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String Theory and the Real World: From particle physics to astrophysics

String Theory and the Real World: From particle physics to astrophysics
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School 2007

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2008-07-29
  • Pages : 692
  • ISBN : 0080951511
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book is a collection of lectures given in July 2007 at the Les Houches Summer School on "String Theory and the Real World: From particle physics to astrophysics." Provides a pedagogical introduction to topics in String Theory, and Cosmology Addresses each topic from the basis to the most recent developments Covers the lectures by internationally-renowned and leading experts

Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology

Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 108, July 2017

by Sacha Davidson,Paolo Gambino,Mikko Laine,Matthias Neubert,Christophe Salomon

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2020-04-20
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 0192597760
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The topic of the CVIII session of the Ecole de Physique des Houches, held in July 2017, was Effective Field Theory in Particle Physics and Cosmology. Effective Field Theory (EFT) is a general method for describing quantum systems with multiple length scales in a tractable fashion. It allows to perform precise calculations in established models (such as the Standard Models of particle physics and cosmology), as well as to concisely parametrise possible effects from physics beyond the Standard Models. The goal of this school was to offer a broad introduction to the foundations and modern applications of Effective Field Theory in many of its incarnations. This is all the more important as there are preciously few textbooks covering the subject, none of them in a complete way. In this book, the lecturers present the concepts in a pedagogical way so that readers can adapt some of the latest developments to their own problems. The chapters cover almost all the lectures given at the school and will serve as an introduction to the topic and as a reference manual to students and researchers.

Theoretical Physics to Face the Challenge of LHC

Theoretical Physics to Face the Challenge of LHC
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School August 2011

by Laurent Baulieu,Karim Benakli,Michael R. Douglas,Eliezer Rabinovici,Bruno Mansoulie,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2015-01-22
  • Pages : 415
  • ISBN : 0198727968
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book gathers the lecture notes of the Les Houches Summer School that was held in August 2011 for an audience of advanced graduate students and post-doctoral fellows in particle physics, theoretical physics, and cosmology, areas where new experimental results were on the verge of being discovered at CERN. The lectures by theoreticians covered many directions in the theory of elementary particles, from classics such as the Supersymmetric Standard Model to veryrecent ideas such as the relation between black holes, hydrodynamics, and gauge-gravity duality. The lectures by experimentalists explained in detail how intensively and how precisely the LHC colliderhas verified the theoretical predictions of the Standard Model, predictions that were at the front lines of experimental discovery during the 70's, 80's and 90's, and how the LHC is ready to make new discoveries. They described many of the ingenious and pioneering techniques developed at CERN for the detection and the data analysis of billions of billions of proton-proton collisions.

String Theory in a Nutshell

String Theory in a Nutshell
Second Edition

by Elias Kiritsis

  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release : 2019-04-16
  • Pages : 888
  • ISBN : 0691155798
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The essential introduction to modern string theory—now fully expanded and revised String Theory in a Nutshell is the definitive introduction to modern string theory. Written by one of the world’s leading authorities on the subject, this concise and accessible book starts with basic definitions and guides readers from classic topics to the most exciting frontiers of research today. It covers perturbative string theory, the unity of string interactions, black holes and their microscopic entropy, the AdS/CFT correspondence and its applications, matrix model tools for string theory, and more. It also includes 600 exercises and serves as a self-contained guide to the literature. This fully updated edition features an entirely new chapter on flux compactifications in string theory, and the chapter on AdS/CFT has been substantially expanded by adding many applications to diverse topics. In addition, the discussion of conformal field theory has been extensively revised to make it more student-friendly. The essential one-volume reference for students and researchers in theoretical high-energy physics Now fully expanded and revised Provides expanded coverage of AdS/CFT and its applications, namely the holographic renormalization group, holographic theories for Yang-Mills and QCD, nonequilibrium thermal physics, finite density physics, and entanglement entropy Ideal for mathematicians and physicists specializing in theoretical cosmology, QCD, and novel approaches to condensed matter systems An online illustration package is available to professors

Integrability: From Statistical Systems to Gauge Theory

Integrability: From Statistical Systems to Gauge Theory
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 106, June 2016

by Patrick Dorey,Gregory Korchemsky,Nikita Nekrasov,Volker Schomerus,Didina Serban,Leticia Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2019-07-24
  • Pages : 608
  • ISBN : 0192563319
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume, 106 of the Les Houches Summer School series, brings together applications of integrability to supersymmetric gauge and string theory. The book focuses on the application of integrability and problems in quantum field theory. Particular emphasis is given to the exact solution of planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory and its relation with string theory on the one hand, and the exact determination of the low-energy physics of N=2 super-Yang-Mills theories on the other; links with other domains are also explored. The purpose of the Les Houches Summer School was to bring together young researchers and specialists from statistical physics, condensed matter physics, gauge and string theory, and mathematics, to stimulate discussion across these different research areas.

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics

Fundamental Aspects of Turbulent Flows in Climate Dynamics
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 109, August 2017

by Freddy Bouchet,Tapio Schneider,Antoine Venaille,Christophe Salomon

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2020-02-05
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 0192597450
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume, number 109 of the Les Houches Summer School series, presents the lectures held in August 2017 on the subject of turbulent flows in climate dynamics. Leading scientists in the fields of climate dynamics, atmosphere and ocean dynamics, geophysical fluid dynamics, physics and non-linear sciences present their views on this fast growing and interdisciplinary field of research, by venturing upon fundamental problems of atmospheric convection, clouds, large scale circulation, and predictability. Climate is controlled by turbulent flows. Turbulent motions are responsible for the bulk of the transport of energy, momentum, and water vapor in the atmosphere, which determine the distribution of temperature, winds, and precipitation on Earth. The aim of this book is to survey what is known about how turbulent flows control climate, what role they may play in climate change, and to outline where progress in this important area can be expected, given today's computational and observational capabilities. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides an essential background to future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to masters and PhD students and all researchers wishing to enter this field.

Current Trends in Atomic Physics

Current Trends in Atomic Physics
A Book

by Antoine Browaeys,Thierry Lahaye,Trey Porto,Matthias Weidemüller,Charles S. Adams,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2019-05-14
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN : 0198837194
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book gathers the lecture notes of courses given at Session CVII of the summer school in physics, entitled "Current Trends in Atomic Physics" and held in July, 2016 in Les Houches, France. Atomic physics provides a paradigm for exploring few-body quantum systems with unparalleled control. In recent years, this ability has been applied in diverse areas including condensed matter physics, high energy physics, chemistry and ultra-fast phenomena as well as foundational aspects of quantum physics. This book addresses these topics by presenting developments and current trends via a series of tutorials and lectures presented by international leading investigators.

Neutrinos in Physics and Astrophysics

Neutrinos in Physics and Astrophysics
From 10?33 to 1028 Cm : TASI 98 : Boulder, Colorado, USA, 1-26 June 1998

by P. Langacker

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 649
  • ISBN : 9789810238872
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neutrinos are the central thread in the study of many aspects of particle physics and astrophysics. Neutrino interactions test the standard electroweak theory and its TeV scale extensions, and examine the structure of the nucleon and of the CKM matrix. Searches for neutrino mass and other intrinsic properties probe new physics at very short distance scales. The weak interactions of neutrinos imply for them a unique role in studying the early universe, the core of the Sun, type II supernovae, and active galactic nuclei, and suggest the possibility of small neutrino masses contributing to the missing matter in the Universe, especially on very large distance scales.

Dynamos

Dynamos
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School 2007

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2011-07-29
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN : 0080560539
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Dynamos is a collection of lectures given in July 2007 at the Les Houches Summer School on "Dynamos". Provides a pedagogical introduction to topics in Dynamos Addresses each topic from the basis to the most recent developments Covers the lectures by internationally-renowned and leading experts

From Molecules to Living Organisms

From Molecules to Living Organisms
An Interplay Between Biology and Physics: Ecole de Physique Des Houches, Session CII, 7 July-1 August 2014

by Eva Pebay-Peyroula,Hugues Nury,François Parcy,Christine Ziegler,Rob W. H. Ruigrok,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-01-07
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 0198752954
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book gathers lecture notes of courses given at the 2014 summer school on integrated biology in Les Houches, France, Session CII. It addresses an emerging field ranging from molecules to cells and to organisms. Through examples it presents a new way of thinking using a combination of interdisciplinary and cutting-edge methods, bridging physics and biology beyond current biophysics. Important novel developments are expected in the coming years that may well introduce paradigm shifts in biological science. The school had the ambition to prepare participants to become major actors in these breakthroughs. The power of integrated approaches is illustrated through two cases: interactions between viruses and host cells, and flower development. The role of forces in biology, as well as their mathematical modeling, is illustrated in both processes: how they allow flower organs to emerge or how they control membrane fusion during virus budding. The book also underlines the importance of conformational changes and dynamics of proteins particularly during membrane processes. It explains how membrane proteins can be handled and studied by molecular simulations. Finally, the book also contains concepts in cell biology, in thermodynamics and several novel approaches such as in-cell NMR. Altogether, the chapters show how examining a biological system from different viewpoints based on multidisciplinary aspects often leads to enriching controversial arguments.

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 103, August 2014

by Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2017-02-16
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 019108879X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book contains lecture notes by world experts on one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in physics. Topological quantum phenomena are being uncovered at unprecedented rates in novel material systems. The consequences are far reaching, from the possibility of carrying currents and performing computations without dissipation of energy, to the possibility of realizing platforms for topological quantum computation.The pedagogical lectures contained in this book are an excellent introduction to this blooming field. The lecture notes are intended for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students in physics and mathematics who want to immerse in this exciting XXI century physics topic. This Les Houches Summer School presents an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its placement on the map of fundamental physics advancements. The School comprised a set of basic lectures (part 1) aimed at a pedagogical introduction of the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (part 2) covering individual topics at the forefront of today's research in condensed-matter physics.

Quantum Optomechanics and Nanomechanics

Quantum Optomechanics and Nanomechanics
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 105, August 2015

by Pierre-François Cohadon,Jack Harris,Leticia Cugliandolo,Florian Marquardt

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2020-02-20
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN : 0198828144
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Les Houches Summer School in August 2015 covered the emerging fields of cavity optomechanics and quantum nanomechanics. Optomechanics is flourishing and its concepts and techniques are now applied to a wide range of topics. Modern quantum optomechanics was born in the late 1970s in the framework of gravitational wave interferometry, with an initial focus on the quantum limits of displacement measurements. Carlton Caves, Vladimir Braginsky, and others realized that the sensitivity of the anticipated large-scale gravitational-wave interferometers (GWI) was fundamentally limited by the quantum fluctuations of the measurement laser beam. After tremendous experimental progress, the sensitivity of the upcoming next generation of GWI will effectively be limited by quantum noise. In this way, quantum-optomechanical effects will directly affect the operation of what is arguably the world's most impressive precision experiment. However, optomechanics has also gained a life of its own with a focus on the quantum aspects of moving mirrors. Laser light can be used to cool mechanical resonators well below the temperature of its environment. After proof-of-principle demonstrations of this cooling in 2006, a number of systems were used as the field gradually merged with its condensed matter cousin (nanomechanical systems) to try to reach the mechanical quantum ground state, eventually demonstrated in 2010 by pure cryogenic techniques and just one year later by a combination of cryogenic and radiation-pressure cooling. The book covers all aspects -- historical, theoretical, experimental -- of the field, with its applications to quantum measurement, foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information. It is an essential read for any new researcher in the field.

Neutrinos in Physics and Astrophysics

Neutrinos in Physics and Astrophysics
From 10–33 to 1028 cm

by Paul Langacker

  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release : 2000-07-20
  • Pages : 672
  • ISBN : 9814494771
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Neutrinos are the central thread in the study of many aspects of particle physics and astrophysics. Neutrino interactions test the standard electroweak theory and its TeV scale extensions, and examine the structure of the nucleon and of the CKM matrix. Searches for neutrino mass and other intrinsic properties probe new physics at very short distance scales. The weak interactions of neutrinos imply for them a unique role in studying the early universe, the core of the Sun, type II supernovae, and active galactic nuclei, and suggest the possibility of small neutrino masses contributing to the missing matter in the Universe, especially on very large distance scales. Contents:Overview of Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (P Langacker)The Standard Electroweak Theory and Beyond (G Altarelli)Essential Supersymmetry (N Polonsky)Neutrinos from Strings: A Practical Introduction to String Theory, String Model-Building, and String Phenomenology (K R Dienes)Collider Physics (D Zeppenfeld)The Experimental Search for Finite Neutrino Mass (T J Bowles)Topics in Neutrino Astrophysics (W C Haxton)Helioseismology (S Basu)Neutrinos and Dark Matter (C-P Ma)Lectures on Neutrino Astronomy: Theory and Experiment (F Halzen)Supernova Explosions and Supernova Neutrinos (A Burrows)Gravitational Waves (D Sigg)The Beginning of Neutrino Astronomy (A K Mann) Readership: Advanced graduate students and researchers in particle physics and astrophysics. Keywords:Neutrino Physics;Astrophysics;Standard Electroweak Theory;String Theory;Collider Physics;Neutrino Astrophysics

Quantum Theory from Small to Large Scales

Quantum Theory from Small to Large Scales
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 95, August 2010

by Jürg Frohlich,Manfred Salmhofer,Vieri Mastropietro,Wojciech De Roeck,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2012-05-24
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 0191623768
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book collects lecture courses and seminars given at the Les Houches Summer School 2010 on "Quantum Theory: From Small to Large Scales". Fundamental quantum phenomena appear on all scales, from microscopic to macroscopic. Some of the pertinent questions include the onset of decoherence, the dynamics of collective modes, the influence of external randomness and the emergence of dissipative behaviour. Our understanding of such phenomena has been advanced by the study of model systems and by the derivation and analysis of effective dynamics for large systems and over long times. In this field, research in mathematical physics has regularly contributed results that were recognized as essential in the physics community. During the last few years, the key questions have been sharpened and progress on answering them has been particularly strong. This book reviews the state-of-the-art developments in this field and provides the necessary background for future studies. All chapters are written from a pedagogical perspective, making the book accessible to master and PhD students and researchers willing to enter this field.

Statistical Physics, Optimization, Inference and Message-passing Algorithms

Statistical Physics, Optimization, Inference and Message-passing Algorithms
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches School of Physics - Special Issue, October 2013

by Florent Krzakala,Federico Ricci-Tersenghi,Lenka Zdeborova,Eric W. Tramel,Riccardo Zecchina,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-01-16
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN : 0198743734
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the last decade, there has been an increasing convergence of interest and methods between theoretical physics and fields as diverse as probability, machine learning, optimization and compressed sensing. In particular, many theoretical and applied works in statistical physics and computer science have relied on the use of message passing algorithms and their connection to statistical physics of spin glasses. The aim of this book, especially adapted to PhD students, post-docs, and young researchers, is to present the background necessary for entering this fast developing field.

Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing

Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 93, August 2009

by Laurent Lellouch

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2011-08-25
  • Pages : 729
  • ISBN : 0199691606
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The aim of the book is to familiarize the new generation of PhD students and postdoctoral fellows with the principles and methods of modern lattice field theory, which aims to resolve fundamental, non-perturbative questions about QCD without uncontrolled approximations.

Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing

Modern Perspectives in Lattice QCD: Quantum Field Theory and High Performance Computing
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 93, August 2009

by Laurent Lellouch,Rainer Sommer,Benjamin Svetitsky,Anastassios Vladikas,Leticia F. Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2011-08-25
  • Pages : 760
  • ISBN : 0191621846
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book is based on the lectures delivered at the XCIII Session of the École de Physique des Houches, held in August, 2009. The aim of the event was to familiarize the new generation of PhD students and postdoctoral fellows with the principles and methods of modern lattice field theory, which aims to resolve fundamental, non-perturbative questions about QCD without uncontrolled approximations. The emphasis of the book is on the theoretical developments that have shaped the field in the last two decades and that have turned lattice gauge theory into a robust approach to the determination of low energy hadronic quantities and of fundamental parameters of the Standard Model. By way of introduction, the lectures begin by covering lattice theory basics, lattice renormalization and improvement, and the many faces of chirality. A later course introduces QCD at finite temperature and density. A broad view of lattice computation from the basics to recent developments was offered in a corresponding course. Extrapolations to physical quark masses and a framework for the parameterization of the low-energy physics by means of effective coupling constants is covered in a lecture on chiral perturbation theory. Heavy-quark effective theories, an essential tool for performing the relevant lattice calculations, is covered from its basics to recent advances. A number of shorter courses round out the book and broaden its purview. These included recent applications to the nucleon—nucleon interation and a course on physics beyond the Standard Model.

New Trends in the Physics and Mechanics of Biological Systems

New Trends in the Physics and Mechanics of Biological Systems
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 92, July 2009

by Martine Ben Amar,Alain Goriely,Martin Michael Müller,Leticia Cugliandolo

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2011-05-26
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 0191621242
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In July 2009, many experts in the mathematical modelling of biological sciences gathered in Les Houches for a 4-week summer school on the mechanics and physics of biological systems. The goal of the school was to present to students and researchers an integrated view of new trends and challenges in physical and mathematical aspects of biomechanics. While the scope for such a topic is very wide, we focused on problems where solid and fluid mechanics play a central role. The school covered both the general mathematical theory of mechanical biology in the context of continuum mechanics but also the specific modelling of particular systems in the biology of the cell, plants, microbes, and in physiology. These lecture notes are organised (as was the school) around five different main topics all connected by the common theme of continuum modelling for biological systems: Bio-fluidics, Bio-gels, Bio-mechanics, Bio-membranes, and Morphogenesis. These notes are not meant as a journal review of the topic but rather as a gentle tutorial introduction to the readers who want to understand the basic problematic in modelling biological systems from a mechanics perspective.

Theory of Interacting Quantum Fields

Theory of Interacting Quantum Fields
A Book

by Alexei L. Rebenko

  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
  • Release : 2012-07-04
  • Pages : 588
  • ISBN : 3110250632
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This monograph is devoted to the systematic and encyclopedic presentation of the foundations of quantum field theory. It represents mathematical problems of the quantum field theory with regard to the new methods of the constructive and Euclidean field theory formed for the last thirty years of the 20th century on the basis of rigorous mathematical tools of the functional analysis, the theory of operators, and the theory of generalized functions. The book is useful for young scientists who desire to understand not only the formal structure of the quantum field theory but also its basic concepts and connection with classical mechanics, relativistic classical field theory, quantum mechanics, group theory, and the theory of functional integration.

Post-Planck Cosmology

Post-Planck Cosmology
Lecture Notes of the Les Houches Summer School: Volume 100, July 2013

by Cédric Deffayet

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release : 2015-02-05
  • Pages : 545
  • ISBN : 0198728859
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book gathers the lecture notes of the 100th Les Houches Summer School, which was held in July 2013. These lectures represent a comprehensive pedagogical survey of the frontier of theoretical and observational cosmology just after the release of the first cosmological results of the Planck mission. The Cosmic Microwave Background is discussed as a possible window on the still unknown laws of physics at very high energy and as a backlight for studying the late-time Universe. Other lectures highlight connections of fundamental physics with other areas of cosmology and astrophysics, the successes and fundamental puzzles of the inflationary paradigm of cosmic beginning, the themes of dark energy and dark matter, and the theoretical developments and observational probes that will shed light on these cosmic conundrums in the years to come.