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Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications

Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications
A Book

by Zheng Cui

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-06-11
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN : 0128149310
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Solution Processed Metal Oxide Thin Films for Electronic Applications discusses the fundamentals of solution processing materials chemistry techniques as they are applied to metal oxide materials systems for key device applications. The book introduces basic information (materials properties, materials synthesis, barriers), discusses ink formulation and solution processing methods, including sol-gel processing, surface functionalization aspects, and presents a comprehensive accounting on the electronic applications of solution processed metal oxide films, including thin film transistors, photovoltaic cells and other electronics devices and circuits. This is an important reference for those interested in oxide electronics, printed electronics, flexible electronics and large-area electronics. Provides in-depth information on solution processing fundamentals, techniques, considerations and barriers combined with key device applications Reviews important device applications, including transistors, light-emitting diodes, and photovoltaic cells Includes an overview of metal oxide materials systems (semiconductors, nanomaterials and thin films), addressing materials synthesis, properties, limitations and surface aspects

Metal Oxide Powder Technologies

Metal Oxide Powder Technologies
Fundamentals, Processing Methods and Applications

by Yarub Al-Douri

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-06-02
  • Pages : 446
  • ISBN : 0128175060
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Metal Oxide Powder Technologies: Fundamentals, Processing Methods and Applications reviews the fundamentals, processing methods and applications of this key materials system. Topics addressed comprehensively cover chemical and physical properties, synthesis, preparation, both accepted and novel processing methods, modeling and simulation. The book provides fundamental information on the key properties that impact performance, such as particle size and crystal structure, along with methods to measure, analyze and evaluate. Finally, important applications are covered, including biomedical, energy, electronics and materials applications. Provides a comprehensive overview of key topics both on the theoretical side and the experimental Discusses important properties that impact metal oxide performance, processing methods (both novel and accepted), and important applications Reviews the most relevant applications, such as biomedical, energy, electronics and materials applications

Chemical Solution Deposition of Functional Oxide Thin Films

Chemical Solution Deposition of Functional Oxide Thin Films
A Book

by Theodor Schneller,Rainer Waser,Marija Kosec,David Payne

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2014-01-24
  • Pages : 796
  • ISBN : 3211993118
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is the first text to cover all aspects of solution processed functional oxide thin-films. Chemical Solution Deposition (CSD) comprises all solution based thin- film deposition techniques, which involve chemical reactions of precursors during the formation of the oxide films, i. e. sol-gel type routes, metallo-organic decomposition routes, hybrid routes, etc. While the development of sol-gel type processes for optical coatings on glass by silicon dioxide and titanium dioxide dates from the mid-20th century, the first CSD derived electronic oxide thin films, such as lead zirconate titanate, were prepared in the 1980’s. Since then CSD has emerged as a highly flexible and cost-effective technique for the fabrication of a very wide variety of functional oxide thin films. Application areas include, for example, integrated dielectric capacitors, ferroelectric random access memories, pyroelectric infrared detectors, piezoelectric micro-electromechanical systems, antireflective coatings, optical filters, conducting-, transparent conducting-, and superconducting layers, luminescent coatings, gas sensors, thin film solid-oxide fuel cells, and photoelectrocatalytic solar cells. In the appendix detailed “cooking recipes” for selected material systems are offered.

Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials

Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials
A Book

by David Mitzi

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2008-12-22
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 9780470407615
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Discover the materials set to revolutionize the electronics industry The search for electronic materials that can be cheaply solution-processed into films, while simultaneously providing quality device characteristics, represents a major challenge for materials scientists. Continuous semiconducting thin films with large carrier mobilities are particularly desirable for high-speed microelectronic applications, potentially providing new opportunities for the development of low-cost, large-area, flexible computing devices, displays, sensors, and solar cells. To date, the majority of solution-processing research has focused on molecular and polymeric organic films. In contrast, this book reviews recent achievements in the search for solution-processed inorganic semiconductors and other critical electronic components. These components offer the potential for better performance and more robust thermal and mechanical stability than comparable organic-based systems. Solution Processing of Inorganic Materials covers everything from the more traditional fields of sol-gel processing and chemical bath deposition to the cutting-edge use of nanomaterials in thin-film deposition. In particular, the book focuses on materials and techniques that are compatible with high-throughput, low-cost, and low-temperature deposition processes such as spin coating, dip coating, printing, and stamping. Throughout the text, illustrations and examples of applications are provided to help the reader fully appreciate the concepts and opportunities involved in this exciting field. In addition to presenting the state-of-the-art research, the book offers extensive background material. As a result, any researcher involved or interested in electronic device fabrication can turn to this book to become fully versed in the solution-processed inorganic materials that are set to revolutionize the electronics industry.

Large Area and Flexible Electronics

Large Area and Flexible Electronics
A Book

by Mario Caironi

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-05-04
  • Pages : 592
  • ISBN : 3527336397
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From materials to applications, this ready reference covers the entire value chain from fundamentals via processing right up to devices, presenting different approaches to large-area electronics, thus enabling readers to compare materials, properties and performance. Divided into two parts, the first focuses on the materials used for the electronic functionality, covering organic and inorganic semiconductors, including vacuum and solution-processed metal-oxide semiconductors, nanomembranes and nanocrystals, as well as insulators and barrier materials. The second part reviews the devices and applications of large-area electronics, including large-area printed circuits for ambient electronics, flexible and ultra-high-resolution displays, light-emitting transistors, organic and inorganic photovoltaics, bio-sensors and nonvolatile memories. With its academic and industrial viewpoints, this volume provides in-depth knowledge for experienced researchers while also serving as a first-stop resource for those entering the field.

Ferroelectric Thin Films

Ferroelectric Thin Films
Symposium

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Meeting Abstracts

Meeting Abstracts
A Book

by Electrochemical Society

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Aqueous-derived Thin Films and Their Interfacial Interactions with Semiconductor Surfaces

Aqueous-derived Thin Films and Their Interfacial Interactions with Semiconductor Surfaces
A Spectroscopic Study

by Milana Cherie Thomas

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Metal oxide systems are well known for their high dielectric constants, which are important for advanced microelectronics applications. The microelectronics industry currently employs vacuum-based techniques, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), to deposit metal oxide films. These vapor-phase deposition techniques suffer due to their slow deposition rates and their use of expensive equipment. Additionally, these processes sometimes require the use of harmful source gases and/or generate corrosive by-products. On the other hand, solution-processed thin films fabricated by spin-coating are advantageous because the process is simple, low cost, and scalable. Aqueous solution deposition is particularly attractive because it offers a green alternative to vapor-phase deposition and has been shown to produce uniform thin films by spin coating on hydrophilic silicon surfaces. However, it has been shown that silicon's native oxide can degrade device performance due to its electronic interfacial states. In addition, aqueousderived thin films suffer from poor electrical performance due to mobile water and hydroxyl protons, often requiring very high temperature anneals to mitigate. Such anneals compromise the interface between the film and the silicon substrate, hence the electrical performance. One effective method to control the interface, and thus improve device performance, is to functionalize the semiconductor surface using wet chemistry. Here, we address the concerns of aqueous thin film deposition and present a method for alleviating the issues associated with current silicon-silicon oxide devices. We use wet chemical functionalization to graft selfassembled monolayers (SAMs) onto oxide-free silicon, then spin-coat an aqueous thin film on top of the SAM layer. The chemical stability of the SAM and the changes that occur at the interfaces between the Si/SAM/film stack during film deposition and dehydration are monitored by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The modification of the Si/SAM interface is studied as a function of annealing temperature, with electrical measurements used as a metric to quantify the effectiveness of the SAM layer to alleviate issues of interfacial defects observed for films on silicon oxide. The results are presented in three parts: (1) a dehydration study of aqueous-derived thin films deposited on silicon oxide, (2) the synthesis of a novel SAM interfacial layer tailored to accommodate aqueous, Al-based precursors and (3) a study to quantify the effectiveness, if any, on the SAM interfacial layer through electrical characterization methods. In the first part, we investigate the mechanism for dehydration of aqueous thin films and present a method to enhance the removal of water from the films. Using in situ FTIR, we find that the addition of a protective capping layer can enhance the dehydration of the thin film and prevent water reabsorption for a period of up to 14 days. In the second part, we present hydrosilylation methods to graft SAMs onto oxide-free silicon surfaces. The results show that it is possible to covalently attach the SAMs to silicon, evidenced by the formation of Si-C (detected by XPS) at the interface between the Si and the SAM. Four phosphonic acid-terminated SAMs are prepared and contact angle measurements are used as a metric for evaluating which can best accommodate aqueous spin-coater solutions. To conclude, we investigate the interface between the SAM layer and an aluminum-based thin film derived from aqueous precursor solutions. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements are used to quantify the effectiveness of the SAM layer.

Organic/inorganic Hybrid Materials

Organic/inorganic Hybrid Materials
Symposium Held ...

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Organic and Polymeric Materials and Devices - Optical, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties: Volume 725

Organic and Polymeric Materials and Devices - Optical, Electrical and Optoelectronic Properties: Volume 725
A Book

by Materials Research Society. Meeting

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2002-10-22
  • Pages : 284
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rapid progress in electronic and optical molecular and polymeric materials has made them key enablers for novel photonic, electronic, and optoelectronic device applications. These applications are broad and include smart cards, flat-panel displays, light-emitting diodes, transistors, photovoltaics, photorefractivity, and optical coatings, to mention just a few. This book brings together researchers from the applied as well as the fundamental areas of materials and device fabrication to offer an interdisciplinary and international perspective on areas related to organic electronics and optoelectronics. Topics include: organic light-emitting materials - synthesis, devices, interfaces and charge transport; organic transistors - materials and devices; organic and hybrid photovoltaics - materials and devices; and organic materials - nonlinear optics, polymerization, structural aspects, hybrid materials and characterization.

Engineered Materials Abstracts

Engineered Materials Abstracts
EMA.

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1992-07
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Organic and Polymeric Materials and Devices

Organic and Polymeric Materials and Devices
Symposium Held April 22-25, 2003, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

by Paul W. M. Blom

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 409
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The field of organic semiconductors has seen much development in the past years. Displays based on light-emitting diodes made of small organic molecules as well as polymers, have recently been commercialized. Other applications, such as electronic circuits for tagging, efficient photovoltaic devices and biosensors, have already been demonstrated. This volume brings together a "wish list" of leading researchers in the fields of chemistry, physics and technology of organic devices. Novel device concepts such as charge-generation layers, metal complexes and the use of heterojunctions are presented and should lead to further improvement in the efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes. In the field of organic transistors, major progress is reported on the charge-transport properties of organic semiconductors; mobilities up to 5cm2/Vs are reported for pentacene-based transistors. High mobility n-type materials, which enable the development of ambipolar organic electronic circuits, are also discussed. And new approaches to fully printable displays on substrates, such as textiles and paper, are presented. These may lead the way to new applications of organic optoelectronic devices.

International Aerospace Abstracts

International Aerospace Abstracts
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1999
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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BioMEMS and Nanotechnology

BioMEMS and Nanotechnology
10-12 December 2003, Perth, Australia

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ceramic Abstracts

Ceramic Abstracts
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Government Reports Annual Index

Government Reports Annual Index
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1993
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing: Volume 495

Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing: Volume 495
A Book

by Prashant N. Kumta,Aloysius F. Hepp,David B. Beach,Barry Arkles,John J. Sullivan

  • Publisher : Materials Research Society Sym
  • Release : 1998-08-03
  • Pages : 469
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Containing 65 papers from the symposium titled Chemical Aspects of Electronic Ceramics Processing held in November- December 1997 in Boston, the contents of this volume are divided into five sections: chemical vapor deposition of oxide ceramics; chemical vapor deposition of nonoxide ceramics; solution routes to ceramic materials; characterization and application of ceramic materials; and process characterization as a form of novel processing of ceramic materials. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Thin Film Transistor Technology 8

Thin Film Transistor Technology 8
A Book

by Yue Kuo

  • Publisher : The Electrochemical Society
  • Release : 2006-01-01
  • Pages : 371
  • ISBN : 1566775086
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This issue includes funadmental and applied topics on materials, processes, devices, circuits, and new and novel applicaitons related to TFTs.

Index to Theses with Abstracts Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the Council for National Academic Awards

Index to Theses with Abstracts Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland and the Council for National Academic Awards
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Solution-processed Fabrication of Hybrid Organic-inorganic Perovskites & Back Interface Engineering of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells

Solution-processed Fabrication of Hybrid Organic-inorganic Perovskites & Back Interface Engineering of Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells
A Book

by Suneth C. Watthage

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 179
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Thin film solar cells based on hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) have become highly attractive over the past several years due to a high solar to electric power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). Perovskite materials based on methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3, MAPbI3) possess high optical absorption coefficients, long minority carrier lifetimes and diffusion lengths, and desirable optical band gaps, and carrier collection in these materials can be highly efficient when they are paired with appropriate electron and hole transport materials (ETMs and HTMs), respectively. Additionally, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) can be fabricated via a variety of solution-based routes, which are suitable for low-cost, large area manufacturing. The combination of these attributes gives PSCs an advantage over currently available commercial photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Understanding the nucleation and growth mechanisms, and controlling the grain size and crystallinity in the solution-processed fabrication of perovskite thin films are important to prepare electronic-quality materials for PV applications. We investigated the nucleation and growth mechanisms of MAPbI3 formed in a two-step solution process. To prepare the MAPbI3 films, PbI2 films were spin-coated and then were reacted with methylammonium iodide (MAI) in the isopropanol (IPA) solution at various concentrations. We showed that the conversion rate, grain size, and morphology of MAPbI3 perovskite films depend on the concentration of the MAI solution. Three distinct perovskite formation behaviors were observed at various MAI concentrations, and a tentative model was proposed to explain the reaction mechanisms. The nucleation and growth process of MAPbI3 can be significantly changed by adding divalent metal salts into the MAI solution. We showed that the incorporation of Cd2+ ions significantly improved the grain size, crystallinity, and photoexcited carrier lifetime of MAPbI3. Formation of (CH3NH3)2CdI4 (MA2CdI4) perovskite in the solution by reacting the MAI and Cd2+ is the key for this nucleation and growth change. Devices prepared using this approach showed a significant improvement in the PCE relative to control devices prepared without Cd2+ addition. The improved optoelectronic properties are attributed to a Cd-modified film growth mechanism that invokes low dimensional Cd-based perovskites. In addition to the Cd2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+ also have the potential to change the nucleation and growth process of MAPbI3 formation, to improve the material quality. Formation of Cd-based perovskites, once the Cd2+ ions contacted with MAI, successfully applied in the cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cell technology to form a Te layer on the CdTe surface, that would reduce the Schottky barrier height and band bending at the back contact, reducing the recombination at the back junction, and thus improve the device efficiency. We found that Cd can be selectively extracted from the CdTe surface by reacting MAI thin films with the CdTe surface, forming MA2CdI4 perovskite. MA2CdI4 is soluble in IPA, therefore can be rinsed out, leaving a Te layer behind on the CdTe surface. MAI treated CdTe devices showed a reduction in the barrier height at the back contact for both Au and transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as calculated from the temperature dependent J-V measurements, resulting higher photovoltaic parameters of open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF), and PCE relative to the control devices. In addition, only a ~6% reduction in transmittance in the near infrared (NIR) region occurred in the devices with an ITO back electrode due to the MAI treatment, indicating this can be potentially used for the fabrication of high performance transparent CdTe solar cells that use in tandem solar cell or window applications.