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Ceramic Coatings for Small Modular Reactors

Ceramic Coatings for Small Modular Reactors
A Book

by Edward H. Williamson

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Handbook of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors

Handbook of Small Modular Nuclear Reactors
A Book

by Mario D Carelli,Daniel T Ingersoll

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-09-22
  • Pages : 536
  • ISBN : 0857098535
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Small modular reactors (SMRs) are an advanced, safe type of nuclear reactor technology that are suitable for small and medium sized applications including both power and heat generation. In particular, their use as individual units or in combination to scale-up capacity offer benefits in terms of siting, installation, operation, lifecycle and economics in comparison to the development of larger nuclear plant for centralised electricity power grids. Interest has increased in the research and development of SMRs for both developing countries as well as such additional cogeneration options as industrial/chemical process heat, desalination and district heating, and hydrogen production. This book reviews key issues in their development as well as international R&D in the field. Gives an overview of small modular reactor technology Reviews the design characteristics of integral pressurized water reactors and focuses on reactor core and fuel technologies, key reactor system components, instrumentation and control, human-system interfaces and safety Considers the economics, financing, licensing, construction methods and hybrid energy systems of small modular reactors Describes SMR development activities worldwide, and concludes with a discussion of how SMR deployment can contribute to the growth of developing countries

Small Modular Reactors

Small Modular Reactors
Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-term Deployment

by NEA.,Agence pour l'énergie nucléaire

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 71
  • ISBN : 9789264266865
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) is being driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs associated with nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. According to estimates available today, if all the competitive advantages of SMRs were realised, including serial production, optimised supply chains and smaller financing costs, SMRs could be expected to have lower absolute and specific (per-kWe) construction costs than large reactors. Although the economic parameters of SMRs are not yet fully determined, a potential market exists for this technology, particularly in energy mixes with large shares of renewables. This report assesses the size of the market for SMRs that are currently being developed and that have the potential to broaden the ways of deploying nuclear power in different parts of the world. The study focuses on light water SMRs that are expected to be constructed in the coming decades and that strongly rely on serial, factory-based production of reactor modules. In a high-case scenario, up to 21 GWe of SMRs could be added globally by 2035, representing approximately 3% of total installed nuclear capacity.

Advanced Smaller Modular Reactors

Advanced Smaller Modular Reactors
An Innovative Approach to Nuclear Power

by Bahman Zohuri,Patrick McDaniel

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-08-10
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 303023682X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book discusses advanced Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) as a way to provide safe, clean, and affordable nuclear power options. The advanced SMRs currently under development in the U.S. represent a variety of sizes, technology options and deployment scenarios. These advanced reactors, envisioned to vary in size from a couple megawatts up to hundreds of megawatts can be used for power generation, process heat, desalination, or other industrial uses. In-depth chapters describe how advanced SMRs offer multiple advantages, such as relatively small size, reduced capital investment, location flexibility, and provisions for incremental power additions. SMRs also offer distinct safeguards, security and nonproliferation advantages. The authors present a thorough examination of the technology and defend methods by which the new generation of nuclear power plants known as GEN-IV can safely be used as an efficient source of renewable energy. Provides a unique and innovative approach to the implementation of Small Modular Reactor as part of GEN-IV technology; Discusses how Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) can deliver a viable alternative to Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs); Presents an argument defending the need for nuclear power plant as a source of energy, its efficiency and cost effectiveness, as well as safety related issues.

Small Modular Reactors

Small Modular Reactors
Nuclear Energy Market Potential for Near-term Deployment

by OECD Nuclear Energy Agency,Alexey Lokhov,Vladislav Sozoniuk

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 75
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The recent interest in small modular reactors (SMRs) is driven by a desire to reduce the total capital costs of nuclear power plants and to provide power to small grid systems. Over the past few years, many SMR projects have been making substantial progress. Two reactors currently under construction are CAREM-25 (a prototype) in Argentina and KLT- 40S in the Russian Federation. More designs have reached advanced stages of development. To attempt to quantify the size of the market that SMRs could capture in the short- to medium-term, a project was launched at the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) to collect and analyse economic and market data on SMRs, including factory production cost estimates. These data - gathered through questionnaires and interviews with SMR vendors and potential customers - have been used to assess the potential for SMR commercial deployment in the world. Only short- to medium-term projections (2020-2035) and mature technologies (i.e. SMRs based on light water reactor technologies) were considered. Different factors influencing the SMR market around the world are also discussed.

Small Modular Reactors as Renewable Energy Sources

Small Modular Reactors as Renewable Energy Sources
A Book

by Bahman Zohuri

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-06-18
  • Pages : 293
  • ISBN : 3319925946
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book highlights Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) as a viable alternative to the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which have been used as desalination plant energy sources. SMRs have lower investment costs, inherent safety features, and increased availability compared to NPPs. The unique and innovative approach to implementation of SMRs as part of Gen-IV technology outlined in this book contributes to the application of nuclear power as a supplementary source to renewable energy. Discusses Gen-IV Power plants, their efficiency, cost effectiveness, safety, and methods to supply renewable energy; Presents Small Modular Reactors as a viable alternative to Nuclear Power Plants; Describes the benefits, uses, safety features, and challenges related to implementation of Small Modular Reactors.

Small Modular Reactors for Electricity Generation

Small Modular Reactors for Electricity Generation
An Economic and Technologically Sound Alternative

by Jorge Morales Pedraza

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-03-11
  • Pages : 267
  • ISBN : 3319522167
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As a flexible, cost-effective energy alternative to large scale nuclear power reactors, this book examines the potential future use of small modular reactors for the generation of electricity in different regions. Exploring advanced nuclear technologies, chapters describe the current situation and perspective of the small modular reactors market (SMRs) in different regions around the word, including North and South America, Europe, Asia, Middle East and Africa. Particular attention is paid to the benefits of using these types of reactors for the generation of electricity, discussing their efficiency and reduced construction time, as well as exploring the main difficulties encountered in the development stage. Looking at the potential dangers that SMRs pose to the environment and population, the text presents the new safety measures that have been adopted in SMRs design to reduce future risk.

Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Innovation Project

Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Innovation Project
A Book

by Pedro Moreno Martínez

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2019
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the context of a global crisis due to theconsequences of climate change,the Nuclear Energy shows itself as akey factor in the mitigation of the devastating effects that the emission of greenhouse gases are causing.The opposition to this technology has been a barrier that could be surpassed with innovation.Since the start of nuclear applications for electricity production, the sector has become more and more conservative in the search of innovative modifications due,in part,to the difficulties of licensing new concepts. Within this framework, the Small Modular Reactors present themselves as a solution for thedeployment of a new,cheaper and more flexible type of nuclear reactors.The project Innovation SMR launched by Assystem works towards the deployment of a Small Modular Reactor capable of overcoming many of the constraints that the Nuclear Sector has encountered initsprevious history.The section of the project,directed from the headquarters of Tours,is focused on the BOP(Balance of Plant)of the SMR conceptand this thesis concentrates onthe condenser part.The study of a solution for reducing the localization constraints of nuclear reactors in terms of cooling needs for the condenser will be presented.This thesis will includeat the same time other activities performed during the internship period due to the diversification of the group into several different domains,this includes a formation processbased on simulation testsfor the development of projects fromtheinitial request of the client to final delivery of the study. This part of the training seeks the formation of interns towards the wayAssystem deals with contracts and its validation by the project manager certifies eventual incorporation to the company in the group operations/tests.A final part is reserved for a real case study focused onthe Koeberg Nuclear Reactors in South Africa,which due to modifications of the working conditions the reanalysis of two systems performanceswereperformed.The objectives of the internship have been achieved with special attention to the system engineering process for project developmentand the improvement of knowledge into the thermo-hydraulicsfield.

Generic Small Modular Reactor Plant Design

Generic Small Modular Reactor Plant Design
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 43
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

Small Modular Reactors

Small Modular Reactors
Nuclear Power Fad or Future?

by Daniel T Ingersoll

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2015-11-20
  • Pages : 202
  • ISBN : 0081002688
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There is currently significant interest in the development of small modular reactors (SMRs) for the generation of both electricity and process heat. SMRs offer potential benefits in terms of better affordability and enhanced safety, and can also be sited more flexibly than traditional nuclear plants. Small Modular Reactors: Nuclear Power Fad or Future? reviews SMR features, promises, and problems, also discussing what lies ahead for reactors of this type. The book is organized into three major parts with the first part focused on the role of energy, especially nuclear energy, for global development. It also provides a brief history of SMRs. The second major part presents basic nuclear power plant terminology and then discusses in depth the attributes of SMRs that distinguish them from traditional nuclear plants. The third and final major section discusses the current interest in SMRs from a customer’s perspective and delineates several remaining hurdles that must be addressed to achieve wide-spread SMR deployment. Provides decision-makers in governments, business, and research with the needed background on small nuclear power and an overview of the current situation Presents a balanced discussion of the many advantages of SMRs and the challenges they face Written by a highly respected expert in the nuclear industry

Nuclear Small Modular Reactors

Nuclear Small Modular Reactors
An Analysis of Projected Cost Estimates and Economic Competitiveness

by Maryam Rasti

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 146
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The U.S. nuclear industry experience is fraught with excessive cost overruns and schedule delays. Nuclear small modular reactors (SMRs) could potentially mitigate this problem with smaller, simpler reactor designs that can be produced in a factory and transported to the final site for installation. Previous economic analyses incorporate significant cost reductions attributed to the shift from stick-build to modular construction. This analysis attempts to provide a more realistic assessment of SMR economic viability by utilizing conservative assumptions in a top-down cost estimation and discounted cash flow analysis. An overnight construction cost of 6,918 $/kW is determined by applying scaling factors to reference cost data for a typical Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR-12). Two metrics are used to evaluate competitiveness: net present value (NPV) and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Results indicate that NPV is negative for all SMR project scenarios in competitive electricity markets. The lowest achievable LCOE is 66.79 $/MWh with an overnight construction cost of 4,770 $/kW, five year lead-time, 7.32% discount rate, and 10% capital cost reduction due to learning improvements. The LCOE calculated for a conventional natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) facility with the same nameplate capacity is 55.90 $/MWh for comparison. Results show that the most optimistic SMR conditions only become competitive with NGCC in a high natural gas price or a high carbon tax scenario (52 $/ton CO2)

An Examination of the Safety and Economics of Light Water Small Modular Reactors

An Examination of the Safety and Economics of Light Water Small Modular Reactors
Hearing Before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Second Session, Special Hearing, July 14, 2011, Washington, DC.

by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 71
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Deployment Indicators for Small Modular Reactors

Deployment Indicators for Small Modular Reactors
Methodology, Analysis of Key Factors and Case Studies

by IAEA.

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 60
  • ISBN : 9789201444196
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries

Small Modular Reactors for Enhancing Energy Security in Developing Countries
A Book

by Ioannis N. Kessides

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors

Human Reliability Considerations for Small Modular Reactors
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Small modular reactors (SMRs) are a promising approach to meeting future energy needs. Although the electrical output of an individual SMR is relatively small compared to that of typical commercial nuclear plants, they can be grouped to produce as much energy as a utility demands. Furthermore, SMRs can be used for other purposes, such as producing hydrogen and generating process heat. The design characteristics of many SMRs differ from those of current conventional plants and may require a distinct concept of operations. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducted research to examine the human factors engineering and the operational aspects of SMRs. The research identified thirty potential human-performance issues that should be considered in the NRC's reviews of SMR designs and in future research activities. The purpose of this report is to illustrate how the issues can support SMR probabilistic risk analyses and their review by identifying potential human failure events for a subset of the issues. As part of addressing the human contribution to plant risk, human reliability analysis practitioners identify and quantify the human failure events that can negatively impact normal or emergency plant operations. The results illustrated here can be generalized to identify additional human failure events for the issues discussed and can be applied to those issues not discussed in this report.

A COMPARISON BETWEEN PROPOSED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS AND EXISTING POWER REACTORS WITH REGARD TO SPENT FUEL NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS.

A COMPARISON BETWEEN PROPOSED SMALL MODULAR REACTORS AND EXISTING POWER REACTORS WITH REGARD TO SPENT FUEL NUCLEAR MATERIAL ATTRACTIVENESS.
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 16
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Small Modular Reactors

Small Modular Reactors
Competition: Phase OneGuidance

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

Johnson Noise Thermometry for Advanced Small Modular Reactors
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Temperature is a key process variable at any nuclear power plant (NPP). The harsh reactor environment causes all sensor properties to drift over time. At the higher temperatures of advanced NPPs the drift occurs more rapidly. The allowable reactor operating temperature must be reduced by the amount of the potential measurement error to assure adequate margin to material damage. Johnson noise is a fundamental expression of temperature and as such is immune to drift in a sensor's physical condition. In and near the core, only Johnson noise thermometry (JNT) and radiation pyrometry offer the possibility for long-term, high-accuracy temperature measurement due to their fundamental natures. Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) place a higher value on long-term stability in their temperature measurements in that they produce less power per reactor core and thus cannot afford as much instrument recalibration labor as their larger brethren. The purpose of the current ORNL-led project, conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced SMR Research and Development (R & D) program, is to develop and demonstrate a drift free Johnson noise-based thermometer suitable for deployment near core in advanced SMR plants.

Small Modular Reactors, Adding to Resilience at Federal Facilities

Small Modular Reactors, Adding to Resilience at Federal Facilities
A Book

by Seth D. Kirshenberg,Hilary Jackler,Jane Eun,Brian Oakley,Wil Goldenberg

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 92
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"This Report identifies the need for energy resilience and how an SMR [small modular reactor] can provide such a service for federal agencies. As an illustrative example, this Report focuses on the SMR project being developed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on a site adjacent to critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) facilities (referred to herein as the Oak Ridge Reservation)"--Page i.

Underground Siting of Small Modular Reactors

Underground Siting of Small Modular Reactors
Rationale, Concepts and Applications

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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