Download Sustainable Urban Mobility Pathways Ebook PDF

Sustainable Urban Mobility Pathways

Sustainable Urban Mobility Pathways
Policies, Institutions, and Coalitions for Low Carbon Transportation in Emerging Countries

by Oliver Lah

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2018-12-03
  • Pages : 308
  • ISBN : 0128148985
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sustainable Urban Mobility Pathways examines how sustainable urban mobility solutions contribute to achieving worldwide sustainable development and global climate change targets, while also identifying barriers to implementation and strategies to overcome them. Building on city-to-city cooperation experiences in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America, the book examines key challenges in the context of the Paris Agreement, UN Sustainable Development Goals and the New Urban Agenda, including policies needed to achieve a sustainable, low-carbon pathway for transport and how an integrated policy strategy is designed to provide a basis for political coalitions. The book explores which institutional framework creates sufficient political stability and continuity to foster the take-up of and long-term support for sustainable transport strategies. The linkages of climate change and wider sustainable development objectives are covered, including success stories, best practices, and quantitative analysis for key emerging economies in public transport, walking, cycling, freight and logistics, vehicle technology and fuels, urban planning and integration, and national framework policies. Provides a holistic view of sustainable urban transport, focusing on policy-making processes, the role of institutions and successes and pitfalls Delivers practical insights drawn from the experiences of actual city-to-city cooperation and on-the-ground policy work Explores options for the integration of policy objectives and institutional structures that form coalitions for the implementation of sustainable urban mobility solutions Describes the policy, institutional, political, and socio-economic aspects in cities in five emerging economies: Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and Turkey

Pathways to Urban Sustainability

Pathways to Urban Sustainability
Challenges and Opportunities for the United States

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Policy and Global Affairs,Science and Technology for Sustainability Program,Committee on Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2016-10-11
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 030944456X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cities have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth in the last decade. More than half the world's population lives in urban areas, with the U.S. percentage at 80 percent. Cities have captured more than 80 percent of the globe's economic activity and offered social mobility and economic prosperity to millions by clustering creative, innovative, and educated individuals and organizations. Clustering populations, however, can compound both positive and negative conditions, with many modern urban areas experiencing growing inequality, debility, and environmental degradation. The spread and continued growth of urban areas presents a number of concerns for a sustainable future, particularly if cities cannot adequately address the rise of poverty, hunger, resource consumption, and biodiversity loss in their borders. Intended as a comparative illustration of the types of urban sustainability pathways and subsequent lessons learned existing in urban areas, this study examines specific examples that cut across geographies and scales and that feature a range of urban sustainability challenges and opportunities for collaborative learning across metropolitan regions. It focuses on nine cities across the United States and Canada (Los Angeles, CA, New York City, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Pittsburgh, PA, Grand Rapids, MI, Flint, MI, Cedar Rapids, IA, Chattanooga, TN, and Vancouver, Canada), chosen to represent a variety of metropolitan regions, with consideration given to city size, proximity to coastal and other waterways, susceptibility to hazards, primary industry, and several other factors.

Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe 2

Towards User-Centric Transport in Europe 2
Enablers of Inclusive, Seamless and Sustainable Mobility

by Beate Müller,Gereon Meyer

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-02-05
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 3030380289
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book gathers contributions from researchers and practitioners that foster user-centric, cross-modal and sustainable transport systems in Europe. It reports on cutting-edge approaches discussed within the project MOBILITY4EU, a Coordination and Support Action funded by the European Commission, and presented at the second conference “Towards User Centric Transport in Europe” that took place in Brussels in Fall 2018. The respective papers describe innovative approaches to improving urban mobility and accessibility, achieving zero-emission mobility, and guaranteeing, seamless operations. Co-creation approaches are also discussed. Highlighting technological, socio-economic and political strategies alike, the book provides researches and stakeholders with a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current measures and challenges for the mobility of tomorrow.

Pathways to Urban Sustainability

Pathways to Urban Sustainability
Challenges and Opportunities for the United States

by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Policy and Global Affairs,Science and Technology for Sustainability Program,Committee on Pathways to Urban Sustainability: Challenges and Opportunities

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2016-11-11
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 0309444535
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Cities have experienced an unprecedented rate of growth in the last decade. More than half the world's population lives in urban areas, with the U.S. percentage at 80 percent. Cities have captured more than 80 percent of the globe's economic activity and offered social mobility and economic prosperity to millions by clustering creative, innovative, and educated individuals and organizations. Clustering populations, however, can compound both positive and negative conditions, with many modern urban areas experiencing growing inequality, debility, and environmental degradation. The spread and continued growth of urban areas presents a number of concerns for a sustainable future, particularly if cities cannot adequately address the rise of poverty, hunger, resource consumption, and biodiversity loss in their borders. Intended as a comparative illustration of the types of urban sustainability pathways and subsequent lessons learned existing in urban areas, this study examines specific examples that cut across geographies and scales and that feature a range of urban sustainability challenges and opportunities for collaborative learning across metropolitan regions. It focuses on nine cities across the United States and Canada (Los Angeles, CA, New York City, NY, Philadelphia, PA, Pittsburgh, PA, Grand Rapids, MI, Flint, MI, Cedar Rapids, IA, Chattanooga, TN, and Vancouver, Canada), chosen to represent a variety of metropolitan regions, with consideration given to city size, proximity to coastal and other waterways, susceptibility to hazards, primary industry, and several other factors.

Transitions

Transitions
Pathways Towards Sustainable Urban Development in Australia

by Peter W Newton

  • Publisher : CSIRO PUBLISHING
  • Release : 2008-06-27
  • Pages : 712
  • ISBN : 0643099735
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Formidable challenges confront Australia and its human settlements: the mega-metro regions, major and provincial cities, coastal, rural and remote towns. The key drivers of change and major urban vulnerabilities have been identified and principal among them are resource-constraints, such as oil, water, food, skilled labour and materials, and carbon-constraints, linked to climate change and a need to transition to renewable energy, both of which will strongly shape urban development this century. Transitions identifies 21st century challenges to the resilience of Australia’s cities and regions that flow from a range of global and local influences, and offers a portfolio of solutions to these critical problems and vulnerabilities. The solutions will require fundamental transitions in many instances: to our urban infrastructures, to our institutions and how they plan for the future, and perhaps most of all to ourselves in terms of our lifestyles and consumption patterns. With contributions from 92 researchers - all leaders in their respective fields - this book offers the expertise to chart pathways for a sustainability transition.

Sustainable Pathways for our Cities and Regions

Sustainable Pathways for our Cities and Regions
Planning within Planetary Boundaries

by Barbara Norman

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2018-01-03
  • Pages : 190
  • ISBN : 1317283147
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

In an urbanizing world, the majority of people live in urban settlements predominantly on the coastal edge. Focus has historically been on people, place and the challenges and opportunities of living with global change, and academic attention has largely been on sustainability science or sustainable solutions. This book seeks to strengthen the relatively weak link between sustainability science, land use planning and socio-economic change, and show that a more integrated approach to planning will be required to develop more sustainable pathways for cities and regions in the future. Sustainable Pathways for our Cities and Regions builds on the recent publications on cities and climate change, resilient cities and coasts, and sustainable cities, and looks at the ways in which current planning approaches need to be adapted to embrace concepts including green growth, planetary boundaries, healthy cities and longer-term sustainability. Drawing on case studies from four cities selected for their publicly stated commitment to sustainability – Canberra, Kuala Lumpur, Copenhagen and New York – the author proposes seven sustainable pathways and draws conclusions on the positive contribution planning can make in preparing urban and regional communities for significant change in the twenty-first century city. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of urban planning, sustainable cities, climate change, green growth and community engagement. It will also be of great value to leaders and community activists seeking more sustainable pathways for their cities and regions.

Energy, Transport, & the Environment

Energy, Transport, & the Environment
Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm

by Oliver Inderwildi,Sir David King

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-03-04
  • Pages : 726
  • ISBN : 1447127161
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sustainable mobility is a highly complex problem as it is affected by the interactions between socio-economic, environmental, technological and political issues. Energy, Transport, & the Environment: Addressing the Sustainable Mobility Paradigm brings together leading figures from business, academia and governments to address the challenges and opportunities involved in working towards sustainable mobility. Key thinkers and decision makers approach topics and debates including: · energy security and resource scarcity · greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions · urban planning, transport systems and their management · governance and finance of transformation · the threats of terrorism and climate change to our transport systems. Introduced by a preface from U.S. Secretary Steven Chu and an outline by the editors, Dr Oliver Inderwildi and Sir David King, Energy, Transport, & the Environment is divided into six sections. These sections address and explore the challenges and opportunities for energy supply, road transport, urban mobility, aviation, sea and rail, as well as finance and economics in transport. Possible solutions, ranging from alternative fuels to advanced urban planning and policy levers, will be examined in order to deepen the understanding of currently proposed solutions within the political realities of the dominating economic areas. The result of this detailed investigation is an integrated view of sustainable transport for both people and freight, making Energy, Transport, & the Environment key reading for researchers, decision makers and policy experts across the public and private sectors.

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility

Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility
Global Report on Human Settlements 2013

by Un-Habitat

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2013-10-30
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 1317932870
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Urban transport systems worldwide are faced by a multitude of challenges. Among the most visible of these are the traffic gridlocks experienced on city roads and highways all over the world. The prescribed solution to transport problems in most cities has thus been to build more infrastructures for cars, with a limited number of cities improving public transport systems in a sustainable manner. However, a number of challenges faced by urban transport systems – such as greenhouse gas emissions, noise and air pollution and road traffic accidents – do not necessarily get solved by the construction of new infrastructure. Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Mobility argues that the development of sustainable urban transport systems requires a conceptual leap. The purpose of ‘transportation’ and ‘mobility’ is to gain access to destinations, activities, services and goods. Thus, access is the ultimate objective of transportation. As a result, urban planning and design should focus on how to bring people and places together, by creating cities that focus on accessibility, rather than simply increasing the length of urban transport infrastructure or increasing the movement of people or goods. Urban form and the functionality of the city are therefore a major focus of this report, which highlights the importance of integrated land-use and transport planning. This new report of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), the world’s leading authority on urban issues, provides some thought-provoking insights and policy recommendations on how to plan and design sustainable urban mobility systems. The Global Report on Human Settlements is the most authoritative and up-to-date global assessment of human settlements conditions and trends. Preceding issues of the report have addressed such topics as Cities in a Globalizing World, The Challenge of Slums, Financing Urban Shelter, Enhancing Urban Safety and Security, Planning Sustainable Cities and Cities and Climate Change.

Resilient Sustainable Cities

Resilient Sustainable Cities
A Future

by Leonie Pearson,Peter Newton,Peter Roberts

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2014-01-10
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN : 1135071454
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Urbanization is occurring at an unprecedented rate; by 2050 three quarters of the world’s people will live in urban environments. The cars we drive, products we consume, houses we live in and technology we use will all determine how sustainable our cities will be. Bridging the increasing divide between cross-disciplinary academic insights and the latest practical innovations, Resilient Sustainable Cities provides an integrated approach for long term future planning within the context of the city as a whole system. In the next 30 years cities will face their biggest challenges yet, as a result of long term, or ‘slow burn’ issues: population growth will stretch to the breaking point urban infrastructure and service capacity; resource scarcity, such as peak oil; potable water and food security, will dramatically change what we consume and how; environmental pressures will change how we live and where and; shifting demographic preferences will exacerbate urban pressures. Cities can’t keep doing what they’ve always done and cope – we need to change current urban development to achieve resilient, sustainable cities. Resilient Sustainable Cities provides practical and conceptual insights for practitioners, researchers and students on how to deliver cities which are resilient to ‘slow burn’ issues and achieve sustainability. The book is organized around three overarching themes: pathways to the future innovation to deliver the future leadership and governance issues The book includes a variety of perspectives conveyed through international case studies and examples of cities that have transformed for a sustainable future, exploring their successes and failures to ensure that readers are left with ideas on how to turn their city into a resilient sustainable city for the future.

Transport, Climate Change and the City

Transport, Climate Change and the City
A Book

by Robin Hickman,David Banister

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2014-02-05
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 1135108021
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sustainable mobility has long been sought after in cities around the world, particularly in industrialised countries, but also increasingly in the emerging cities in Asia. Progress however appears difficult to make as the private car, still largely fuelled by petrol or diesel, remains the mainstream mode of use. Transport is the key sector where carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions seem difficult to reduce. Transport, Climate Change and the City seeks to develop achievable and low transport CO2 emission futures in a range of international case studies, including in London, Oxfordshire, Delhi, Jinan and Auckland. The aim is that the scenarios as developed, and the consideration of implementation and governance issues, can help us plan for and achieve attractive future travel behaviours at the city level. The alternative is to continue with only incremental progress against CO2 reduction targets, to ‘sleepwalk’ into climate change difficulties, oil scarcity, a poor quality of life, and to continue with the high traffic casualty figures. The topic is thus critical, with transport viewed as central to the achievement of the sustainable city and reduced CO2 emissions.

Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse Gases
A Book

by Bernardo Llamas,Juan Pous

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2016-03-30
  • Pages : 316
  • ISBN : 9535122738
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Sustainability should be a key component of every process, safeguarding resources and reserves for future generations. This book shows how a responsible use of resources is possible, offering valid technological alternatives to fight climate change. We offer current technologies and valid methods for a wide range of activities: teaching, investigation, work, business and even daily life. We encourage all our readers to join us and become part of the solution to climate change, rather than the problem. After reading this book, we are certain that you will find justified reasons to start your own personal and social awareness campaign in favour of these effective technologies against climate change.

Climate Change and Sustainable Cities

Climate Change and Sustainable Cities
A Book

by Hugo Priemus,Simin Davoudi

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2016-04-08
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 1134923465
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Climate change has demonstrated, perhaps more than any other environmental concerns, the complexities of the human-nature interrelationship and the need for embedding a far greater environmental consciousness into our social values and norms. A drastic reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions requires a transition to low carbon cities. This demands a better understanding of the interactions between social, technical, and spatial processes which constitute cities. The aim of this book is to explore these interactions and urge urban planners and other built environment professionals to revisit some of their traditional concepts, methods, and ways of thinking about what constitutes a ‘good’ city and according to whose priorities. The book brings together nine contributions ranging from broad overviews to sector-specific analysis, paying particular attention to the role of urban planning. Contributors cover climate change mitigation and adaptation, deal with different scales of analysis ranging from international and European to national and city perspectives, and discuss a range of policy sectors including housing, transport, energy, sea level rise as well as pathways for climate policy implementation. The diversity of the contributions is itself a reflection of the multitude of climate change concerns that preoccupy researchers, policy makers and practitioners. This book was published as a special issue of European Planning Studies.

Urban Transport in the Developing World

Urban Transport in the Developing World
A Handbook of Policy and Practice

by Harry T. Dimitriou,Ralph Gakenheimer

  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release : 2011-01-01
  • Pages : 656
  • ISBN : 1849808392
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Policy-making for urban transport and planning of economies in the developing world present major challenges for countries facing rapid urbanisation and rampant motorisation, alongside growing commitments to sustainability. These challenges include: coping with financial deficits, providing for the poor, dealing meaningfully with global warming and energy shortages, addressing traffic congestion and related land use issues, adopting green technologies and adjusting equitably to the impacts of globalisation. This book presents a contemporary analysis of these challenges and new workable responses to the urban transport problems they spawn.

Retrofitting Cities

Retrofitting Cities
Priorities, Governance and Experimentation

by Mike Hodson,Simon Marvin

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2015-12-14
  • Pages : 294
  • ISBN : 1317390563
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Developing an up-to-date critical framework for analysing urban retrofit, this is the first book to examine urban re-engineering for sustainability in a socio-technical context. Retrofitting Cities examines why retrofit is emerging as an important strategic issue for urban authorities and untangles the mix of economic, competitive, ecological and social drivers that influence any transition towards a more sustainable urban environment. Retrofitting Cities comparatively explores how urban scale retrofitting can be conceptualised as a socio-technical transition; to critically compare and contrast different national styles of response in cities of the north and global south; and, to develop new research and policy agendas on future development of progressive retrofitting. Bringing together a group of researchers from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds that reflect the complexity of the research challenge, Retrofitting cities looks across different infrastructures and types of built environment, dealing with diverse urban contexts and examining formal as well as community responses. This is a uniquely practical book for urban planning and policy professionals as well as for researchers in urban studies and urban design.

The Sustainable City X

The Sustainable City X

by C.A. Brebbia,W.F. Florez-Escobar

  • Publisher : WIT Press
  • Release : 2015-09-01
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 1845649427
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Containing the proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Urban Regeneration and Sustainability this book addresses the multidisciplinary aspects of urban planning; a result of the increasing size of cities; the amount of resources and services required and the complexity of modern society. Most of earth’s population now lives in cities and the process of urbanisation continues generating many problems deriving from the drift of the population towards them. These problems can be resolved by cities becoming efficient habitats, saving resources in a way that improves the quality and standard of living. The process, however, faces a number of major challenges, related to reducing pollution, improving main transportation and infrastructure systems. New urban solutions are required to optimise the use of space and energy resources leading to improvements in the environment, i.e. reduction in air, water and soil pollution as well as efficient ways to deal with waste generation. These challenges contribute to the development of social and economic imbalances and require the development of new solutions. Large cities are probably the most complex mechanisms to manage. However, despite such complexity they represent a fertile ground for architects, engineers, city planners, social and political scientists, and other professionals able to conceive new ideas and time them according to technological advances and human requirements. The challenge of planning sustainable cities lies in considering their dynamics, the exchange of energy and matter, and the function and maintenance of ordered structures directly or indirectly, supplied and maintained by natural systems. Topics covered include: Urban Strategies; Planning, Development and Management; Urban Conservation and Regeneration; The Community and the City; Eco-town Planning; Landscape Planning and Design; Environmental Management; Sustainable Energy and the City; Transportation; Quality of Life; Architectural Issues; Cultural Heritage Issues; Intelligent Environment and Emerging Technologies; Planning for Risk; Disaster and Emergency Response; Safety and Security; Waste Management; Infrastructure and Society; Urban Metabolism.

Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China

Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China
A Book

by Axel Baeumler,Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez,Shomik Mehndiratta

  • Publisher : World Bank Publications
  • Release : 2012-04-12
  • Pages : 586
  • ISBN : 0821389882
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This book summarizes experiences from the World Bank s activities related to low-carbon urban development in China. It highlights the need for low-carbon city development and presents details on specific sector-level experiences and lessons, a framework for action, and financing opportunities.

Low-Carbon Land Transport

Low-Carbon Land Transport
Policy Handbook

by Daniel Bongardt,Felix Creutzig,Hanna Hüging,Ko Sakamoto,Stefan Bakker,Sudhir Gota,Susanne Böhler-Baedeker

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2013-03-05
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 1135094659
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Practical guide for transport policymakers and planners to achieve low-carbon land transport systems. Based on wide ranging research, it shows how policies can be bundled successfully and worked into urban transport decision-making and planning strategies. With case studies from developed and developing countries, it outlines measures for reducing emissions, tailoring these to specific circumstances. It also highlights how greenhouse gas savings are measured, as well as success factors for implementing policies and measures in complex decision-making processes. For students of sustainable transport, professional planners and decision makers, Low-Carbon Land Transport is an invaluable reference for all those looking to help transport networks flow in a sustainable direction.

Rethinking Urban Sprawl

Rethinking Urban Sprawl
Moving Towards Sustainable Cities

by Collectif

  • Publisher : OECD
  • Release : 2018-06-19
  • Pages : 180
  • ISBN : 9264297952
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

This report provides a new perspective to the nature of urban sprawl and its causes and environmental, social and economic consequences. This perspective, which is based on the multi-dimensionality of urban sprawl, sets the foundations for the construction of new indicators to measure the various facets of urban sprawl. The report uses new datasets to compute these indicators for more than 1100 urban areas in 29 OECD countries over the period 1990-2014. It then relies on cross-city, country-level and cross-country analyses of these indicators to provide insights into the current situation and evolution of urban sprawl in OECD cities. In addition, the report offers a critical assessment of the causes and consequences of urban sprawl and discusses policy options to steer urban development to more environmentally sustainable forms.

Empowering the New Mobility Workforce

Empowering the New Mobility Workforce
Educating, Training, and Inspiring Future Transportation Professionals

by Tyler Reeb

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2019-06-20
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN : 0128162961
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Empowering the New Mobility Workforce: Educating, Training, and Inspiring Future Transportation Professionals enlists a multidisciplinary roster of subject matter specialists who identify the priorities and strategies for cultivating a skilled workforce for the rapidly changing transportation landscape. Transportation employers will need to hire 4.6 million workers—1.2 times the current transportation workforce—in the next decade. The book explores how leaders in education, industry and government can work together to create an ecosystem that facilitates learning and upskilling for emerging and incumbent transportation workers. Readers will learn how to conduct labor market analyses and develop competency models to adapt their workforce. This book will empower readers to establish ongoing communities of practice that cultivate sustainable career pathways that respond to ever-evolving socioeconomic trends and transformational technologies. Provides a comprehensive assessment of the new technologies and consumer attitudes driving change in personal vehicle, mass transit, active transportation, and goods movement, both domestically and internationally Identifies the career pathways, experiential learning models, and types of curriculum needed to prepare emerging professionals to develop and operate transportation systems of the future Emphasizes, through case studies, innovative practices emerging in public- and private-sector transportation organizations Draws on key work conducted in the United States and around the world, acknowledging the increasing interconnectedness of transportation systems between countries, economies and social networks that transcend national boundaries

Governing Compact Cities

Governing Compact Cities
A Book

by Philipp Rode

  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 1788111362
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
GET BOOK

Governing Compact Cities investigates how governments and other critical actors organise to enable compact urban growth, combining higher urban densities, mixed use and urban design quality with more walkable and public transport-oriented urban development. Philipp Rode draws on empirical evidence from London and Berlin to examine how urban policymakers, professionals and stakeholders have worked across disciplinary silos, geographic scales and different time horizons since the early 1990s.