also effective in minimizing exposure and risk to human health and the environment are a critical need throughout the world but particularly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union where resources that can be devoted to environmental cleanup are especially limited.

Contaminants in Agriculture and Environment: Health Risks and Remediation

Contaminants in Agriculture and Environment: Health Risks and Remediation
A Book

by Vinod Kumar,Rohitashw Kumar,Jogendra Singh,Pankaj Kumar

  • Publisher : Agro Environ Media, Publication Cell of AESA, Agriculture and Environmental Science Academy,
  • Release : 2019-06-25
  • Pages : 283
  • ISBN : 8194201705
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book entitled “Contaminants in Agriculture and Environment: Health Risks and Remediation” is focused on the emerging contaminants in agriculture and environment and it will be helpful for the researchers, academicians, scientists, UG and PG students and other stakeholders engaged in the field of agriculture and environmental studies. The contaminants of crops, vegetables, fruits, fishes, grains and pulses and their health effects and impact of pollutants on human/animal health, growth and productivity of agricultural crops.

Processes, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments

Processes, Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments
A Book

by Danny D. Reible

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-07-20
  • Pages : 462
  • ISBN : 1461467268
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of this book is to help engineers and scientists better understand contaminated sediment sites and identify and design remedial approaches that are more efficient and effective. Contaminated sediment management is a difficult and costly exercise that is rarely addressed with easily identified and implemented remedies. It is hoped that this book can help identify and implement management approaches that provide an optimal, if not entirely satisfactory, solution to sediment contaminant problems.​

Use of Humic Substances to Remediate Polluted Environments: From Theory to Practice

Use of Humic Substances to Remediate Polluted Environments: From Theory to Practice
Proceedings of the NATO Adanced Research Workshop on Use of Humates to Remediate Polluted Environments: From Theory to Practice, held in Zvenigorod, Russia, 23-29 September 2002

by Irina V. Perminova,Kirk Hatfield,Norbert Hertkorn

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2005-03-24
  • Pages : 506
  • ISBN : 9781402032509
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Effective remediation of polluted environments is a priority in both Eastern and Western countries. In the U.S. and Europe, remediation costs generally exceed the net economic value of the land. As a result, scientists and engineers on both sides of the Atlantic have aggressively tried to develop novel technologies to meet regulatory standards at a fraction of the costs. In situ remediation shows considerable promise from both technical and economic perspectives. In situ technologies that deploy natural attenuating agents such as humic substances (HS) may be even more cost effective. Numerous studies have shown humics capable of altering both the chemical and the physical speciation of the ecotoxicants and in turn attenuate potential adverse environmental repercussions. Furthermore, the reserves of inexpensive humic materials are immense. Which suggests HS portend great promise as inexpensive amendments to mitigate the environmental impacts of ecotoxicants and as active agents in remediation. To elucidate emerging concepts of humics-based remediation technologies, we organized the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW), entitled "Use of humates to remediate polluted environments: from theory to practice", held on September 23-29, 2002 in Zvenigorod, Russia (see the web-site http://www.mgumus.chem.msu.ru/arw).

The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions

The Utilization of Bioremediation to Reduce Soil Contamination: Problems and Solutions
A Book

by Václav Sasek,John A. Glaser,P. Baveye

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2003-02-28
  • Pages : 417
  • ISBN : 9781402011429
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held in Prague, Czech Republic, 14-19 June 2000

Handbook of Metal-microbe Interactions and Bioremediation

Handbook of Metal-microbe Interactions and Bioremediation
A Book

by Surajit Das,Hirak Ranjan Dash

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 837
  • ISBN : 9781498762427
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Around the World, metal pollution is a major problem. Conventional practices of toxic metal removal can be ineffective and/or expensive, delaying and exacerbating the crisis. Those communities dealing with contamination must be aware of the fundamentals advances of microbe-mediated metal removal practices because these methods can be easily used and require less remedial intervention. This book describes innovations and efficient applications for metal bioremediation for environments polluted by metal contaminates.

Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation

Applied Bioremediation and Phytoremediation
A Book

by Ajay Singh,Owen P. Ward

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 281
  • ISBN : 3662057948
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The huge expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries in the twentieth century has resulted in the production of a vast array of chem ical compounds and materials that have transformed our lives. The associated large-scale manufacturing, processing and handling activi ties have caused a serious deterioration in environmental quality and created threats to human health. These negative impacts have led to responses and regulations requiring remedial action in support of envi ronmental sustainability. of biotechnological methods through bioremediation, Application has gained prominence as an option for soil remediation methods. Bioremediation is a multidisciplinary approach where biologists, chem ists, soil scientists and engineers work as team to develop and imple ment remediation processes. Bioremediation has now been used successfully to remediate many petroleum-contaminated sites. However, there are as yet no commercial technologies commonly used to reme diate the most recalcitrant contaminants. Nevertheless, bioremediation is a rapidly advancing field and new bio-based remedial technologies are continuing to emerge.

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management

Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management
4. Risk Reduction Technologies and Case Studies

by Katalin Gruiz,Tamás Meggyes,Éva Fenyvesi

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-01-08
  • Pages : 558
  • ISBN : 1317697413
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The four volumes of the book series "Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management" deal with environmental management, assessment & monitoring tools, environmental toxicology and risk reduction technologies. This last volume focuses on engineering solutions usually needed for industrial contaminated sites, where nature’s self-remediation is inefficient or too slow. The success of remediation depends on the selection of an increasing number of conventional and innovative methods. This volume classifies the remedial technologies and describes the reactor approach to understand and manage in situ technologies similarly to reactor-based technologies. Technology types include physicochemical, biological or ecological solutions, where near-natural, sustainable remediation has priority. A special chapter is devoted to natural attenuation, where natural changes can help achieve clean-up objectives. Natural attenuation and biological and ecological remediation establish a serial range of technologies from monitoring only to fully controlled interventions, using ‘ just’ the natural ecosystem or sophisticated artificial living systems. Passive artificial ecosystems and biodegradation-based remediation – in addition to natural attenuation – demonstrate the use of these ‘green’ technologies and how engineering intervention should be kept at a minimum to limit damage to the environment and create a harmonious ecosystem. Remediation of sites contaminated with organic substances is analyzed in detail including biological and physicochemical methods. Comprehensive management of pollution by inorganic contaminants from the mining industry, leaching and bioleaching and acid mine drainage is studied in general and specifically in the case of an abandoned mine in Hungary where the innovative technology of combined chemical and phytostabilization has been applied. The series of technologies is completed by electrochemical remediation and nanotechnologies. Monitoring, verification and sustainability analysis of remediation provide a comprehensive overview of the management aspect of environmental risk reduction by remediation. This book series focuses on the state of knowledge about the environment and its conscious and structured application in environmental engineering, management and decision making.

Perspectives in Bioremediation

Perspectives in Bioremediation
Technologies for Environmental Improvement

by J.R. Wild,S.D. Varfolomeyev,A. Scozzafava

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 123
  • ISBN : 9401156840
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioremediation - the use of microorganisms for environmental clean-up - is a technology that is experiencing a rapid phase of development. From the opening chapter of Perspectives in Bioremediation, on the nature of environmental site assessment, on to the genetic manipulation of native soil microorganisms, the international collection of authors provide an understanding of the current progress and limitations of technologies that are designed to help nature herself. The book draws together many different aspects of environmental remediation: the environmental engineer is introduced to the bacteria of contaminated environments and the ideas developing from genetic engineering; the environmental microbiologist can grasp site assessment and the predictive kinetic analysis of potentials. The book provides a clear and concise introduction to the nature of and potential for bioremediation to contribute to a critical global effort in eliminating contamination of the world's resources and to start to reverse decades of environmental mismanagement and neglect.

Use of Humic Substances to Remediate Polluted Environments: From Theory to Practice

Use of Humic Substances to Remediate Polluted Environments: From Theory to Practice
Proceedings of the NATO Adanced Research Workshop on Use of Humates to Remediate Polluted Environments: From Theory to Practice, held in Zvenigorod, Russia, 23-29 September 2002

by Irina V. Perminova,Kirk Hatfield,Norbert Hertkorn

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2006-03-30
  • Pages : 506
  • ISBN : 1402032528
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Effective remediation of polluted environments is a priority in both Eastern and Western countries. In the U.S. and Europe, remediation costs generally exceed the net economic value of the land. As a result, scientists and engineers on both sides of the Atlantic have aggressively tried to develop novel technologies to meet regulatory standards at a fraction of the costs. In situ remediation shows considerable promise from both technical and economic perspectives. In situ technologies that deploy natural attenuating agents such as humic substances (HS) may be even more cost effective. Numerous studies have shown humics capable of altering both the chemical and the physical speciation of the ecotoxicants and in turn attenuate potential adverse environmental repercussions. Furthermore, the reserves of inexpensive humic materials are immense. Which suggests HS portend great promise as inexpensive amendments to mitigate the environmental impacts of ecotoxicants and as active agents in remediation. To elucidate emerging concepts of humics-based remediation technologies, we organized the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW), entitled "Use of humates to remediate polluted environments: from theory to practice", held on September 23-29, 2002 in Zvenigorod, Russia (see the web-site http://www.mgumus.chem.msu.ru/arw).

Bioremediation for Environmental Sustainability

Bioremediation for Environmental Sustainability
Toxicity, Mechanisms of Contaminants Degradation, Detoxification and Challenges

by Gaurav Saxena,Vineet Kumar,Maulin P. Shah

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-11-02
  • Pages : 692
  • ISBN : 0128205245
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bioremediation for Environmental Sustainability: Toxicity, Mechanisms of Contaminants Degradation, Detoxification and Challenges introduces pollution and toxicity profiles of various organic and inorganic contaminants, including mechanisms of toxicity, degradation, and detoxification by microbes and plants, and their bioremediation approaches for environmental sustainability. The book also covers many advanced technologies in the field of bioremediation and phytoremediation, including electro-bioremediation, microbial fuel cells, nano-bioremediation, constructed wetlands, phytotechnologies, and many more, which are lacking in other competitive titles existing in the market. The book includes updated information, as well as future directions for research, in the field of bioremediation of industrial wastes. This book is a reference for students, researchers, scientists, and professionals in the fields of microbiology, biotechnology, environmental sciences, eco-toxicology, environmental remediation, and waste management, especially those who aspire to work on the biodegradation and bioremediation of industrial wastes and environmental pollutants for environmental sustainability. Environmental safety and sustainability with rapid industrialization is one of the major challenges worldwide. Industries are the key drivers in the world economy, but these are also the major polluters due to discharge of potentially toxic and hazardous wastes containing various organic and inorganic pollutants, which cause environmental pollution and severe toxic effects in living beings. Introduces pollution and toxicity profiles of environmental contaminants and industrial wastes, including oil refinery wastewater, distillery wastewater, tannery wastewater, textile wastewater, mine tailing wastes, plastic wastes, and more Describes underlying mechanisms of degradation and detoxification of emerging organic and inorganic contaminants with enzymatic roles Focuses on recent advances and challenges in bioremediation and phytoremediation, including microbial enzymes, biosurfactants, microalgae, biofilm, archaea, genetically engineered organisms, and more Describes how microbes and plants can be successfully applied for the remediation of potentially toxic industrial wastes and chemical pollutants to protect the environment and public health

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Environmental Fate, Toxicity, and Remediation

by Saranya Kuppusamy,Naga Raju Maddela,Mallavarapu Megharaj,Kadiyala Venkateswarlu

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-08-13
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 3030240355
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The term “total petroleum hydrocarbons” (TPHs) is used for any mixture of several hundred hydrocarbons found in crude oil, and they represent the sum of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons and extractable petroleum hydrocarbons. The petrol-range organics include hydrocarbons from C6 to C10, while diesel-range organics are C10-C28 hydrocarbons. Environmental pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons is one of the major global concerns, particularly in oil-yielding countries. In fact, there are more than five million potentially contaminated areas worldwide that represent, in general, a lost economic opportunity and a threat to the health and well-being of humans and the environment. Petroleum-contaminated sites constitute almost one-third of the total sites polluted with chemicals around the globe. The land contamination caused by industrialization was recognized as early as the 1960s, but less than a tenth of potentially contaminated lands have been remediated due to the nature of the contamination, cost, technical impracticability, and insufficient land legislation and enforcement. This book is the first single source that provides comprehensive information on the different aspects of TPHs, such as sources and range of products, methods of analysis, fate and bioavailability, ecological implications including impact on human health, potential approaches for bioremediation such as risk-based remediation, and regulatory assessment procedures for TPH-contaminated sites. As such, it is a valuable resource for researchers, graduate students, technicians in the oil industry and remediation practitioners, as well as policy makers.