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Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions
A Book

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2009-06-06
  • Pages : 90
  • ISBN : 0309130735
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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NASA maintains a planetary protection policy to avoid the forward biological contamination of other worlds by terrestrial organisms, and back biological contamination of Earth from the return of extraterrestrial materials by spaceflight missions. Forward-contamination issues related to Mars missions were addressed in a 2006 National Research Council (NRC) book, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. However, it has been more than 10 years since back-contamination issues were last examined. Driven by a renewed interest in Mars sample return missions, this book reviews, updates, and replaces the planetary protection conclusions and recommendations contained in the NRC's 1997 report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations. The specific issues addressed in this book include the following: The potential for living entities to be included in samples returned from Mars; Scientific investigations that should be conducted to reduce uncertainty in the above assessment; The potential for large-scale effects on Earth's environment by any returned entity released to the environment; Criteria for intentional sample release, taking note of current and anticipated regulatory frameworks; and The status of technological measures that could be taken on a mission to prevent the inadvertent release of a returned sample into Earth's biosphere.

Sample Return Missions

Sample Return Missions
The Last Frontier of Solar System Exploration

by Andrea Longobardo

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-05-20
  • Pages : 396
  • ISBN : 0128183314
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sample Return Missions: The Last Frontier of Solar System Exploration examines the discoveries and results obtained from sample return missions of the past, present, and future. It analyses the results in the context of the current state of knowledge and their relation to the formation and evolution of planetary bodies, as well as to the available technologies and techniques. It provides detailed descriptions of experimental procedures applied to returned samples. Beginning with an overview of previous missions, Sample Return Missions then goes on to provide an overview of facilities throughout the world used to analyze the returned samples. Finally, it addresses techniques for collection, transport, and analysis of the samples, with an additional focus on lessons learned and future perspectives. Providing an in-depth examination of a variety of missions, with both scientific and engineering implications, this book is an important resource for the planetary science community, as well as the experimentalist and engineering communities. Presents sample return results obtained so far in relation to remote sensing measurements, methods and techniques for laboratory analysis, and technology Provides an overview of a variety of sample return missions, from Apollo, to Hayabusa-2, to future missions Examines technological and methodological advances in analyzing returned samples, as well as the resources available globally

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons
A Book

by European Science Foundation,European Space Sciences Committee,National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample Return Missions from Martian Moons

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2019-07-20
  • Pages : 74
  • ISBN : 0309488591
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR's planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as "restricted" or "unrestricted" Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos.

Comet Nucleus and Asteroid Sample Return Missions

Comet Nucleus and Asteroid Sample Return Missions
A Book

by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Release : 2018-07-23
  • Pages : 326
  • ISBN : 9781723541261
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus. Unspecified Center NASA-CR-192055, NAS 1.26:192055 NASW-4435...

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions
A Book

by National Aeronautics Administration

  • Publisher : CreateSpace
  • Release : 2014-11-01
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN : 9781503338210
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There has been interest in obtaining gas, dust, rocks, or soil samples from comets or nearby planets since the beginning of the space age in the 1950s. Flying a spacecraft to the destination and returning a sample in an Earth entry vehicle can accomplish this. The return spacecraft is called a sample return vehicle (SRV). Detailed studies of Martian samples can only be conducted on Earth. In the past decade there have been many studies investigating the feasibility and practicalities of sample return missions to Mars Samples collected on Mars will be sealed in a special capsule to prevent contamination. An ascent vehicle will launch the capsule from the surface of Mars. There are several ways to return the sample to Earth. One way is to use a Mars orbiter to capture the sample container and then begin an interplanetary trajectory to return the sample to Earth. This document is concerned with the Earth entry environment and the Earth entry portion of a sample return mission to the planet Mars. The document is intended to introduce the subject of atmospheric entry to engineers and scientists who do not have strong backgrounds in aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics and flight mechanics. Much of this material can be applied to entry into other planetary atmospheres by using the appropriate atmospheric and gravity models. This document discusses topics in atmospheric entry and presents examples in related disciplines.

Planetary Penetrators for Sample Return Missions

Planetary Penetrators for Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Chad A. Truitt

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 74
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sample return missions offer a greater science yield when compared to missions that only employ in situ experiments or remote sensing observations, since they allow the application of more complicated technological and analytical methodologies in controlled terrestrial laboratories that are both repeatable and can be independently verified. The successful return of extraterrestrial materials over the last four decades has contributed to our understanding of the solar system, but retrieval techniques have largely depended on the use of either soft-landing, or touch-and-go procedures that result in high [delta]V requirements, and return yields typically limited to a few grams of surface materials that have experienced varying degrees of alteration from space weathering. Hard-landing methods using planetary penetrators offer an alternative for sample return that significantly reduce a mission’s [delta]V, increase sample yields, and allow for the collection of subsurface materials, and lessons can be drawn from previous sample return missions. The following details progress in the design, development, and testing of penetrator/sampler technology capable of surviving subsonic and low supersonic impact velocities (

Mars Sample Return

Mars Sample Return
Issues and Recommendations

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Task Group on Issues in Sample Return

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 1997-03-28
  • Pages : 58
  • ISBN : 0309057337
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) serves as the primary adviser to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary protection policy, the purpose of which is to preserve conditions for future biological and organic exploration of planets and other solar system objects and to protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination. In October 1995 the NRC received a letter from NASA requesting that the Space Studies Board examine and provide advice on planetary protection issues related to possible sample-return missions to near-Earth solar system bodies.

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Christophe Sotin

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions

Notes on Earth Atmospheric Entry for Mars Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Planetary Protection Classification of Sample-Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample-Return Missions from the Martian Moons
A Book

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample Return Missions from Martian Moons

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 57
  • ISBN : 9780309488600
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR's planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as "restricted" or "unrestricted" Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos"--Publisher's description

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions

Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 279
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Special Issue: Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions

Special Issue: Mars Exploration Program and Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Ch Sotin

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 277
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences

Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences
A Book

by Mahesh Anand,Sara Russell,Yangting Lin,Meenakshi Wadhwa,Kuljeet Kaur Marhas,Shogo Tachibana

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2020-11-25
  • Pages : 503
  • ISBN : 9789402420746
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the past 50 years, our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Solar System has grown exponentially, in large part due to the availability of meteorites and the success of sample return missions. This book contains fourteen papers, each led by a team of expert scientists, which review our present understanding of Solar System formation and evolution through sample analysis.The chapters are structured around three main themes: (i) initial conditions and workings of the Solar System; (ii) planetary habitats; and (iii) sample curation. Through these themes, the volume presents the outstanding scientific questions to be addressed through future missions, identifies specific target bodies to be studied, and evaluates relevant sample curation facilities. In all, the book is intended to assist in formulating a viable strategy for planning future sample return missions.Previously published in Space Science Reviews in the Topical Collection "Role of Sample Return in Addressing Major Questions in Planetary Sciences”

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis
A Book

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis Facilities

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2019-04-29
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 0309486696
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The United States possesses a treasure-trove of extraterrestrial samples that were returned to Earth via space missions over the past four decades. Analyses of these previously returned samples have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of the age, composition, and origin of the solar system. Having the instrumentation, facilities and qualified personnel to undertake analyses of returned samples, especially from missions that take up to a decade or longer from launch to return, is thus of paramount importance if the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to capitalize fully on the investment made in these missions, and to achieve the full scientific impact afforded by these extraordinary samples. Planetary science may be entering a new golden era of extraterrestrial sample return; now is the time to assess how prepared the scientific community is to take advantage of these opportunities. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis assesses the current capabilities within the planetary science community for sample return analyses and curation, and what capabilities are currently missing that will be needed for future sample return missions. This report evaluates whether current laboratory support infrastructure and NASA's investment strategy is adequate to meet these analytical challenges and advises how the community can keep abreast of evolving and new techniques in order to stay at the forefront of extraterrestrial sample analysis.

Mars Sample Return Missions, Precursors to Manned Planetary Exploration

Mars Sample Return Missions, Precursors to Manned Planetary Exploration
A Book

by D. N. Stager

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1990
  • Pages : 8
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Reachable Sets for Multiple Asteroid Sample Return Missions

Reachable Sets for Multiple Asteroid Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 123
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In support of future NASA asteroid sample return missions, this thesis examines strategies to reduce the number of feasible asteroid targets. Reachable sets are defined in a reduced classical orbital element space. The boundary of this reduced space is obtained by extremizing a family of convex combinations of orbital elements. The resulting group of optimization problems is solved using a direct collocation pseudospectral technique by a MATLAB application package called DIDO. The reachable sets are examined to narrow the possible valid asteroid choices in order to aid in mission design and analysis of alternative targets. A solar electric propulsion system is modeled with the stay times at each asteroid, Earth departure, and Earth arrival hyperbolic excess velocities implemented as constrained optimization parameters.

Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission

Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission
A Book

by National Aeronautics and Space Adm Nasa

  • Publisher : Independently Published
  • Release : 2018-09-19
  • Pages : 70
  • ISBN : 9781723822261
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In 2003, NASA solicited proposals for a robotic exploration of the lunar surface. Submissions were requested for a lunar sample return mission from the South Pole-Aitken Basin. The basin is of interest because it is thought to contain some of the oldest accessible rocks on the lunar surface. A mission is under study that will land a spacecraft in the basin, collect a sample of rock fragments, and return the sample to Earth. Because the Aitken Basin is on the far side of the Moon, the lander will require a communications relay satellite (CRS) to maintain contact with the Earth during its surface operation. Design of the CRS's orbit is therefore critical. This paper describes a mission design which includes potential transfer and mission orbits, required changes in velocity, orbital parameters, and mission dates. Several different low lunar polar orbits are examined to compare their availability to the lander versus the distance over which they must communicate. In addition, polar orbits are compared to a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 point, which would permit continuous communication at a cost of increased fuel requirements and longer transmission distances. This thesis also examines some general parameters of the spacecraft systems for the mission under study. Mission requirements for the lander dictate the eventual choice of mission orbit. This mission could be the first step in a period of renewed lunar exploration and eventual human landings.Brunner, Christopher W.Langley Research CenterRELAY SATELLITES; SAMPLE RETURN MISSIONS; SATELLITE DESIGN; LUNAR GEOLOGY; STRUCTURAL BASINS; COSTS; LUNAR ROCKS; LUNAR SOIL; ECCENTRIC ORBITS; FLYBY MISSIONS; TIME OF FLIGHT SPECTROMETERS; EARTH-MOON SYSTEM

Macroscopic Subdivision of Silica Aerogel Collectors for Sample Return Missions

Macroscopic Subdivision of Silica Aerogel Collectors for Sample Return Missions
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 14
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Silica aerogel collector tiles have been employed for the collection of particles in low Earth orbit and, more recently, for the capture of cometary particles by NASA's Stardust mission. Reliable, reproducible methods for cutting these and future collector tiles from sample return missions are necessary to maximize the science output from the extremely valuable embedded particles. We present a means of macroscopic subdivision of collector tiles by generating large-scale cuts over several centimeters in silica aerogel with almost no material loss. The cut surfaces are smooth and optically clear allowing visual location of particles for analysis and extraction. This capability is complementary to the smaller-scale cutting capabilities previously described [Westphal (2004), Ishii (2005a, 2005b)] for removing individual impacts and particulate debris in tiny aerogel extractions. Macroscopic cuts enable division and storage or distribution of portions of aerogel tiles for immediate analysis of samples by certain techniques in situ or further extraction of samples suited for other methods of analysis.

Opening New Frontiers in Space

Opening New Frontiers in Space
Choices for the Next New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on New Opportunities in Solar System Exploration: An Evaluation of the New Frontiers Announcement of Opportunity

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2008-08-21
  • Pages : 82
  • ISBN : 0309118891
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The New Frontiers Program was created by NASA in 2002 at the recommendation of the NRC's decadal survey for solar system research. In order to optimize solar system research, the NRC recommended a series of principal-investigator missions that encourage innovation and accomplish the main scientific objectives presented in the survey. Two of the five recommended missions have been selected and, as was also recommended in the survey, the NRC was asked in 2007 to provide criteria and guiding principles to NASA for determining the list of candidate missions. This book presents a review of eight missions: the three remaining from the original list of five from the survey plus five missions considered by the survey committee but which were not recommended. Included in the review of each mission is a discussion of relevant science and technology developments since the survey and set of recommended science goals.

International Cooperation for Mars Exploration and Sample Return

International Cooperation for Mars Exploration and Sample Return
A Book

by National Aeronautics and Space Adm Nasa

  • Publisher : Independently Published
  • Release : 2018-10-28
  • Pages : 56
  • ISBN : 9781729362143
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The National Research Council's Space Studies Board has previously recommended that the next major phase of Mars exploration for the United States involve detailed in situ investigations of the surface of Mars and the return to earth for laboratory analysis of selected Martian surface samples. More recently, the European space science community has expressed general interest in the concept of cooperative Mars exploration and sample return. The USSR has now announced plans for a program of Mars exploration incorporating international cooperation. If the opportunity becomes available to participate in Mars exploration, interest is likely to emerge on the part of a number of other countries, such as Japan and Canada. The Space Studies Board's Committee on Cooperative Mars Exploration and Sample Return was asked by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to examine and report on the question of how Mars sample return missions might best be structured for effective implementation by NASA along with international partners. The committee examined alternatives ranging from scientific missions in which the United States would take a substantial lead, with international participation playing only an ancillary role, to missions in which international cooperation would be a basic part of the approach, with the international partners taking on comparably large mission responsibilities. On the basis of scientific strategies developed earlier by the Space Studies Board, the committee considered the scientific and technical basis of such collaboration and the most mutually beneficial arrangements for constructing successful cooperative missions, particularly with the USSR. Levy, Eugene H. and Boynton, William V. and Cameron, A. G. W. and Carr, Michael H. and Kitchell, Jennifer H. and Mazur, Peter and Pace, Norman R. and Prinn, Ronald G. and Solomon, Sean C. and Wasserburg, Gerald J. Unspecified Center...