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Semiconductors and the Information Revolution

Semiconductors and the Information Revolution
Magic Crystals that made IT Happen

by John W. Orton

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2009-06-17
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN : 9780080963907
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Semiconductors and the Information Revolution sets out to explain the development of modern electronic systems and devices from the viewpoint of the semiconductor materials (germanium, silicon, gallium arsenide and many others) which made them possible. It covers the scientific understanding of these materials and its intimate relationship with their technology and many applications. It began with Michael Faraday, took off in a big way with the invention of the transistor at Bell Labs in 1947 and is still burgeoning today. It is a story to match any artistic or engineering achievement of man and this is the first time it has been presented in a style suited to the non-specialist. It is written in a lively, non-mathematical style which brings out the excitement of discovery and the fascinating interplay between the demands of system pull and technological push. It also looks at the nature of some of the personal interactions which helped to shape the modern technological world. An introductory chapter illustrates just how dependent we are on modern electronic systems and explains the significance of semiconductors in their development. It also provides, in as painless a way as possible, a necessary understanding of semiconductor properties in relation to these applications. The second chapter takes up the historical account and ends with some important results emerging from the Second World War – including its effect on the organisation of scientific research. Chapter three describes the world-shaking discovery of the transistor and some of the early struggles to make it commercially viable, including the marketing of the first transistor radio. In chapter four we meet the integrated circuit which gave shape to much of our modern life in the form of the personal computer (and which gave rise to a famously long-running patent war!). Later chapters cover the application of compound semiconductors to light-emitting devices, such as LEDs and lasers, and light detecting devices such as photocells. We learn how these developments led to the invention of the CD player and DVD recorder, how other materials were applied to the development of sophisticated night vision equipment, fibre optical communications systems, solar photovoltaic panels and flat panel displays. Similarly, microwave techniques essential to our modern day love of mobile phoning are seen to depend on clever materials scientists who, not for the first time, "invented" new semiconductors with just the right properties. Altogether, it is an amazing story and one which deserves to be more widely known. Read this book and you will be rewarded with a much deeper understanding and appreciation of the technological revolution which shapes so many aspects of our lives. A historical account of the development of semiconductor physics, devices and applications from the nineteenth century to the present day Coverage of the importance of material quality and its relation to the physics of the devices Presented in a strictly non-mathematical and anecedotal way, to appeal to a wide audience Provides the broad sweep of science history

Canada's Information Revolution

Canada's Information Revolution
A Book

by Conference on Information Technology: Globalization, Diffusion, Innovation and Retraining (1989 : Toronto, Ont.),Institute for Research on Public Policy

  • Publisher : IRPP
  • Release : 1991
  • Pages : 186
  • ISBN : 9780886451257
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Information Revolution in Asia

The Information Revolution in Asia
A Book

by Nina Hachigian,Lily Wu

  • Publisher : Rand Corporation
  • Release : 2003-07-02
  • Pages : 130
  • ISBN : 0833036068
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report discusses the information revolution in the Asia-Pacific region and its likely course over the next five to ten years. Key questions addressed in this report include the extent to which the information revolution has taken hold of markets in this region, the political implications of the information revolution for Asian governments, the variations between individual countries, and the prospects for further information-technology-related developments in the region.

Information Materials

Information Materials
Smart Materials for Adaptive Architecture

by Manuel Kretzer

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-11-03
  • Pages : 191
  • ISBN : 3319351508
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book considers the potential of new, smart materials and their use in architecture. It begins with an overview of current global tendencies (technological, demographic, and socio-anthropological) and their relevance for architectural design. Expanding upon approaches for flexible design solutions to address change and uncertainty, Dr. Kretzer begins by exploring adaptive architecture and proceeds to introduce the topic of “information materials,” which encompasses smart and functional materials, their current usage, and their potential for the creation of future spaces. The second chapter provides a comprehensive overview of architectural materials, past and present, split into the topics: natural, industrial, synthetic, digital, and information materials. Chapter three introduces an educational approach for the mediation of information material usage in design courses and student workshops. The final section provides detailed information on a range of emerging material phenomena, including aerogels, bioluminescence, bio plastics, dye-sensitized solar cells, electroluminescent displays, electroactive polymers, soft robotics, and thermochromics. Each section explains its respective history, working principles, fabrication and (potential) usage in architecture and design, and provides hands-on tutorials on how to self-produce these materials, and displays class-tested experimental installations. The book concludes with an outlook into the domain of synthetic biology and the prospects of a “living” architecture. It is ideal for students of structural materials engineering, architecture, and urban planning; professionals working these in areas, as well as materials science/engineering and architecture educators.

The Second Information Revolution

The Second Information Revolution
A Book

by Gerald W. BROCK,Gerald W Brock

  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Release : 2009-06-30
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 0674028791
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thanks to inexpensive computers and data communications, the speed and volume of human communication are exponentially greater than they were even a quarter-century ago. Not since the advent of the telephone and telegraph in the nineteenth century has information technology changed daily life so radically. We are in the midst of what Gerald Brock calls a second information revolution. Brock traces the complex history of this revolution, from its roots in World War II through the bursting bubble of the Internet economy. As he explains, the revolution sprang from an interdependent series of technological advances, entrepreneurial innovations, and changes to public policy. Innovations in radar, computers, and electronic components for defense projects translated into rapid expansion in the private sector, but some opportunities were blocked by regulatory policies. The contentious political effort to accommodate new technology while protecting beneficiaries of the earlier regulated monopoly eventually resulted in a regulatory structure that facilitated the explosive growth in data communications. Brock synthesizes these complex factors into a readable economic history of the wholesale transformation of the way we exchange and process information. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments Abbreviations 1. Introduction The Promise of Regulation Conceptual Framework 2. The First Information Revolution The Development of Telegraph Services The Telephone and State Regulation Radio and Federal Regulation 3. Technological Origins of the Second Information Revolution, 1940-1950 Radar The Transistor Electronic Digital Computers 4. The SAGE Project I. THE SEPARATE WORLDS OF COMPUTERS AND COMMUNICATIONS, 1950-1968 5. The Early Semiconductor Industry The Creation of a Competitive Market Innovation and the Integrated Circuit Falling Prices, Rising Output 6. The Early Commercial Computer Industry Vacuum-Tube and Transistor Computers The System/360 and IBM Dominance Alternatives to IBM Computers 7. The Regulated Monopoly Telephone Industry Antitrust and the 1956 Consent Decree Microwave Technology and Potential Long Distance Competition Central Office Switches Terminal Equipment II. BOUNDARY DISPUTES AND LIMITED COMPETITION, 1969-1984 8. Data Communications Packet-Switching and the Arpanet Network Protocols and Interconnection Local Area Networks and Ethernet 9. From Mainframes to Microprocessors Intel and the Microprocessor Personal Computers and Workstations 10. The Computer-Communications Boundary Computer-Assisted Messages: Communications or Data Processing? Smart Terminals: Teletypewriters or Computers? Interconnection of Customer-Owned Equipment with the Telephone Network The Deregulation of Terminal Equipment The Deregulation of Enhanced Services 11. Fringe Competition in Long Distance Telephone Service Competition in Specialized Services Competition in Switched Services The Transition to Optical Fiber 12. Divestiture and Access Charges The Divestiture Access Charges The Enhanced Service Provider Exemption III. INTERCONNECTED COMPETITION AND INTEGRATED SERVICES, 1985-2002 13. Mobile Telephones and Spectrum Reform Early Land Mobile Telephones Cellular Spectrum Allocation Cellular Licensing Problems Spectrum Institutional Reform PCS and Auctions 14. Local Competition and the Telecommunications Act of 1996 Competitive Access Providers Interconnection: CAP to CLEC The Telecommunications Act of 1996 Implementation of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 15. The Internet and the World Wide Web The Commercial Internet and Backbone Interconnection The Development of the Web The New Economy Financial Boom and Bust Real Growth in Telecommunication and Price Benefits 16. Conclusion Technological Progress and Policy Evolution The Process of Institutional Change Final Comment References Index Reviews of this book: The Second Information Revolution is important reading for anyone who needs to understand the functioning of American telecommunications, either to be able to analyse today's financial markets or to understand or influence public policy in this area. --Wendy M. Grossman, Times Higher Education Supplement [UK] Reviews of this book: Brock traces a phenomenon he refers to as the 'second information revolution.' According to Brock, there have been two times in history when information technology has dramatically changed daily life. The first 'information revolution' occurred with the advent of the telephone and telegraph, which made communication less expensive and more readily available. The second information revolution is currently in progress...A concise, thorough, and well-written history of the transformation in exchanging and processing of information. --K. A. Coombs, Choice

The Burning Answer

The Burning Answer
A User's Guide to the Solar Revolution

by Keith Barnham

  • Publisher : Hachette UK
  • Release : 2014-05-15
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0297869647
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Our civilisation stands on the brink of catastrophe. Our thirst for energy has led to threats from global warming, nuclear disaster and conflict in oil-rich countries. We are running out of options. Solar power, Keith Barnham argues, is the answer. In this eye-opening book, he shows how a solar revolution is developing based on one of Einstein's lesser known discoveries, one that gave us laptop computers and mobile phones. An accessible guide to renewable technology and a hard-hitting critique of the arguments of solar sceptics, The Burning Answer outlines a future in which the fuel for electric cars will be generated on our rooftops. It is, above all, an impassioned call to arms to join the solar revolution before it's too late.

Inorganic and Organic Thin Films

Inorganic and Organic Thin Films
Fundamentals, Fabrication, and Applications

by Yujun Song

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-07-19
  • Pages : 768
  • ISBN : 3527344977
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Learn more about foundational and advanced topics in polymer thin films and coatings besides species with this powerful two-volume resource The two-volume Inorganic and Organic Thin Films: Fundamentals, Fabrication, and Applications delivers a foundational resource for current researchers and commercial users involved in the design and fabrication of thin films. The book offers newcomers to the field a thorough description of new design theory, fabrication methods, and applications of advanced thin films. Readers will discover the physics and chemistry underlying the manufacture of new thin films and coatings in this leading new resource that promises to become a handbook for future applications of the technology. This one-stop reference brings together all important aspects of inorganic and polymeric thin films and coatings, including construction, assembly, deposition, functionality, patterning, and characterization. Explorations of their applications in industries as diverse as information technology, new energy, biomedical engineering, aerospace, and oceanographic engineering round out this fulsome exploration of one of the most exciting and rapidly developing areas of scientific and industrial research today. Readers will also learn from: A comprehensive introduction to the progress of thin films and coatings as well as fundamentals in functional thin films and coatings An exploration of multi-layered magnetic thin films for electron transport control and signal sensing, including giant magnetoresistance, colossal magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance, and the quantum anomalous Holzer effect An in time summary of high-quality magneto-optics, nanophotonics, spin waves and spintronics using bismuth-substituted iron garnet thin films as examples A thorough discussion of template-assisted fabrication of nanostructure thin films for ultrasensitive detection of chemicals and biomolecules A treatment of biomass derived functional films and coatings Perfect for materials scientists and inorganic chemists, Inorganic and Organic Thin Films will also earn a place in the libraries of solid state physicists and physical chemists working in private industry, as well as polymer and surface chemists who seek to improve their understanding of thin films and coatings.

China's Information Revolution

China's Information Revolution
Managing the Economic and Social Transformation

by Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang

  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release : 2007-05-04
  • Pages : 156
  • ISBN : 0821367218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since 1997, China has devoted considerable resources to information and communications technology (ICT) development. China has the world's largest telecommunications market, and its information technology industry has been an engine of economic growth growing two to three times faster than GDP over the past 10 years. E-government initiatives have achieved significant results, and the private sector has increasingly used ICT for production and service processes, internal management, and online transactions. The approaching 10-year mark provides an excellent opportunity to update the policy to reflect the evolving needs of China's economy. These needs include the challenges posed by industrialization, urbanization, upgraded consumption, and social mobility. Developing a more effective ICT strategy will help China to achieve its economic and social goals. Addressing all the critical factors is complex and requires long-term commitment. This book highlights several key issues that need to be addressed decisively in the second half of this decade, through policies entailing institutional reform, to trigger broader changes. This books is the result of 10 months of strategic research by a World Bank team at the request of China's State Council Informatization Office and the Advisory Committee for State Informatization. Drawing on background papers by Chinese researchers, the study provides a variety of domestic perspectives and local case studies and combines these perspectives with international experiences on how similar issues may have been addressed in other countries.

Ghosts of Transparency

Ghosts of Transparency
Shadows cast and shadows cast out

by Michael R. Doyle,Selena Savić,Vera Bühlmann

  • Publisher : Birkhäuser
  • Release : 2019-09-23
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 3035619174
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In this book, the editors focus on architecture and communication from various different perspectives – taking into account that the term “architecture” is used for buildings as well as in the context of computer software. Data and software also impact on our cities; raw data, however, do not convey any information – in order to generate information and communication they have to be organized and must make sense to the reader. The contributions avoid clear separation of the various communication spheres of their disciplines. Instead, they use the wide range of approaches to explore meanings – an ambitious aim that leaves the destination wide open; the reader is invited to share in this adventure.

Semiconductor Transport

Semiconductor Transport
A Book

by David Ferry

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-08-12
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 135197338X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The information revolution would have been radically different, or impossible, without the use of the materials known generically as semiconductors. The properties of these materials, particularly the potential for doping with impurities to create transistors and diodes and controlling the local potential by gates, are essential for microelectronics. Semiconductor Transport is an introductory text on electron transport in semiconductor materials and is written for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. The book provides a thorough treatment of modern approaches to the transport properties of semiconductors and their calculation. It also introduces those aspects of solid state physics, which are vitally important for understanding transport in them.

Monthly Labor Review

Monthly Labor Review
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Publishes in-depth articles on labor subjects, current labor statistics, information about current labor contracts, and book reviews.

Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Molecular Beam Epitaxy
A Short History

by John Orton,Tom Foxon

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2015-06-25
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 0191061166
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book is a history of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) as applied to the growth of semiconductor thin films (note that it does not cover the subject of metal thin films). It begins by examining the origins of MBE, first of all looking at the nature of molecular beams and considering their application to fundamental physics, to the development of nuclear magnetic resonance and to the invention of the microwave MASER. It shows how molecular beams of silane (SiH4) were used to study the nucleation of silicon films on a silicon substrate and how such studies were extended to compound semiconductors such as GaAs. From such surface studies in ultra-high vacuum the technique developed into a method of growing high quality single crystal films of a wide range of semiconductors. Comparing this with earlier evaporation methods of deposition and with other epitaxial deposition methods such as liquid phase and vapour phase epitaxy (LPE and VPE). The text describes the development of MBE machines from the early âhome-madeâ variety to that of commercial equipment and show how MBE was gradually refined to produce high quality films with atomic dimensions. This was much aided by the use of various in-situ surface analysis techniques, such as reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and mass spectrometry, a feature unique to MBE. It looks at various modified versions of the basic MBE process, then proceed to describe their application to the growth of so-called âlow-dimensional structuresâ (LDS) based on ultra-thin heterostructure films with thickness of order a few molecular monolayers. Further chapters cover the growth of a wide range of different compounds and describe their application to fundamental physics and to the fabrication of electronic and opto-electronic devices. The authors study the historical development of all these aspects and emphasise both the (often unexpected) manner of their discovery and development and the unique features which MBE brings to the growth of extremely complex structures with monolayer accuracy.

Semiconductor Materials

Semiconductor Materials
A Book

by Lev I. Berger

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2020-12-18
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 0429606605
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Semiconductor Materials presents physico-chemical, electronic, electrical, elastic, mechanical, magnetic, optical, and other properties of a vast group of elemental, binary, and ternary inorganic semiconductors and their solid solutions. It also discusses the properties of organic semiconductors. Descriptions are given of the most commonly used semiconductor devices-charge-coupled devices, field-effect transistors, unijunction transistors, thyristors, Zener and avalanche diodes, and photodiodes and lasers. The current trend of transitioning from silicon technology to gallium arsenide technology in field-effect-based electronic devices is a special feature that is also covered. More than 300 figures and 100 tables highlight discussions in the text, and more than 2,000 references guide you to further sources on specific topics. Semiconductor Materials is a relatively compact book containing vast information on semiconductor material properties. Readers can compare results of the property measurements that have been reported by different authors and critically compare the data using the reference information contained in the book. Engineers who design and improve semiconductor devices, researchers in physics and chemistry, and students of materials science and electronics will find this a valuable guide.

The Middle Ages at Work

The Middle Ages at Work
A Book

by K. Robertson,M. Uebel

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-04-30
  • Pages : 267
  • ISBN : 113707552X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This timely volume examines the commitments of historicism in the wake of New Historicism. It contributes to the construction of a materialist historicism while, at the same time, proposing that discussions of work need not be limited to the clash between labour and capital. To this end, the essays offer more than a strictly historical view of the complex terms, social and literary, within which labour was treated in the medieval period. Several of the essays strive to reformulate the very critical language we use to think about the categories of labour and work through a continually doubled engagement with modern theories of labour and medieval theories and practices of labour.

Device Physics, Modeling, Technology, and Analysis for Silicon MESFET

Device Physics, Modeling, Technology, and Analysis for Silicon MESFET
A Book

by Iraj Sadegh Amiri,Hossein Mohammadi,Mahdiar Hosseinghadiry

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-12-13
  • Pages : 122
  • ISBN : 3030045137
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides detailed and accurate information on the history, structure, operation, benefits and advanced structures of silicon MESFET, along with modeling and analysis of the device. The authors explain the detailed physics that are important in modeling of SOI-MESFETs, and present the derivations of compact model expressions so that users can recognize the physical meaning of the model equations and parameters. The discussion also includes advanced structures for SOI-MESFET for submicron applications.

ALIVE

ALIVE
Advancements in adaptive architecture

by Manuel Kretzer,Ludger Hovestadt

  • Publisher : Birkhäuser
  • Release : 2014-09-23
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 3990436686
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In times where the very concept of ‘nature’ is questioned not only in its philosophical dimension, but in the core of its biological materiality, we need to reconsider the interrelations between architecture and nature. This not only applies to strategies on environmental responsibility but equally on anticipatory human behavior and cultural or demographic variety. To address these challenges this book proposes to embrace the unknown and cultivate the architectural discipline towards an integrated and cross-disciplinary practice. It unravels compelling innovative and forward-thinking design narratives by leading international practitioners and researchers who investigate novel associations between architecture, nature and humanity for a future, alive architecture. Structured around the three closely cross-linked core themes “bioinspiration”, “materiability”, and “intelligence” the book engages with the starting point of an emerging new design field, where the symbiosis of physics, biology, computing and design promises the redefinition of what we call architecture today.

Revolution in Miniature

Revolution in Miniature
The History and Impact of Semiconductor Electronics

by Ernest Braun,Stuart MacDonald

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 1982-10-21
  • Pages : 247
  • ISBN : 9780521289030
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A basic contribution to the discussion of semiconductor electronics, the major technology of our age.

The European Edisons

The European Edisons
Volta, Tesla, and Tigerstedt

by Anand Kumar Sethi

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-08-09
  • Pages : 173
  • ISBN : 1137492228
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book explores the lives, inventions, discoveries, and significant work of three extraordinary European inventors with noteworthy links to the great Thomas Alva Edison – Alessandro Volta, Nikola Tesla, and Eric Tigerstedt. It explores the business and scientific legacies that these men have contributed to the modern world. Despite prejudices, ill health, financial stringency, geopolitical situations, business rivalries, and in many cases just awful luck, they remained determined to deliver extraordinary scientific and technological developments to a skeptical and unappreciative world. This book is a testament to anyone pursuing their technological dreams for the benefit of society, and will enhance the literature for scholars, researchers, and the well-informed reader with an interest in science, technology, and the personalities involved in history.

The Physics of Semiconductors

The Physics of Semiconductors
With Applications to Optoelectronic Devices

by Kevin F. Brennan

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 1999-02-13
  • Pages : 762
  • ISBN : 9780521596626
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Graduate text with comprehensive treatment of semiconductor device physics and engineering, and descriptions of real optoelectronic devices.

Bioresources Technology in Sustainable Agriculture

Bioresources Technology in Sustainable Agriculture
Biological and Biochemical Research

by Mohamad Faiz Foong Abdullah,Mohd Tajudin Bin Ali,Farida Zuraina M. Yusof

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-01-31
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 1315341743
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book focuses on cutting-edge advances and applications in tropical agriculture and bioresources. It outlines some of the newest advances, basic tools, and the applications of novel approaches to improve agricultural practices and utilization of bioresources for the enhancement of human life. Highlights include a thorough discussion on various aspects of agricultural modernization through technological advances in information technology, efficient utilization of under-exploited natural bioresources, new chemical approaches for the generation of novel biochemicals, and the applications of forensic and genetics approaches for bioresource conservation.