Download Sugarcane Biorefinery, Technology and Perspectives Ebook PDF

Sugarcane Biorefinery, Technology and Perspectives

Sugarcane Biorefinery, Technology and Perspectives
A Book

by Fernando Santos,Sarita Rabelo,Mario De Matos,Paulo Eichler

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-11-21
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 0128142375
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sugarcane Biorefinery, Technology and Perspectives provides the reader with a current view of the global scenario of sugarcane biorefinery, launching a new expectation on this important crop from a chemical, energy and sustainability point-of-view. The book explores the existing biorefinery platforms that can be used to convert sugarcane to new high value added products. It also addresses one of today's most controversial issues involving energy cane, in addition to the dilemma "sugar cane vs. food vs. the environment", adding even more value in a culture that is already a symbol of case study around the world. Focusing on the chemical composition of sugarcane, and the production and processes that optimize it for either agricultural or energy use, the book is designed to provide practical insights for current application and inspire the further exploration of options for balancing food and fuel demands. Presents the productive chain of sugarcane and its implications on food production and the environment Includes discussions on the evolution of the sustainable development of the sugar-energy sector Contextualizes and premises for the technological road mapping of energy-cane Provides information on new technologies in the sugar-energy sector

Bioethanol

Bioethanol
Biochemistry and Biotechnological Advances

by Ayerim Y. Hernández Almanza,Nagamani Balagurusamy,Héctor Ruiz Leza,Cristóbal N. Aguilar

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2022-07-07
  • Pages : 542
  • ISBN : 1000565130
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This new book, Bioethanol: Biochemistry and Biotechnological Advances, presents some insightful perspectives and important advances in the bioethanol industry. The volume goes into detail on the biochemical and physiological parameters carried out by the main bioethanol-producing microorganisms as well as the discusses the potential applications that bioproducts can have and the advantages they generate. The chapter authors discuss a variety of issues, including the physiology of ethanol production by yeasts, by Zymomonas mobilis, and by Clostridium thermocellum. Other sources of biofuel, such as sweet sorghum, Agave americana L. leaves waste, and fungi are included as well. Chapters also discuss the genetic regulation and genetic engineering of principal microorganisms and then go on to address ways to increase ethanol tolerance in industrially important ethanol fermenting organisms, methods for developing sustainable fermentable substrates, and new strategies for ethanol purification. Chapters explore the design and engineering requirements for bioreactors, bioelectrosynthesis of ethanol via bioelectrochemical systems, and more. The book will be a valuable resource for faculty and students in this area as well as for scientists, researchers, and managers in the biofuel industry in the area of biofuel production, fermentation process, environmental engineering and all other related scientific areas.

Sugarcane

Sugarcane
Biotechnology for Biofuels

by Muhammad Sarwar Khan

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2021-06-23
  • Pages : 124
  • ISBN : 1839689358
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book provides a precise and meticulous overview of the technology of developing energy cane. It highlights how technology has transformed the opinion of growers to cultivate sugarcane from an agronomic to a purpose-grown crop. Chapters in this book provide essentials for developing sugarcane for high-sugar contents, bioethanol, and biodiesel to meet the emerging demands of the world.

Water-Formed Deposits

Water-Formed Deposits
Fundamentals and Mitigation Strategies

by Zahid Amjad,Konstantinos D. Demadis

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2022-03-24
  • Pages : 856
  • ISBN : 012823086X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Water-Formed Deposits: Fundamentals and Mitigation Strategies wholly presents the important issue of deposits in aqueous systems, both industrial and biological. By analyzing causes, mechanisms and mitigation strategies, the book helps researchers/engineers/end-users gain a fundamental understanding of the issues underlying deposit formation and mitigation. It covers numerous, fundamental aspects of water-formed deposits, while also giving an applications’ perspective. The book's goal is to assist the reader in his/her understanding of the important issues of scale formation, while also helping with potential solutions. Provides a fundamental understanding of deposit formation by presenting basic science and mechanisms Presents an “applications perspective Reveals a systematic overview of deposit-related challenges and their mitigation Correlates structure to performance in mitigation strategies Analyzes current legal aspects and regulations Includes case studies from the “real industrial world for the industrial reader/end user

Advances in Sugarcane Biorefinery

Advances in Sugarcane Biorefinery
Technologies, Commercialization, Policy Issues and Paradigm Shift for Bioethanol and By-Products

by Anuj Chandel,Marcos Henrique Luciano Silveira

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-12-14
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 0128045442
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Advances in Sugarcane Biorefinery: Technologies, Commercialization, Policy Issues and Paradigm Shift for Bioethanol and By-Products, by Chandel and Tomé, compiles the basic and applied information covering cane and biomass processing for sugar and ethanol production, as well as by-products utilization for improving the economy of sugarcane biorefineries. In this unique collection of 14 chapters, specialists in their field provide critical insights into several topics, review the current research, and discuss future progress in this research area. The book presents the most current advances in sugarcane biorefinery, including sugarcane crop cultivation, new sugarcane varieties, soil health, mechanization of crop, technical aspects of first and second generation ethanol production, economic analysis, life cycle assessment, biomass logistics and storage, co-generation of heat and electricity, process intensification and alternative by-products utilization. The book also explores the business ecosystem of sugarcane biorefineries, marketing analysis of ethanol demand and price dwindling patterns, aiming for a futuristic scenario. This book will be especially useful for scientists, researchers and technicians who are working in the area of biomass based biorefineries, as well as professionals in the sugar and alcohol industry. It also brings relevant content for policy makers, market analysts, agriculture scientists and managers. Presents technological updates on biomass processing, system biology, microbial fermentation, catalysis, regeneration and monitoring of renewable energy and recovery processes Includes topics on techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, sustainability, markets and policy Explores the future potential of biorefineries with zero or near zero waste, and the potential of valorization of all by-products, including alternatives to current applications and the management of a large amount of residues

Waste Biorefinery

Waste Biorefinery
Value Addition through Resource Utilization

by Thallada Bhaskar,Sunita Varjani,Ashok Pandey,Eldon R. Rene

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-02-24
  • Pages : 536
  • ISBN : 0128218940
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Waste Biorefinery: Value Addition through Resources Utilization provides scientific and technical information surrounding the most advanced and innovative processing technologies used for the conversion of biogenic waste to biofuels, energy products and biochemicals. The book covers recent developments and achievements in the field of biochemical, thermo-chemical and hybrid methods and the necessities and potentials generated by different kinds of residual streams, including biomass in presumably more decentralized biorefineries. An assortment of case-studies from developing and developed countries illustrate the topics presented, covering energy, chemicals, fuels, food for animal recovery from different waste matrices, and more. Finally, the advantages and limitations of different technologies are discussed, considering local energy demand, government policies, environmental impacts and education in bioenergy. This book will serve as an excellent resource for science graduates, chemical engineers, environmental engineers, biotechnologists and industrial experts in these areas. Provides information on the most advanced and innovative processes for biomass conversion Covers information on biochemical and thermochemical processes and product developments surrounding the principles of biorefining Presents information on the integration of processes and technologies for the production of biofuels, energy products and biochemicals

Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production from a Biorefinery Perspective

Lignocellulosic Ethanol Production from a Biorefinery Perspective
Sustainable Valorization of Waste

by Deepansh Sharma,Anita Saini

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-07-20
  • Pages : 227
  • ISBN : 9811545731
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book provides an overview of the multi-dimensional approach for the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. The sustainability of this biofuel, the current and future status of the technology and its role in waste valorization are also addressed. Bioethanol from lignocellulosic material has emerged as an alternative to the traditional first-generation bioethanol. The book also discusses various pretreatment methods for effective separation of the various components of lignocellulosic feedstock as well as their advantages, and limitations. It describes the valorization of lignocellulosic waste through the production of bioethanol and emphasizes the significance of waste utilization in managing the production cost of the fuel. Finally, the utilization of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms to increase the conversion efficiency is reviewed.

Sugarcane-based Biofuels and Bioproducts

Sugarcane-based Biofuels and Bioproducts
A Book

by Ian O'Hara,Sagadevan Mundree

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-03-18
  • Pages : 408
  • ISBN : 1118719921
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sugarcane has garnered much interest for its potential as a viable renewable energy crop. While the use of sugar juice for ethanol production has been in practice for years, a new focus on using the fibrous co-product known as bagasse for producing renewable fuels and bio-based chemicals is growing in interest. The success of these efforts, and the development of new varieties of energy canes, could greatly increase the use of sugarcane and sugarcane biomass for fuels while enhancing industry sustainability and competitiveness. Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts examines the development of a suite of established and developing biofuels and other renewable products derived from sugarcane and sugarcane-based co-products, such as bagasse. Chapters provide broad-ranging coverage of sugarcane biology, biotechnological advances, and breakthroughs in production and processing techniques. This text brings together essential information regarding the development and utilization of new fuels and bioproducts derived from sugarcane. Authored by experts in the field, Sugarcane-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts is an invaluable resource for researchers studying biofuels, sugarcane, and plant biotechnology as well as sugar and biofuels industry personnel.

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies
A Book

by Avinash P. Ingle,Anuj Kumar Chandel,Silvio Silverio da Silva

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-03-02
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN : 111956882X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

A text to the advances and development of novel technologies in the production of high-value products from economically viable raw materials Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologiesis an essential guide to the most recent advances and developments of novel technologies in the production of various high-value products from economically viable raw materials. Written by a team of experts on the topic, the book covers important topics specifically on production of economical and sustainable products such as various biofuels, organic acids, enzymes, biopigments, biosurfactants, etc. The book highlights the important aspects of lignocellulosic biorefining including structure, function, and chemical composition of the plant cell wall and reviews the details about the various components present in the lignocellulosic biomass and their characterizations. The authors explore the various approaches available for processing lignocellulosic biomass into second generation sugars and focus on the possibilities of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Each chapter includes a range of clear, informative tables and figures, and contains relevant references of published articles. This important text: Provides cutting-edge information on the recent developments in lignocellulose biorefinery Reviews production of various economically important and sustainable products, such as biofuels, organic acids, biopigments, and biosurfactants Highlights several broad-ranging areas of recent advances in the utilization of a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Provides a valuable, authoritative reference for anyone interested in the topic Written for post-graduate students and researchers in disciplines such as biotechnology, bioengineering, forestry, agriculture, and chemical industry, Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies is an authoritative and updated guide to the knowledge about various biorefining technologies.

Sustainable Recovery and Reutilization of Cereal Processing By-Products

Sustainable Recovery and Reutilization of Cereal Processing By-Products
A Book

by Charis Michel Galanakis

  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release : 2018-02-03
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 008102214X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sustainable Recovery and Reutilization of Cereal Processing By-Products addresses topics associated with the sustainable management of cereal manufacturing. Emphasis is placed on current, advisable practices, general valorization techniques of cereal processing by-products, and the functional properties of healthy cereal by-product components that lead to target applications in foods and nutraceuticals. Focus includes discussions on wheat bran, distillers' dried grains—based within the biorefinery concept, and different techniques for the separation, extraction, recovery and formulation of valuable compounds, including proteins, arabinoxylans, and beta-glucan. Addresses topics associated with the sustainable management of cereal manufacturing Places emphasis on current, advisable practices Presents general valorization techniques of cereal processing by-products Highlights the functional properties of healthy cereal by-product components that lead to target applications in foods and nutraceuticals

Emerging Technologies for Biorefineries, Biofuels, and Value-Added Commodities

Emerging Technologies for Biorefineries, Biofuels, and Value-Added Commodities
A Book

by Zhi-Hua Liu,Art Ragauskas

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021-04-30
  • Pages : 399
  • ISBN : 3030655849
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book provides in-depth coverage on the latest concepts, systems, and technologies that are being utilized in biorefineries for the production of biofuels and value-added commodities. Written by internationally recognized experts, the book provides a comprehensive overview of pretreatment technology for biorefineries and biofuels, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation technology for biofuel production, and lignin valorization for developing new products from waste lignin. The book will be a valuable resource for researchers and professionals working in process engineering, product engineering, material science, and systems and synthetic biology in the fields of biorefining, biofuel, biomaterials, environmental waste utilization, and biotechnology.

Biorefinery Production Technologies for Chemicals and Energy

Biorefinery Production Technologies for Chemicals and Energy
A Book

by Arindam Kuila,Mainak Mukhopadhyay

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-09-22
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 1119593085
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

The world has shifted towards sustainable development for the generation of energy and industrially valuable chemicals. Biorefinery plays an important role in the integration of conversion process with high-end equipment facilities for the generation of energy, fuels and chemicals. The first part of the book presents the fundamentals of the biorefinery concept. The second part describes the biorefinery approach for production of several industrially important chemicals from waste biomass and agro residues. These chemicals include industrially important C4. C5 and C6 chemicals, propylene glycol, glycerol byproducts, dyes and inks etc. Each and every chemical has its own industrial value and the book describes the production processes and strategies at the industrial level. The final part of the book describes the various biorefinery approaches and economic analysis for the different types of biofuel production.

Biorefineries

Biorefineries
A Book

by Kurt Wagemann,Nils Tippkötter

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-12-06
  • Pages : 549
  • ISBN : 3319971190
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book offers a comprehensive review on biomass resources, examples of biorefineries and corresponding products. The first part of this book covers topics such as different biorefinery resources from agriculture, wood processing residues and transport logistics of plant biomass. In the second part, expert contributors present biorefinery concepts of different biomass feedstocks, including vegetable-oils, sugarcane, starch, lignocellulose and microalgae. Readers will find here a summary of the syngas utilization and the bio-oil characterization and potential use as an alternative renewable fuel and source for chemical feedstocks. Particular attention is also given to the anaerobic digestion-based and Organosolv biorefineries. The last part of the book examines relevant products and components such as alcohols, hydrocarbons, bioplastics and lignin, and offers a sustainability evaluation of biorefineries.

Virtual Biorefinery

Virtual Biorefinery
An Optimization Strategy for Renewable Carbon Valorization

by Antonio Bonomi,Otavio Cavalett,Marcelo Pereira da Cunha,Marco A. P. Lima

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-12-09
  • Pages : 285
  • ISBN : 3319260456
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book presents a concise framework for assessing technical and sustainability impacts of existing biorefineries and provides a possible road map for development of novel biorefineries. It offers a detailed, integrated approach to evaluate the entire biomass production chain, from the agricultural feedstock production and transportation, to the industrial conversion and commercialization & use of products. The Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery is used as a case study; however, the methods and concepts can be applied to almost any biomass alternative. Chapters explore the main issues regarding biorefinery assessment, including feedstock production and transportation modeling, biofuels and green chemistry products, as well as assessment of sustainability impacts. This book is a valuable source of information to researchers in bioenergy, green chemistry and sustainability fields. It also provides a useful framework for government agencies, investors and the energy industry to evaluate and predict the success of current and future biorefinery alternatives.

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals
Circular Bioeconomy: Technologies for Biofuels and Biochemicals

by Sunita Varjani,Ashok Pandey,Thallada Bhaskar,S.Venkata Mohan,Daniel C.W. Tsang

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-12-04
  • Pages : 672
  • ISBN : 0323910467
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Biomass, Biofuels, Biochemicals: Circular Bioeconomy: Technologies for Biofuels and Biochemicals provides comprehensive information on strategies and approaches that facilitate the integration of technologies for the production of bio-based fuels, chemicals and other value-added products from wastes with waste biorefinery concepts and green strategies. The book also covers lifecycle assessment and techno-economic analyses of integrated biorefineries within a circular bioeconomy framework. As there has been continual research on new designs in production and consumerist approaches as we move towards sustainable development by scientists of various disciplines, law makers, environmental activists and industrialists, this book provides the latest details. Resources consumption and environment degradation necessitates a transition of our linear economy towards sustainable social and technical systems. As fossil resources are only projected to fulfill the needs of the population for the next couple of centuries, new tactics and standards must be created to ensure future success. Covers recent developments and perspectives on biofuels and chemicals production Provides the latest on the integration of technologies and processes for biofuels and chemicals production Paves a way forward roadmap to achieve Sustainable Development Goals Covers recent developments in lifecycle assessment and techno economic analysis using a waste biorefinery approach

Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products

Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products
Methods and Case Studies

by Jo Dewulf,Steven De Meester,Rodrigo A. F. Alvarenga

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2015-11-17
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 1118933923
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Over the past decade, renewables-based technology and sustainability assessment methods have grown tremendously. Renewable energy and products have a significant role in the market today, and the same time sustainability assessment methods have advanced, with a growing standardization of environmental sustainability metrics and consideration of social issues as part of the assessment. Sustainability Assessment of Renewables-Based Products: Methods and Case Studies is an extensive update and sequel to the 2006 title Renewables-Based Technology: Sustainability Assessment. It discusses the impressive evolution and role renewables have taken in our modern society, highlighting the importance of sustainability principles in the design phase of renewable-based technologies, and presenting a wide range of sustainability assessment methods suitable for renewables-based technologies, together with case studies to demonstrate their applications. This book is a valuable resource for academics, businesses and policy makers who are active in contributing to more sustainable production and consumption. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: The growing role of renewables in our society Sustainability in the design phase of products and processes Principles of sustainability assessment Land use analysis Water use analysis Material and energy flow analysis Exergy and cumulative exergy analysisCarbon and environmental footprint methods Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), social Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Case studies: renewable energy, bio-based chemicals and bio-based materials.

Sustainable Resource Management

Sustainable Resource Management
Technologies for Recovery and Reuse of Energy and Waste Materials

by Wenshan Guo,Huu Hao Ngo,Rao Y. Surampalli,Tian C. Zhang

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-04-08
  • Pages : 832
  • ISBN : 3527825371
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sustainable Resource Management Learn how current technologies can be used to recover and reuse waste products to reduce environmental damage and pollution In this two-volume set, Sustainable Resource Management: Technologies for Recovery and Reuse of Energy and Waste Materials delivers a compelling argument for the importance of the widespread adoption of a holistic approach to enhanced water, energy, and waste management practices. Increased population and economic growth, urbanization, and industrialization have put sustained pressure on the world’s environment, and this book demonstrates how to use organics, nutrients, and thermal heat to better manage wastewater and solid waste to deal with that reality. The book discusses basic scientific principles and recent technological advances in current strategies for resource recovery from waste products. It also presents solutions to pressing problems associated with energy production during waste management and treatment, as well as the health impacts created by improper waste disposal and pollution. Finally, the book discusses the potential and feasibility of turning waste products into resources. Readers will also enjoy: A thorough introduction and overview to resource recovery and reuse for sustainable futures An exploration of hydrothermal liquefaction of food waste, including the technology’s use as a potential resource recovery strategy A treatment of resource recovery and recycling from livestock manure, including the current state of the technology and future prospects and challenges A discussion of the removal and recovery of nutrients using low-cost adsorbents from single-component and multi-component adsorption systems Perfect for water and environmental chemists, engineers, biotechnologists, and food chemists, Sustainable Resource Management also belongs on the bookshelves of environmental officers and consultants, chemists in private industry, and graduate students taking programs in environmental engineering, ecology, or other sustainability related fields.

27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering

27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2017-09-21
  • Pages : 3042
  • ISBN : 0444639705
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

27th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Volume 40 contains the papers presented at the 27th European Society of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) event held in Barcelona, October 1-5, 2017. It is a valuable resource for chemical engineers, chemical process engineers, researchers in industry and academia, students, and consultants for chemical industries. Presents findings and discussions from the 27th European Society of Computer-Aided Process Engineering (ESCAPE) event

Sustainability Practice and Education on University Campuses and Beyond

Sustainability Practice and Education on University Campuses and Beyond
A Book

by Ashok Kumar,Dong-Shik Kim

  • Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
  • Release : 2017-06-15
  • Pages : 275
  • ISBN : 1681084716
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Campus activities for sustainable development are an effective way of learning and implementing sustainability in surrounding communities and industry. A college campus is an ideal place to practice and test new ideas and to learn valuable lessons from the results and mistakes. Sustainability Practice and Education on University Campuses and Beyond showcases many ideas and endeavors pursued on college campuses in the form of case studies. These case studies include past, current and projected activities to green college campuses. Specific topics covered in this book include student-driven and college-driven environmental sustainability programs in undergraduate and graduate classes, issues in teaching environmental sustainability, the LEED certification of universities, issues of shrinking cities, and a comparison of sustainable military bases with college campuses. Readers will be able to clearly understand the concept of sustainable development through a textbook approach to ‘crazy’ ideas presented in the book. In addition, the pedagogical challenges in sustainability education mentioned in the book address key issues arising due to the multidisciplinary nature of sustainability curricula. Sustainability Practice and Education on University Campuses and Beyond is a good resource on sustainability in environmental science courses for college students, faculty and sustainability-related researchers. Decision makers in government and industry positions looking for ideas for promoting sustainable development can also benefit from the contents of this book.

Bioethanol Technologies

Bioethanol Technologies
A Book

by Freddie Inambao

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2021-09-01
  • Pages : 154
  • ISBN : 1839683937
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Bioethanol Technologies explores the conceptual and methodological approaches for understanding bioethanol technologies and future perspectives. The book comprehensively covers the global scenario of ethanol production from both food and non-food crops and other sources. This book is a useful resource for those involved with biofuels in general and bioethanol in particular, including energy engineers, researchers, consultants, analysts, policy makers, and professionals in the industry supply chain. This book: • Reviews the most significant research findings in both ethanol production and utilization; • Presents technological interventions in ethanol production, from plant biomass to food crops; • Offers a foresight analysis on the perspectives of bioethanol as a global commodity; • Presents a complete overview of the main challenges that bioenergy will have to overcome in order to play a key role in future energy systems; • Presents necessary Occupational Health and Safety (OH