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Solid-State Shear Pulverization

Solid-State Shear Pulverization
A Book

by Klementina Khait,Stephen H. Carr,Martin H. Mack

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2001-04-30
  • Pages : 203
  • ISBN : 9781420015010
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From the Preface This book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods.... This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder..., has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste. Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, ...pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P process...does not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technology...has grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock. ...[I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different component viscosities, resulting in the elimination of phase inversion. The S3P process directly produces blends with matrix and dispersed phase morphology like those obtained after phase inversion during a long melt-mixing process. This phenomenon is of practical importance because a long processing time is required by conventional melt-mixing to produce a stable blend morphology. S3P is also advantageous for producing thermoplastic or thermoset powder-coating compounds in a one-step process as opposed to a conventional multi-step operation that involves melt extrusion followed by batch grinding. The major capabilities of this new process can be summarized as follows: o Continuous powder production from plastics or rubber feedstocks o Blending of immiscible polymers o Efficient mixing of polymers with unmatched viscosities o Environmentally friendly recycling of multicolored, commingled plastics waste o Sold-state dispersion of heat-sensitive additives o Engineered plastic/rubber blends Materials and processes well illustrated The text is well illustrated with 60 photographs, micrographs, diagrams and others figures. Here is a small sampling of the captions of these figures. o Particle-size distribution for virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Optical photograph of virgin LDPE powder made with PT-25 pulverizer o Layout for a three-stage rubber pulverizer o Flow chart for powder coating production by conventional process and with new S3P technology o SEM image of pulverized virgin PP at 40X (first in series of SEM images of polymer powders) o Optical micrograph of melt-crystallized thin films of unpulverized virgin PP under polarized light o Log of viscosity vs. log shear rate for virgin HDPE after S3P processing o Gel permeation chromatograms (GPC) of polystyrene subjected to S3P processing Color-photo section One of the several functions of Solid-State Shear Pulverization technology is recycling mixed plastic waste. This section of twenty full-color photographs and micrographs illustrates different processed materials, as well as the machinery and mixed waste used. Here is a small sampling of the photo and micrograph captions. o Resultant flake feedstock from granulation o S3P-made uniform powder from feedstock o Flake feedstock of post-consumer HDPE/PP blend (90/10 ratio) o Injection-molded test bar (with translucence) made from S3P powder without pelletization o Injection-molded test bar made from S3P powder without pelletization showing uniform color o Several test bars subjected to tensile testing showing exceptionally high elongation at break Useful reference data in tables More than 60 tables provide useful data in convenient form. Here is a small sampling of table captions. o Physical properties of virgin PP 8020 GU injection-molded from S3P-made powder (first in series of tables on physical properties of various plastics processed from S3P-made powder) o Sieve analysis of powder resulting from S3P of virgin LDPE 509.48 (one of series of tables on sieve analysis of polymer powders) o Melt-flow rate before and after S3P processing for virgin PS and two PP samples o Key physical properties of injection-molded post-consumer polyolefin blends pulverized by S3P process The Authors Klementina Khait, M.S. Ch.E., Ph.D., is Research Associate Professor and Director of the Polymer Technology Center in the Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwestern University. Her industrial experience in polymer science and engineering includes work with Borg-Warner Chemicals and Quantum Chemical Corporation. She received her two advanced degrees, in chemical engineering and polymer chemistry, from the Technological Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia. Dr. Khait holds several patents and has published more than 50 papers in scientific and technical journals. Stephen Carr, Ph.D., is Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemical Engineering at Northwestern University. His industrial work includes work in polymer science and engineering with General Motors Corp. He received a doctorate in polymer science from Case Western Reserve University. He has been on the Northwestern University faculty since 1969. Martin H. Mack is Vice President for R&D with the Berstorff Division of Krauss-Maffei Corporation. He holds an engineering degree from the University of Stuttgart. He has served for more than ten years on the Board of Directors of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).

Solid-state Shear Pulverization

Solid-state Shear Pulverization
A New Polymer Processing and Powder Technology

by Klementina Khait

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002
  • Pages : 187
  • ISBN : 9780367800895
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From the PrefaceThis book is the first extended look at a new and multifaceted polymer processing technology that has already been discussed in numerous articles. Called Solid-State Shear Pulverization (S3P), this innovative process produces polymeric powders with unique physical properties not found in the output of conventional size-reduction methods. This technology, which utilizes a pulverizer based on a modified co-rotating twin-screw extruder, has profound implications for both the creation of new polymer blends and recycling of plastic and rubber waste. Unlike [earlier processes] where polymers are melted prior to pulverization, pulverizing mixtures of polymers with the S3P processdoes not involve melting. By contrast, S3P maintains polymers in the solid state and avoids the additional heat history that occurs during [other processes], which can be detrimental to the physical properties of pulverized materials. The research and development of the S3P technologyhas grown significantly since 1990 from the development of a new plastics recycling process to a much broader polymer processing method that allows intimate mixing of polymers with very different viscosities, sold-state dispersion of additives, including pigments, and continuous production of powder with unique shapes and larger surface areas. Polymeric powders are of growing importance to plastics processors due to the increase use of plastics in various applications, such as rotational molding, powder coatings, and compounding, which require powder as the feedstock. [I]t has become clear that this process allows for in-situ compatibilization of dissimilar polymers by applying mechanical energy to cause chemical reactions. This aspect of S3P technology that we describe in this book should [be useful in] developing new polymer blends with the use of pre-made compatibilizing agents. In addition, it has been discovered that S3P efficiently mixes polymer blends with different comp

Solid-state Shear Pulverization

Solid-state Shear Pulverization
A Novel Technique for Mixing and Compatibilizing Polymer Blends

by Naomi Michelle Furgiuele

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Investigation of Solid-state Shear Pulverization Processing Parameters for Polyethylene-clay Nanocomposites

Investigation of Solid-state Shear Pulverization Processing Parameters for Polyethylene-clay Nanocomposites
A Book

by Benjamin D. Aldrich

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 58
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Investigates multiple processing parameters, including polymer type, filler type, processing technique, severity of SSSP (Solid-state shear pulverization) processing, and post-processing, of SSSP. HDPE and LLDPE polymers with pristine clay and organo-clay samples are explored. Effects on crystallization, high-temperature behavior, mechanical properties, and gas barrier properties are examined. Thermal, mechanical, and morphological characterization is conducted to determine polymer/filler compatibility and superior processing methods for the polymer-clay nanocomposites.

A New Polymeric Powder Technology

A New Polymeric Powder Technology
Solid-state Shear Pulverization Process

by Dr. Klementina Khait,John M. Torkelson,American Institute of Chemical Engineers,American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Annual Meeting

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 6
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Solid-State Shear Pulverization

Solid-State Shear Pulverization
Chilled Extrusion Technique for Value-Added Plastics Processing and Polymer-Based Materials Development

by Katsuyuki Wakabayashi

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2018-04-02
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 0323446493
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Solid-State Shear Pulverization

Solid-state Compatibilization of Immiscible Polymer Blends

Solid-state Compatibilization of Immiscible Polymer Blends
Cryogenic Milling and Solid-state Shear Pulverization

by Marc Frederick Henry

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 195
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A new class of blend compatibilization relies on the mechanochemical reactions between polymer chains via solid-state, high energy processing. Two contrasting mechanochemical processing techniques are explored in this thesis: cryogenic milling and solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP).

Intimate Mixing and in Situ Compatibilization of Immiscible Polymer Blends Via an Innovative Process

Intimate Mixing and in Situ Compatibilization of Immiscible Polymer Blends Via an Innovative Process
Solid-state Shear Pulverization (SSSP)

by Andrew Howard Lebovitz

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thermodynamic and kinetic limitations can hinder the production of finely-dispersed immiscible polymer blends and the compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends via melt-state processing; this thesis represents the first quantitative study of an innovative process, solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP), designed to overcome such limitations. This process employs a modified extruder that maintains temperatures below the melt or glass transition temperatures of the component homopolymers. Repeated fragmentation and fusion steps accompanying SSSP can lead to intimate mixing and compatibilization without the use of compatibilizers or functionalization.

Study of Pulverization of Low Density Polyethylene Using Solid State Shear Extrusion

Study of Pulverization of Low Density Polyethylene Using Solid State Shear Extrusion
A Book

by Amir Riahi

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Compatibilization of Polymer Blends

Compatibilization of Polymer Blends
Micro and Nano Scale Phase Morphologies, Interphase Characterization, and Properties

by Ajitha A. R,Sabu Thomas

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-10-10
  • Pages : 640
  • ISBN : 0128162880
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Compatibilization of Polymer Blends: Micro and Nano Scale Phase Morphologies, Interphase Characterization and Properties offers a comprehensive approach to the use of compatibilizers in polymer blends, examining both fundamental and advanced knowledge in the field. The book begins by introducing polymer blends, describing thermodynamics, miscibility, and phase separation, and explaining the main concepts of compatibilization. Other sections cover theoretical approaches for nearly compatible blends, incompatible blends, nanofillers, physical compatibilization, reactive compatibilization, morphological and structural characterization, and physico-mechanical characterization. Finally, key application areas are covered, including biomedical applications, packaging and automobile engineering. While this book will be a highly valuable reference source for academics, researchers and postgraduate students interested in polymer blends, it will also be ideal for anyone involved in the fields of polymer science, polymer chemistry, polymer physics, materials science, scientists, R&D professionals, and engineers in involved in the development or engineering of polymer products. Offers detailed and systematic coverage of essential and advanced topics relating to the compatibilization of polymer blends Presents a critical analysis of the effect of compatibilization on morphology and thermal, mechanical, electrical and viscoelastic properties of polymer blends Draws on novel studies and state-of-the-art research, discussing the latest issues and developments

Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites

Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites
Friction and Wear of Bulk Materials and Coatings

by Klaus Friedrich,Alois K. Schlarb

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2013-05-14
  • Pages : 832
  • ISBN : 0444594647
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Tribology of Polymeric Nanocomposites provides a comprehensive description of polymeric nanocomposites, both as bulk materials and as thin surface coatings, and provides rare, focused coverage of their tribological behavior and potential use in tribological applications. Providing engineers and designers with the preparation techniques, friction and wear mechanisms, property information and evaluation methodology needed to select the right polymeric nanocomposites for the job, this unique book also includes valuable real-world examples of polymeric nanocomposites in action in tribological applications. Provides a complete reference to polmer nanocomposite material use in tribology from preparation through to selection and use. Explains the theory through examples of real-world applications, keeping this high-level topic practical and accessible. Includes contributions from more than 20 international tribology experts to offer broad yet detailed coverage of this fast-moving field.

Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived from Post-consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap and Virgin Resins Made by Solid State Shear Pulverization

Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived from Post-consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap and Virgin Resins Made by Solid State Shear Pulverization
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2001
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

Mechano-chemical Effects of Solid State Shear Extrusion Process During the Pulverization of Rubber Granulates

Mechano-chemical Effects of Solid State Shear Extrusion Process During the Pulverization of Rubber Granulates
A Book

by Ecevit Bilgili,Hamid Arastoopour,Barry Bernstein,American Institute of Chemical Engineers,American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Annual Meeting

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 7
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recycling of Post-consumer Plastic Waste Via New Solid-state Shear Extrusion Pulverization Process

Recycling of Post-consumer Plastic Waste Via New Solid-state Shear Extrusion Pulverization Process
A Book

by Klementina Khait,American Institute of Chemical Engineers,American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Annual Meeting

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1996
  • Pages : 7
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composite Materials

Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composite Materials
A Book

by Visakh P. M.,Oguz Bayraktar,Gopalakrishnan Menon

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2019-10-21
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 1119301645
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Presents new and innovative bio-based monomers to replace traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Featuring contributions from top experts in the field, this book discusses new developments in the area of bio monomers and green polymeric composite materials. It covers bio monomers, green polymeric composites, composites from renewable resources, bio-sourced polymers, green composites, biodegradation, processing methods, green polymeric gels, and green polymeric membranes. Each chapter in Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials presents the most recent research and technological ideas in a comprehensive style. It examines bio monomers for green polymer and the processing methods for the bio nanocomposites. It covers the preparation, characterization, and applications of bio-polymeric materials based blends, as well as the applications of biopolymeric gels in medical biotechnology. The book also explores the properties and applications of gelatins, pectins, and carrageenans gels. Additionally, it offers a plethora of information on green polymeric membranes; the bio-degradation of green polymeric composites materials; applications of green polymeric composites materials; hydrogels used for biomedical applications; and the use of natural aerogels as thermal insulations. Introduces readers to the innovative, new bio-based monomers that are taking the place of traditional petrochemical-based building blocks Covers green polymers, green composites, bio-sourced polymers, bio nanocomposites, biodegradable polymers, green polymer gels, and membranes Features input from leading researchers immersed in the area of study Bio Monomers for Green Polymeric Composites Materials is suitable for academics, researchers, scientists, engineers and advanced students in the field of bio monomers and green polymeric composites materials.

Nanostructured Polymer Blends

Nanostructured Polymer Blends
A Book

by Sabu Thomas,Robert Shanks,Sarath Chandran

  • Publisher : William Andrew
  • Release : 2013-11-28
  • Pages : 576
  • ISBN : 1455731609
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over 30% of commercial polymers are blends or alloys or one kind or another. Nanostructured blends offer the scientist or plastics engineer a new range of possibilities with characteristics including thermodynamic stablility; the potential to improve material transparency, creep and solvent resistance; the potential to simultaneously increase tensile strength and ductility; superior rheological properties; and relatively low cost. Nanostructured Polymer Blends opens up immense structural possibilities via chemical and mechanical modifications that generate novel properties and functions and high-performance characteristics at a low cost. The emerging applications of these new materials cover a wide range of industry sectors, encompassing the coatings and adhesives industry, electronics, energy (photovoltaics), aerospace and medical devices (where polymer blends provide innovations in biocompatible materials). This book explains the science of nanostructure formation and the nature of interphase formations, demystifies the design of nanostructured blends to achieve specific properties, and introduces the applications for this important new class of nanomaterial. All the key topics related to recent advances in blends are covered: IPNs, phase morphologies, composites and nanocomposites, nanostructure formation, the chemistry and structure of additives, etc. Introduces the science and technology of nanostructured polymer blends – and the procedures involved in melt blending and chemical blending to produce new materials with specific performance characteristics Unlocks the potential of nanostructured polymer blends for applications across sectors, including electronics, energy/photovoltaics, aerospace/automotive, and medical devices (biocompatible polymers) Explains the performance benefits in areas including rheological properties, thermodynamic stablility, material transparency, solvent resistance, etc.

Lignocellulose for Future Bioeconomy

Lignocellulose for Future Bioeconomy
A Book

by Hidayah Ariffin,S.M. Sapuan,Mohd Ali Hassan

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-04-20
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 0128166053
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Lignocellulose for Future Bioeconomy discusses the conversion and utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. This book focuses on the utilization of lignocelluloses for various products, including biopolymers, bionanomaterials and bioproducts. Recent findings in scientific investigation, engineering, product development, economic and lifecycle analysis are discussed, as are current synthesis technologies and potential applications. The book progresses from a discussion of the potential sources of biomass, to the refinement and processing of materials. A sampling of various sustainability issues faced by industries in their production methods and a look at real world examples of the use of lignocellulose-based materials in the bioeconomy round out the discussion. Presents information on lignocellulosic biomass management and its utilization for the production of bioproducts, biopolymers and bionanomaterials Highlights the applications of advanced materials developed from lignocellulosic biomass and their contribution towards future bioeconomy Discusses the lifecycle of lignocellulosic biomass

SPE/ANTEC 2000 Proceedings

SPE/ANTEC 2000 Proceedings
A Book

by Spe

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2000-05-05
  • Pages : 3857
  • ISBN : 9781566768559
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Volume 2 of the conference proceedings of the SPE/Antac on 'Materials', held on the 711 May 2000 in Orlando, Florida, USA.

Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber

Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber
A Book

by Shinzo Kohjiya,Yuko Ikeda

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-02-17
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 0857096915
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The growing demand for more sustainable materials has led to increased research on the properties of natural rubber. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber summarizes this research and its significance for the industrial applications of natural rubber. Chapters in part one explore the properties and processing of natural rubber, including the biosynthesis of natural rubber in different rubber-producing species, chemical modification of natural rubber for improved performance, and the effect of strain-induced crystallization on the physical properties of natural rubber. Further chapters highlight hydrophobic and hydrophilic silica-filled cross-linked natural rubber and computer simulation of network formation in natural rubber. Part two focusses on applications of natural rubber, including eco-friendly bio-composites using natural rubber matrices and reinforcements, soft bio-composites from natural rubber and marine products, natural rubber for the tire industry, the application of epoxidized natural rubber in pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), and the use of natural rubber for vibration isolation and earthquake protection of structures. Finally, chapters in part three consider environmental and safety issues associated with natural rubber, including improving the sustainable development of natural rubber, the recycling of natural and synthetic isoprene rubbers and of sulfur cross-linked natural rubber, and recent research on natural rubber latex allergy. Chemistry, Manufacture and Applications of Natural Rubber is a comprehensive resource for academics, chemists, chemical engineers, mechanical engineers, and other professionals in the rubber industry, as well as those industries, including automotive, civil, and medical engineering, using natural rubber products. An updated review with systematic and comprehensive coverage of natural rubbers Covers a broad range of topics, including the chemistry, processing, sustainability, and applications of natural rubbers Coverage of the best international research, including key experts from Asia, the United States, South America, and Europe

Rubber Recycling

Rubber Recycling
A Book

by Sadhan K. De,Avraam Isayev,Klementina Khait

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2005-06-14
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 1135504784
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The safe disposal and reuse of industrial and consumer rubber waste continues to pose a serious threat to environmental safety and health, despite the fact that the technology now exits for its effective recycling and reuse. Mountains of used tires confirm the belief that chemically crosslinked rubber is one of the most difficult materials to recyc