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Synchrotron-Based Techniques in Soils and Sediments

Synchrotron-Based Techniques in Soils and Sediments
A Book

by Balwant Singh,Markus Grafe

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2010-02-18
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN : 9780080932842
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Over the past 20 years, synchrotron-based research applications have provided important insight into the geochemical cycling of ions and the chemical and crystallographic properties of minerals in soils and sediments. Of particular significance is the understanding of local coordination environments with the use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The high flux and brightness of the X-ray beams have allowed researchers to work at environmentally relevant concentrations. The use of focusing mirrors and apertures which allow for mapping and trace particle surfaces, microbes, roots, channels and elements at the micron and at a nano-meter scale in 2 and 3D have also been a great enhancement to science. This book provides the most up-to-date information on synchrotron-based research applications in the field of soil, sediment and earth sciences. Invited authors provide chapters on a wide range of research topics including multiphase flow and transport processes (physical aspects), rhizosphere and microbial life (biological aspects), and dynamics of C, N, S, P and heavy metals and metalloids (chemical aspects). In addition, perspectives on the impact of synchrotron based applications, particularly X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the role of synchrotron applications in remediation, regulatory, and decision making processes are considered. Up-to-date, with the latest research results and techniques in synchrotron-based techniques Information on specific techniques, elements and minerals, regulatory and remediation decision making, contaminants and the impact of X-ray absorption spectroscopy on soil science Internationally recognized leaders in their fields of expertise from Europe, North America, Asia and Australia

Applied Soil Chemistry

Applied Soil Chemistry
A Book

by Mohd Imran Ahamed,Inamuddin,Rajender Boddula,Tariq A. Altalhi

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2021-03-23
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 1119711495
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book explores the state-of-the-art information regarding applied soil sciences. It covers the fundamentals, model concepts, principles, chemical reactions, functions, chemical recycling, chemical weathering, acid-base chemistry, carbon sequestration, and nutrient availability of soils. Also, it includes soil chemistry of heavy-metals, environment, clay, ion-exchange processes, analytical tools and applications. This book helps to understand the about soil characteristics targeting soil chemical reactions and interactions and its applications.

Soil Carbon

Soil Carbon
A Book

by Alfred E. Hartemink,Kevin McSweeney

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2014-04-01
  • Pages : 506
  • ISBN : 3319040847
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Few topics cut across the soil science discipline wider than research on soil carbon. This book contains 48 chapters that focus on novel and exciting aspects of soil carbon research from all over the world. It includes review papers by global leaders in soil carbon research, and the book ends with a list and discussion of global soil carbon research priorities. Chapters are loosely grouped in four sections: § Soil carbon in space and time § Soil carbon properties and processes § Soil use and carbon management § Soil carbon and the environment A wide variety of topics is included: soil carbon modelling, measurement, monitoring, microbial dynamics, soil carbon management and 12 chapters focus on national or regional soil carbon stock assessments. The book provides up-to-date information for researchers interested in soil carbon in relation to climate change and to researchers that are interested in soil carbon for the maintenance of soil quality and fertility. Papers in this book were presented at the IUSS Global Soil C Conference that was held at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

Trace Elements in Waterlogged Soils and Sediments

Trace Elements in Waterlogged Soils and Sediments
A Book

by Jörg Rinklebe,Anna Sophia Knox,Michael Paller

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2016-08-19
  • Pages : 402
  • ISBN : 1482240521
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Many wetlands around the world act as sinks for pollutants, in particular for trace elements. In comparison to terrestrial environments, wetlands are still far less studied. A collaborative effort among world experts, this book brings the current knowledge concerning trace elements in temporary waterlogged soils and sediments together. It discusses factors controlling the dynamics and release kinetics of trace elements and their underlying biogeochemical processes. It also discusses current technologies for remediating sites contaminated with trace metals, and the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and regulatory decision making. This book is intended for professionals around the world in disciplines related to contaminant bioavailability in aquatic organisms, contaminant fate and transport, remediation technologies, and risk assessment of aquatic and wetland ecosystems.

Quantifying and Modeling Soil Strucure Dynamics

Quantifying and Modeling Soil Strucure Dynamics
A Book

by Sally Logsdon,Markus Berli,Rainer Horn

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-01-22
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 0891189564
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Quantifying and Modeling Soil Structure Dynamics emphasizes a systems approach to how soil structure changes in response to inputs and to the environment. Soil structure is a dynamic, complex system affected by tillage, wheel traffic, roots, soil life, shrink–swell, and freeze–thaw. In turn, soil structure affects root growth and function, soil fauna, solute transport, water infiltration, gas exchange, thermal and electrical conductivities, traffic bearing capacity, and more. Ignoring soil structure or viewing it as “static” can lead to poor predictions and management. Readers will especially appreciate the description of soil structure influence on endpoints, such as environmental contamination and efficient water use, and how models should be adjusted to include dynamic soil structure components for accurate outputs.

Soil- Water- Root Processes

Soil- Water- Root Processes
Advances in Tomography and Imaging

by Stephen H. Anderson

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-01-22
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN : 0891189580
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Rapid advances in tomography and imaging techniques and their successful application in soil and plant science are changing our sciences today. Many more articles using imaging and tomography are being published currently compared to 20 years ago. Soil–Water–Root Processes: Advances in Tomography and Imaging is a unique assemblage of contributions exploring applications of imaging and tomography systems in soil science—it provides an updated collection of X-ray computed tomography, synchrotron microtomography, neutron imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, geophysical imaging tools, and other tomography techniques for evaluating soils and roots. Exciting new procedures and applications have been developed, with the promise to propel forward our understanding of soil and plant properties and processes.

Recent Advances in Geo-Environmental Engineering, Geomechanics and Geotechnics, and Geohazards

Recent Advances in Geo-Environmental Engineering, Geomechanics and Geotechnics, and Geohazards
Proceedings of the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences (CAJG-1), Tunisia 2018

by Amjad Kallel,Zeynal Abiddin Erguler,Zhen-Dong Cui,ALi Karrech,Murat Karakus,Pinnaduwa Kulatilake,Sanjay Kumar Shukla

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-12-31
  • Pages : 509
  • ISBN : 303001665X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This edited volume contains the best papers in the geo-engineering field accepted for presentation at the 1st Springer Conference of the Arabian Journal of Geosciences, Tunisia 2018. In addition, it includes 3 keynotes by international experts on the following topics: 1. A new three-dimensional rock mass strength criterion 2. New tools and techniques of remote sensing for geologic hazard assessment 3. Land subsidence induced by the engineering-environmental effects in Shanghai China The book is useful for readers who would like to get a broad coverage in geo-engineering. It contains 11 chapters covering the following main areas: (a) Applications in geo-environmental engineering including soil remediation, (b) Characterization of geo-materials using geological, geotechnical and geophysical techniques, (c) Soil improvement applications, (d) Soil behaviour under dynamic loading, (e) Recent studies on expansive soils, (f) Analytical and numerical modelling of various geo-structures, (g) Slope stability, (h) Landslides, (i) Subsidence studies and (j) Recent studies on various other types of geo-hazards.

Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Mercury

Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology of Mercury
A Book

by Guangliang Liu,Yong Cai,Nelson O'Driscoll

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2011-11-07
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 1118146638
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book that looks at mercury's impact on the planet today Recent research by the EPA has concluded that one in six womenof childbearing age have unsafe levels of mercury in their bodies,which puts 630,000 newborn babies each year at risk of neurologicalimpairment. Mercury poses severe risks to the health of animals andecosystems around the world, and this book provides the essentialinformation that anyone interested in environmental sciences shouldknow about the fundamentals of the entire mercury cycle. Comprised of four parts that present an overview of mercury inthe environment, mercury transformations, transport, andbioaccumulation and toxicology, each chapter of EnvironmentalChemistry and Toxicology of Mercury includes the basic concepts ofthe targeted subject, a critical review of that subject, and thefuture research needs. This book explains the environmental behavior and toxicologicaleffects of mercury on humans and other organisms, and provides abaseline for what is known and what uncertainties remain in respectto mercury cycling. The chapters focus on the fundamental scienceunderlying the environmental chemistry and fate of mercury. Thiswork will be invaluable to a wide range of policy experts,environmental scientists, and other people requiring acomprehensive source for the state of the science in thisfield.

Permeable Reactive Barrier

Permeable Reactive Barrier
Sustainable Groundwater Remediation

by Ravi Naidu,Volker Birke

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-10-08
  • Pages : 333
  • ISBN : 1482224488
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Remediation of groundwater is complex and often challenging. But the cost of pump and treat technology, coupled with the dismal results achieved, has paved the way for newer, better technologies to be developed. Among these techniques is permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology, which allows groundwater to pass through a buried porous barrier that either captures the contaminants or breaks them down. And although this approach is gaining popularity, there are few references available on the subject. Until now. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Sustainable Groundwater Remediation brings together the information required to plan, design/model, and apply a successful, cost-effective, and sustainable PRB technology. With contributions from pioneers in this area, the book covers state-of-the-art information on PRB technology. It details design criteria, predictive modeling, and application to contaminants beyond petroleum hydrocarbons, including inorganics and radionuclides. The text also examines implementation stages such as the initial feasibility assessment, laboratory treatability studies (including column studies), estimation of PRB design parameters, and development of a long-term monitoring network for the performance evaluation of the barrier. It also outlines the predictive tools required for life cycle analysis and cost/performance assessment. A review of current PRB technology and its applications, this book includes case studies that exemplify the concepts discussed. It helps you determine when to recommend PRB, what information is needed from the site investigation to design it, and what regulatory validation is required.

X-Ray Absorption and X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

X-Ray Absorption and X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy
Theory and Applications

by Jeroen A. van Bokhoven,Carlo Lamberti

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2016-03-21
  • Pages : 890
  • ISBN : 1118844238
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x–ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. This progress includes considerable technological improvements in the design and production of detectors especially with the development and expansion of large-scale synchrotron reactors All this has resulted in improved analytical performance and new applications, as well as in the perspective of a dramatic enhancement in the potential of x–ray based analysis techniques for the near future. This comprehensive two-volume treatise features articles that explain the phenomena and describe examples of X–ray absorption and emission applications in several fields, including chemistry, biochemistry, catalysis, amorphous and liquid systems, synchrotron radiation, and surface phenomena. Contributors explain the underlying theory, how to set up X–ray absorption experiments, and how to analyze the details of the resulting spectra. X-Ray Absorption and X-ray Emission Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications: Combines the theory, instrumentation and applications of x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies which offer unique diagnostics to study almost any object in the Universe. Is the go-to reference book in the subject for all researchers across multi-disciplines since intense beams from modern sources have revolutionized x-ray science in recent years Is relevant to students, postdocurates and researchers working on x-rays and related synchrotron sources and applications in materials, physics, medicine, environment/geology, and biomedical materials

Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics

Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics
A Book

by Pedro A. Sanchez

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2018-11-30
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1316812073
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook expands on the first edition to include advances made in the last four decades, bringing the topic completely up to date. The book addresses critical issues such as whether humanity can feed itself, and whether it can do so in environmentally sound and sustainable ways. Written from agronomic, environmental, and ecological standpoints, the textbook employs a multidisciplinary approach, including policymaking and plant genetic improvements, as well as ecosystem services, climate change, biodiversity, sustainability and resilience. New chapters in this second edition focus on organic carbon in soil, soil biology, soils in relation to livestock production and forestry, and agroforestry. The new edition will again be the go-to textbook for courses on tropical soils, and a reference textbook for soil and agricultural scientists and development professionals working in the tropics.

Nature's Nanostructures

Nature's Nanostructures
A Book

by Amanda S. Barnard,Haibo Guo

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-02-02
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 9814316822
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Natural nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are all around us, which inevitably leads to these questions: What are these natural nanomaterials made of? Where can we find them? What can they do? Answering these questions will facilitate new and environmentally friendly ways of creating and manipulating nanoscale materials for the next generation of new technologies. A truly multidisciplinary resource, this book brings together studies from astronomy, physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering, geology and geophysics, environmental science, agricultural science, entomology, molecular biology, and health and provides an invaluable resource for learning how various scientists approach similar problems.

Pesticides

Pesticides
Evaluation of Environmental Pollution

by Hamir S. Rathore,Leo M.L. Nollet

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-04-11
  • Pages : 662
  • ISBN : 1439836256
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Pesticides play an important role in controlling pests that carry diseases and threaten crop production. In recent years, however, there has been increased concern about the adverse impacts of pesticides and their degradation products on public health and the environment. A considerable amount of work is being done to develop nonchemical methods of

Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy of Environmental and Biological Samples

Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy of Environmental and Biological Samples
A Book

by Julia Sedlmair

  • Publisher : Universitätsverlag Göttingen
  • Release : 2011
  • Pages : 134
  • ISBN : 3863950364
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Geomechanics from Micro to Macro

Geomechanics from Micro to Macro
A Book

by Kenichi Soga,Krishna Kumar,Giovanna Biscontin,Matthew Kuo

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2014-08-26
  • Pages : 1700
  • ISBN : 1315737329
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Geomechanics from Micro to Macro contains 268 papers presented at the International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro and Macro (IS-Cambridge, UK, 1-3 September 2014). The symposium created a forum for the dissemination of new advances in the micro-macro relations of geomaterial behaviour and its modelling. The papers on experimental investigati

Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils

Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils
A Book

by H. Magdi Selim,William L. Kingery

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2003-03-26
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN : 0203009606
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The hydrological and geochemical interactions between clay minerals and organic matter in soils directly influence the reaction, behavior, and mobility of heavy metals in soils. Geochemical and Hydrological Reactivity of Heavy Metals in Soils is one of few books that comprehensively illustrates this cause-and-effect relationship. It highlights anal

Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment
A Book

by Alexandros I. Stefanakis

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2018-08-20
  • Pages : 584
  • ISBN : 1119268346
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A groundbreaking book on the application of the economic and environmentally effective treatment of industrial wastewater Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment contains a review of the state-of-the-art applications of constructed wetland technology for industrial wastewater treatment. This green technology offers many economic, environmental, and societal advantages. The text examines the many unique uses and the effectiveness of constructed wetlands for the treatment of complex and heavily polluted wastewater from various industrial sources. The editor — a noted expert in the field — and the international author team (93 authors from 22 countries) present vivid examples of the current state of constructed wetlands in the industrial sector. The text is filled with international case studies and research outcomes and covers a wide range of applications of these sustainable systems including facilities such as the oil and gas industry, agro-industries, paper mills, pharmaceutical industry, textile industry, winery, brewery, sludge treatment and much more. The book reviews the many system setups, examines the different removal and/or transformational processes of the various pollutants and explores the overall effectiveness of this burgeoning technology. This important resource: Offers the first, groundbreaking text on constructed wetlands use for industrial wastewater treatment Provides a single reference with summarized information and the state-of-the-art knowledge of the use of Constructed Wetlands in the industrial sector through case studies, research outcomes and review chapters Covers a range of industrial applications such as hydrocarbons/oil and gas industry, food and beverage, wood and leather processing, agro-industries, pharmaceuticals and many others Includes best practices drawn by a collection of international case studies Presents the latest technological developments in the industry Written for civil and environmental engineers, sustainable wastewater/water managers in industry and government, Constructed Wetlands for Industrial Wastewater Treatment is the first book to offer a comprehensive review of the set-up and effectiveness of constructed wetlands for a wide range of industrial applications to highlight the diverse economic and environmental benefits this technology brings to the industry.

Water Flow, Solute and Heat Transfer in Groundwater

Water Flow, Solute and Heat Transfer in Groundwater
A Book

by Alexander Yakirevich

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2021-01-06
  • Pages : 236
  • ISBN : 3039368966
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Groundwater is an essential and vital water resource for drinking water production, agricultural irrigation, and industrial processes. Having a better understanding of physical and chemical processes in aquifers enables more reliable decisions and reduces investments concerning water management. This Special Issue on “Water Flow, Solute, and Heat Transfer, in Groundwater” of Water focuses on the recent advances in groundwater dynamics, and it includes high-quality papers that cover a wide range of issues on different aspects related to groundwater: protection from contamination, recharge, heat transfer, hydraulic parameters estimation, well hydraulics, microbial community, colloid transport, and mathematical models. This integrative volume aims to transfer knowledge to hydrologists, hydraulic engineers, and water resources planners, who are engaged in the sustainable development of groundwater resources.

Handbook of Soil Sciences

Handbook of Soil Sciences
Resource Management and Environmental Impacts, Second Edition

by Pan Ming Huang,Yuncong Li,Malcolm E. Sumner

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2011-11-17
  • Pages : 830
  • ISBN : 1439803072
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for construction and manufacturing. To develop lasting solutions to the challenges of balanced use and stewardship of the Earth, we require a fundamental understanding of soil—from its elastic, porous three-phase system to its components, processes, and reactions. Handbook of Soil Sciences: Resource Management and Environmental Impacts, Second Edition is the second of two volumes that form a comprehensive reference on the discipline of soil science. Completely revised and updated to reflect the current state of knowledge, this volume covers interfacial interactions between the physical, chemical, and biological regimes within the soil; the factors that control the availability of plant nutrients and microelements; interdisciplinary aspects of soil science, including salinity, sodicity, and soil erosion; and soil databases for assessing worldwide soil resources. Critical elements addressed in each section include: Descriptions of concepts and theories Definitions, approaches, methodologies, and procedures Data in tabular and figure format Extensive references This cohesive handbook provides a thorough understanding of soil science principles and practices based on a rigorous, complete, and up-to-date treatment of the subject matter compiled by leading scientists. It is a resource rich in data, offering professional soil scientists, agronomists, engineers, ecologists, biologists, naturalists, and students their first point of entry into a particular aspect of the soil sciences.

Handbook of Soil Sciences (Two Volume Set)

Handbook of Soil Sciences (Two Volume Set)
A Book

by Pan Ming Huang,Yuncong Li,Malcolm E. Sumner

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2018-10-03
  • Pages : 2272
  • ISBN : 1439803048
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An evolving, living organic/inorganic covering, soil is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere above, the biosphere within, and the geology below. It acts as an anchor for roots, a purveyor of water and nutrients, a residence for a vast community of microorganisms and animals, a sanitizer of the environment, and a source of raw materials for co