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Statistics and Probability in Forensic Anthropology

Statistics and Probability in Forensic Anthropology
A Book

by Zuzana Obertová,Alistair Stewart,Cristina Cattaneo

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-07-28
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN : 0128157658
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Statistics and Probability in Forensic Anthropology provides a practical guide for forensic scientists, primarily anthropologists and pathologists, on how to design studies, how to choose and apply statistical approaches, and how to interpret statistical outcomes in the forensic practice. As with other forensic, medical and biological disciplines, statistics have become increasingly important in forensic anthropology and legal medicine, but there is not a single book, which specifically addresses the needs of forensic anthropologists in relation to the research undertaken in the field and the interpretation of research outcomes and case findings within the setting of legal proceedings. The book includes the application of both frequentist and Bayesian statistics in relation to topics relevant for the research and the interpretation of findings in forensic anthropology, as well as general chapters on study design and statistical approaches addressing measurement errors and reliability. Scientific terminology understandable to students and advanced practitioners of forensic anthropology, pathology and related disciplines is used throughout. Additionally, Statistics and Probability in Forensic Anthropology facilitates sufficient understanding of the statistical procedures and data interpretation based on statistical outcomes and models, which helps the reader confidently present their work within the forensic context, either in the form of case reports for legal purposes or as research publications for the scientific community. Contains the application of both frequentist and Bayesian statistics in relation to topics relevant for forensic anthropology research and the interpretation of findings Provides examples of study designs and their statistical solutions, partly following the layout of scientific manuscripts on common topics in the field Includes scientific terminology understandable to students and advanced practitioners of forensic anthropology, legal medicine and related disciplines

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
An Introduction

by Natalie R. Langley,MariaTeresa A. Tersigni-Tarrant

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-09-19
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN : 1439898235
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The field of forensic anthropology has evolved dramatically in the past 40 years, as technological advances have led to new research initiatives and extended applications. This robust, dynamic, and international field has grown to include interdisciplinary research, continually improving methodology, and globalization of training. Reflecting the di

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Current Methods and Practice

by Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Eric J. Bartelink

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2013-12-30
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 0124172903
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology
A Book

by Dennis Dirkmaat

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2012-03-19
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 1118255410
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.

Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science

Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science
A Book

by Craig Adam

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2011-09-20
  • Pages : 366
  • ISBN : 1119964180
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This text is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the wide range of mathematical and statistical tools needed by the forensic scientist in the analysis, interpretation and presentation of experimental measurements. From a basis of high school mathematics, the book develops essential quantitative analysis techniques within the context of a broad range of forensic applications. This clearly structured text focuses on developing core mathematical skills together with an understanding of the calculations associated with the analysis of experimental work, including an emphasis on the use of graphs and the evaluation of uncertainties. Through a broad study of probability and statistics, the reader is led ultimately to the use of Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of evidence within the court. In every section, forensic applications such as ballistics trajectories, post-mortem cooling, aspects of forensic pharmacokinetics, the matching of glass evidence, the formation of bloodstains and the interpretation of DNA profiles are discussed and examples of calculations are worked through. In every chapter there are numerous self-assessment problems to aid student learning. Its broad scope and forensically focused coverage make this book an essential text for students embarking on any degree course in forensic science or forensic analysis, as well as an invaluable reference for post-graduate students and forensic professionals. Key features: Offers a unique mix of mathematics and statistics topics, specifically tailored to a forensic science undergraduate degree. All topics illustrated with examples from the forensic science discipline. Written in an accessible, student-friendly way to engage interest and enhance learning and confidence. Assumes only a basic high-school level prior mathematical knowledge.

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
A Book

by Max M. Houck

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2016-12-30
  • Pages : 436
  • ISBN : 0128025239
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic Anthropology serves as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching forensic anthropology, as well as an excellent reference for forensic anthropologist libraries or for use in casework. Covers taphonomy, recovery and analysis, identification, statistical interpretation, and professional issues. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, the Advanced Forensic Science Series grew out of the recommendations from the 2009 NAS Report, Strengthening Forensic Science: A Path Forward, and is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community. Provides the basic principles of forensic science and an overview of forensic anthropology Contains sections on taphonomy, recovery, analysis, pathology, and identification Covers statistical interpretation of evidence using the classical-frequentist approach and Bayesian analysis, measurement uncertainty, and standard methods Includes a section on professional issues, such as: from crime scene to court, expert witness testimony, and health and safety Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions, and additional reading suggestions

Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System

Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System
A Book

by Laura C. Fulginiti,Kristen Hartnett-McCann,Alison Galloway

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2019-07-26
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 111947003X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A guide to the interface between forensic anthropology and the United States legal system Designed for forensic anthropologists at all levels of expertise, Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System offers a comprehensive examination of how to effectively present osteological analyses, research and interpretations in the courtroom. Written by noted experts, the book contains an historical perspective of the topic, a review of current legislation that affects expert testimony as well as vital information on courtroom procedure and judicial expectation of experts. A comprehensive book, Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System explains how to prepare case reports and offers suggestions for getting ready for pre-trial interviews. The book also includes detailed information on affidavits, fee structures and dealing with opposing experts. This book is part of the popular Wiley – American Association for Forensic Sciences series and: Offers a unique volume that addresses the interface between forensic anthropology and the legal system Contains detailed guidelines for expert testimony by forensic anthropologists with all levels of experience, from beginner to expert Includes information from the perspective of the Judiciary in terms of process and expectations of the Court Shows how to maintain independence from, and collaborate with other experts Presents detailed explanations of current legislation impacting forensic science Forensic Anthropology and the United States Judicial System is an information-filled guide for practitioners of the rapidly growing field that integrates forensic sciences and the judicial system.

Statistics for Anthropology

Statistics for Anthropology
A Book

by Lorena Madrigal

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2012-03-01
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 0521147085
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A clear, step-by-step guide to statistical methods for anthropology students, providing a solid footing in basic statistical techniques.

Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists

Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists
A Book

by David Lucy

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2013-05-03
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 1118700104
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists is anessential introduction to the subject, gently guiding the readerthrough the key statistical techniques used to evaluate varioustypes of forensic evidence. Assuming only a modest mathematicalbackground, the book uses real-life examples from the forensicscience literature and forensic case-work to illustrate relevantstatistical concepts and methods. Opening with a brief overview of the history and use ofstatistics within forensic science, the text then goes on tointroduce statistical techniques commonly used to examine dataobtained during laboratory experiments. There is a strong emphasison the evaluation of scientific observation as evidence and modernBayesian approaches to interpreting forensic data for the courts.The analysis of key forms of evidence are discussed throughout witha particular focus on DNA, fibres and glass. An invaluable introduction to the statistical interpretation offorensic evidence; this book will be invaluable for allundergraduates taking courses in forensic science. Introduction to the key statistical techniques used in theevaluation of forensic evidence Includes end of chapter exercises to enhance studentunderstanding Numerous examples taken from forensic science to put thesubject into context

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
A Textbook

by Steven N. Byers

  • Publisher : Allyn & Bacon
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 476
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Current, one-of-a-kind,comprehensive coverage of all the major topics in the field of forensic anthropology presented with accuracy, intensity, and clarity Methodology and protocol of forensic anthropology. Anyone who wishes to understand the methodology and procedures of forensic anthropology.

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2012-12-28
  • Pages : 2250
  • ISBN : 0123821665
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis. This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics Includes an international collection of contributors The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association

The Skeletal Biology of Past Peoples

The Skeletal Biology of Past Peoples
Research Methods

by Shelley R. Saunders,M. Anne Katzenberg

  • Publisher : Wiley-Liss
  • Release : 1992-03-24
  • Pages : 265
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A systematic compilation of the latest analytical and methodological approaches to prehistoric hard tissue analysis. Offers an in-depth explanation of rapid advances in the development of new analytical techniques such as computer axial tomography, scanning electron microscopy and computer simulation.

Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists

Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists
A Book

by Colin Aitken,Franco Taroni

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2004-11-19
  • Pages : 540
  • ISBN : 047001122X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The first edition of Statistics and the Evaluation of Evidence for Forensic Scientists established itself as a highly regarded authority on this area. Fully revised and updated, the second edition provides significant new material on areas of current interest including: Glass Interpretation Fibres Interpretation Bayes’ Nets The title presents comprehensive coverage of the statistical evaluation of forensic evidence. It is written with the assumption of a modest mathematical background and is illustrated throughout with up-to-date examples from a forensic science background. The clarity of exposition makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists, lawyers and other professionals in related fields interested in the quantitative assessment and evaluation of evidence. 'There can be no doubt that the appreciation of some evidence in a court of law has been greatly enhanced by the sound use of statistical ideas and one can be confident that the next decade will see further developments, during which time this book will admirably serve those who have cause to use statistics in forensic science.' D.V. Lindley

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology
Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis

by C. Clifford Boyd, Jr.,Donna C. Boyd

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2018-02-27
  • Pages : 360
  • ISBN : 1119226384
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides comprehensive coverage of everything that students and practitioners need to know about working in the field of forensic anthropology Forensic anthropology has been plagued by questions of scientific validity and rigor despite its acceptance as a section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences nearly half a century ago. Critics have viewed it as a laboratory-based applied subfield of biological anthropology, and characterised it as emphasising methodology over theory. This book shows that these views are not only antiquated, but inadequate and inaccurate. Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis introduces readers to all of the theoretical and scientific foundations of forensic anthropology — beginning with how it was influenced by the early theoretical approaches of Tyler, Morgan, Spencer and Darwin. It instructs on how modern forensic science relies on an interdisciplinary approach — with research being conducted in the fields of archaeology, physics, geology and other disciplines. This modern approach to theory in forensic anthropology is presented through the introduction and discussion of Foundational, Interpretive and Methodological theories. Sections cover: Bias and Objectivity in Forensic Anthropology Theory and Practice; The Theory and Science Behind Biological Profile and Personal Identification; Scientific Foundation for Interpretations of Antemortem, Perimortem, and Postmortem Processes; and Interdisciplinary Influences, Legal Ramifications and Future Directions. Illustrates important aspects of the theory building process and reflects methods for strengthening the scientific framework of forensic anthropology as a discipline Inspired by the “Application of Theory to Forensic Anthropology” symposium presented at the 67th annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences Chapters written by experts in the field who were presenters at the symposium Forensic Anthropology: Theoretical Framework and Scientific Basis is ideal for university courses in anthropological science, forensic science, criminal science and forensic archaeology.

Forensic-anthropology, Science, and Medicine

Forensic-anthropology, Science, and Medicine
A Book

by Surinder Nath,V. N. Sehgal

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2005
  • Pages : 195
  • ISBN : 9788185264363
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This Volume Includes Papers Pertaining To Ballistics, Wherein Advanced Techniques Of Comparing The Use Of Fire Arms Are Discussed. This Volume Also Presents Studies Related To Analysis Of Poisinous Material And Its Impact Homicidal Cases.

Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science

Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science
Evidential Value of Multivariate Physicochemical Data

by Grzegorz Zadora,Agnieszka Martyna,Daniel Ramos,Colin Aitken

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-02-03
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 0470972106
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A practical guide for determining the evidential value of physicochemical data Microtraces of various materials (e.g. glass, paint, fibres, and petroleum products) are routinely subjected to physicochemical examination by forensic experts, whose role is to evaluate such physicochemical data in the context of the prosecution and defence propositions. Such examinations return various kinds of information, including quantitative data. From the forensic point of view, the most suitable way to evaluate evidence is the likelihood ratio. This book provides a collection of recent approaches to the determination of likelihood ratios and describes suitable software, with documentation and examples of their use in practice. The statistical computing and graphics software environment R, pre-computed Bayesian networks using Hugin Researcher and a new package, calcuLatoR, for the computation of likelihood ratios are all explored. Statistical Analysis in Forensic Science will provide an invaluable practical guide for forensic experts and practitioners, forensic statisticians, analytical chemists, and chemometricians. Key features include: Description of the physicochemical analysis of forensic trace evidence. Detailed description of likelihood ratio models for determining the evidential value of multivariate physicochemical data. Detailed description of methods, such as empirical cross-entropy plots, for assessing the performance of likelihood ratio-based methods for evidence evaluation. Routines written using the open-source R software, as well as Hugin Researcher and calcuLatoR. Practical examples and recommendations for the use of all these methods in practice.

Forensic Archaeology

Forensic Archaeology
A Global Perspective

by W. J. Mike Groen,Nicholas Márquez-Grant,Rob Janaway

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-04-27
  • Pages : 616
  • ISBN : 1118745981
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic archaeology is mostly defined as the use of archaeological methods and principles within a legal context. However, such a definition only covers one aspect of forensic archaeology and misses the full potential this discipline has to offer. This volume is unique in that it contains 57 chapters from experienced forensic archaeological practitioners working in different countries, intergovernmental organisations or NGO?s. It shows that the practice of forensic archaeology varies worldwide as a result of diverse historical, educational, legal and judicial backgrounds. The chapters in this volume will be an invaluable reference to (forensic) archaeologists, forensic anthropologists, humanitarian and human rights workers, forensic scientists, police officers, professionals working in criminal justice systems and all other individuals who are interested in the potential forensic archaeology has to offer at scenes of crime or places of incident. This volume promotes the development of forensic archaeology worldwide. In addition, it proposes an interpretative framework that is grounded in archaeological theory and methodology, integrating affiliated behavioural and forensic sciences.

Forensic Facial Reconstruction

Forensic Facial Reconstruction
A Book

by Caroline Wilkinson

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2008-11-13
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 1107268761
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Forensic facial reconstruction is the reproduction of an individual's face from skeletal remains. Used when other forms of identification are very difficult or impossible, it can give a name to the dead in forensic cases, or in archaeological contexts, provide a tangible impression of real individuals from our past. This comprehensive work starts with a discussion of the importance of the face in society and the history of facial reconstruction, going on to evaluate the accuracy of modern reconstruction methods. The Manchester method of facial reconstruction, and the relationships between the hard and soft tissues of the face are described in detail. Uniquely, it also describes the methods and problems associated with reconstructing the faces of children. Collating all published facial tissue data and describing tissue variations with reference to age, sex, stature and ethnic origin, this book will be an important reference volume for all practitioners in the field.

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine

Forensic Anthropology and Medicine
Complementary Sciences From Recovery to Cause of Death

by Aurore Schmitt

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-11-09
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 1597450995
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Recent political, religious, ethnic, and racial conflicts, as well as mass disasters, have significantly helped to bring to light the almost unknown dis- pline of forensic anthropology. This science has become particularly useful to forensic pathologists because it aids in solving various puzzles, such as id- tifying victims and documenting crimes. On topics such as mass disasters and crimes against humanity, teamwork between forensic pathologists and for- sic anthropologists has significantly increased over the few last years. This relationship has also improved the study of routine cases in local medicolegal institutes. When human remains are badly decomposed, partially skelet- ized, and/or burned, it is particularly useful for the forensic pathologist to be assisted by a forensic anthropologist. It is not a one-way situation: when the forensic anthropologist deals with skeletonized bodies that have some kind of soft tissue, the advice of a forensic pathologist would be welcome. Forensic anthropology is a subspecialty/field of physical anthropology. Most of the background on skeletal biology was gathered on the basis of sk- etal remains from past populations. Physical anthropologists then developed an indisputable “know-how”; nevertheless, one must keep in mind that looking for a missing person or checking an assumed identity is quite a different matter. Pieces of information needed by forensic anthropologists require a higher level of reliability and accuracy than those granted in a general archaeological c- text. To achieve a positive identification, findings have to match with e- dence, particularly when genetic identification is not possible.

Data Analysis in Forensic Science

Data Analysis in Forensic Science
A Bayesian Decision Perspective

by Franco Taroni,Silvia Bozza,Alex Biedermann,Paolo Garbolino,Colin Aitken

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2010-03-19
  • Pages : 388
  • ISBN : 9780470665077
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is the first text to examine the use of statistical methods in forensic science and bayesian statistics in combination. The book is split into two parts: Part One concentrates on the philosophies of statistical inference. Chapter One examines the differences between the frequentist, the likelihood and the Bayesian perspectives, before Chapter Two explores the Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective further, and looks at the benefits it carries. Part Two then introduces the reader to the practical aspects involved: the application, interpretation, summary and presentation of data analyses are all examined from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective. A wide range of statistical methods, essential in the analysis of forensic scientific data is explored. These include the comparison of allele proportions in populations, the comparison of means, the choice of sampling size, and the discrimination of items of evidence of unknown origin into predefined populations. Throughout this practical appraisal there are a wide variety of examples taken from the routine work of forensic scientists. These applications are demonstrated in the ever-more popular R language. The reader is taken through these applied examples in a step-by-step approach, discussing the methods at each stage.