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Systems Evolutionary Biology

Systems Evolutionary Biology
Biological Network Evolution Theory, Stochastic Evolutionary Game Strategies, and Applications to Systems Synthetic Biology

by Bor-Sen Chen

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2018-02-03
  • Pages : 390
  • ISBN : 0128140739
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Systems Evolutionary Biology: Biological Network Evolution Theory, Stochastic Evolutionary Game Strategies, and Applications to Systems Synthetic Biology discusses the evolutionary game theory and strategies of nonlinear stochastic biological networks under random genetic variations and environmental disturbances and their application to systematic synthetic biology design. The book provides more realistic stochastic biological system models to mimic the real biological systems in evolutionary process and then introduces network evolvability, stochastic evolutionary game theory and strategy based on nonlinear stochastic networks in evolution. Readers will find remarkable, revolutionary information on genetic evolutionary biology that be applied to economics, engineering and bioscience. Explains network fitness, network evolvability and network robustness of biological networks from the systematic perspective Discusses the evolutionary noncooperative and cooperative game strategies of biological networks Offers detailed diagrams to help readers understand biological networks, their systematic behaviors and the simulational results of evolutionary biological networks Includes examples in every chapter with computational simulation to illustrate the solution procedure of evolutionary theory, strategy and results

Evolutionary Systems Biology

Evolutionary Systems Biology
A Book

by Orkun S. Soyer

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-07-23
  • Pages : 458
  • ISBN : 1461435676
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The book aims to introduce the reader to the emerging field of Evolutionary Systems Biology, which approaches classical systems biology questions within an evolutionary framework. An evolutionary approach might allow understanding the significance of observed diversity, uncover “evolutionary design principles” and extend predictions made in model organisms to others. In addition, evolutionary systems biology can generate new insights into the adaptive landscape by combining molecular systems biology models and evolutionary simulations. This insight can enable the development of more detailed mechanistic evolutionary hypotheses.

Evolutionary Biology

Evolutionary Biology
A Book

by Max K. Hecht

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 665
  • ISBN : 1461569567
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The first volume of Evolutionary Bio/ogy was published eleven years ago. Since that time eleven volumes and one supplement have appeared. As stated in earlier prefaces, we are continuing the focus of this series on critical reviews, commentaries, original papers, and controversies in evolu tionary biology. lt is our aim to publish papers primarily of greater length than normally published by society journals and quarterlies. We therefore invite colleagues to submit chapters that fall within the focus and standards of Evolutionary Bio/ogy. The Editors vii Contents 1. Precambrian Evolution of Photosynthetic and Respiratory Organisms lohn M. 0/son Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Basic Assumptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Photosynthetic Energy Conversion and Electron Transport . . . . . . . 6 Oxygen-Evolving Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Photosynthetic Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Photoassimilation and Cyclic Electron Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . Acetate Assimilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . The Common Ancestor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . . . . Chlorophyll. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quinone................................................ 19 Linear Electron Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . Light-Harvesting Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . . . Evolution of Photosynthetic Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . Purpie and Green Bacteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . . Evolution of Blue-Green Algae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . . Weak Electron Donors for the Protoalgae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . Evolution of Respiration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . . . . . General Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Molecular Structure and Protein Variation within and among Populations Richard K. Koehn and Waller F. Eanes Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Molecular Properlies and Structural Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 . . . . Amino Acid Composition and Quaternary Structure . . . . . . . . 46 . . Protomer Size and Quaternary Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 . . . . . ix X Contents Enzyme Polymorphism and Quaternary Structure . . . . . . . . . . . 50 . . . Enzyme Polymorphism and Subunit Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 . . . . . . Data and Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 . . . . . . . . . . . Drosophila Enzyme Polymorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 . . . . . . . Human Enzyme Polymorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 . . . . . . . . Enzyme Polymorphism: Structure and Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 . . . . .

Systems Evolutionary Biology of Waddington's Canalization and Genetic Assimilation

Systems Evolutionary Biology of Waddington's Canalization and Genetic Assimilation
A Book

by Alexander V. Spirov

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2018
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In recent years, there has been growing interest in computer modeling of the evolution of gene and cell regulatory networks, in general, and in computational studies of the classic ideas of Baldwin, Schmalhausen, Waddington, and followers, in particular. Two related aspects of Waddington's evolutionary theories are the concepts of canalization and of genetic assimilation. Canalization is associated with the robust development of an individual to diverse perturbations and noise, though, when fluctuations in developmental factors exceed a particular limit, the normal developmental trajectory can be "thrown out" of the robust canal, resulting in an altered phenotype. If selective pressure favors the new phenotype, an initial individual loss of canalization can lead to phenotypic changes in the population (with canalization then becoming established for the new phenotype). Genetic assimilation is the subsequent genetic fixing of the new trait in the population. Recent experimental and theoretical works have established a quantitative basis for these classic concepts of Waddington; this chapter will review these new developments in systems evolutionary biology.

Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware

Evolvable Systems: From Biology to Hardware
7th International Conference, ICES 2007, Wuhan, China, September 21-23, 2007, Proceedings

by Lishan Kang,Yong Liu

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-08-28
  • Pages : 446
  • ISBN : 3540746250
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Evolvable Systems, ICES 2007, held in Wuhan, China, in September 2007. The 41 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 123 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on digital hardware evolution, analog hardware evolution, bio-inspired systems, mechanical hardware evolution, evolutionary design, evolutionary algorithms in hardware design, and hardware implementation of evolutionary algorithms.

Foundations of Complex-system Theories

Foundations of Complex-system Theories
In Economics, Evolutionary Biology, and Statistical Physics

by Sunny Y. Auyang

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 1998
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9780521778268
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Analyzes approaches to the study of complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences.

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-04-14
  • Pages : 2132
  • ISBN : 0128004266
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process

The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations

The Origins of Evolutionary Innovations
A Theory of Transformative Change in Living Systems

by Andreas Wagner

  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release : 2011-07-14
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN : 0191621862
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The history of life is a nearly four billion year old story of transformative change. This change ranges from dramatic macroscopic innovations such as the evolution of wings or eyes, to a myriad of molecular changes that form the basis of macroscopic innovations. We are familiar with many examples of innovations (qualitatively new phenotypes that provide a critical benefit) but have no systematic understanding of the principles that allow organisms to innovate. This book proposes several such principles as the basis of a theory of innovation, integrating recent knowledge about complex molecular phenotypes with more traditional Darwinian thinking. Central to the book are genotype networks: vast sets of connected genotypes that exist in metabolism and regulatory circuitry, as well as in protein and RNA molecules. The theory can successfully unify innovations that occur at different levels of organization. It captures known features of biological innovation, including the fact that many innovations occur multiple times independently, and that they combine existing parts of a system to new purposes. It also argues that environmental change is important to create biological systems that are both complex and robust, and shows how such robustness can facilitate innovation. Beyond that, the theory can reconcile neutralism and selectionism, as well as explain the role of phenotypic plasticity, gene duplication, recombination, and cryptic variation in innovation. Finally, its principles can be applied to technological innovation, and thus open to human engineering endeavours the powerful principles that have allowed life's spectacular success.

The Biology of Moral Systems

The Biology of Moral Systems
A Book

by Richard D. Alexander

  • Publisher : Transaction Publishers
  • Release : 1987
  • Pages : 301
  • ISBN : 9780202369488
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Despite wide acceptance that the attributes of living creatures have appeared through a cumulative evolutionary process guided chiefly by natural selection, many human activities have seemed analytically inaccessible through such an approach. Prominent evolutionary biologists, for example, have described morality as contrary to the direction of biological evolution, and moral philosophers rarely regard evolution as relevant to their discussions. The Biology of Moral Systems adopts the position that moral questions arise out of conflicts of interest, and that moral systems are ways of using confluences of interest at lower levels of social organization to deal with conflicts of interest at higher levels. Moral systems are described as systems of indirect reciprocity: humans gain and lose socially and reproductively not only by direct transactions, but also by the reputations they gain from the everyday flow of social interactions. The author develops a general theory of human interests, using senescence and effort theory from biology, to help analyze the patterning of human lifetimes. He argues that the ultimate interests of humans are reproductive, and that the concept of morality has arisen within groups because of its contribution to unity in the context, ultimately, of success in intergroup competition. He contends that morality is not easily relatable to universals, and he carries this argument into a discussion of what he calls the greatest of all moral problems, the nuclear arms race. "Crammed with sage observations on moral dilemmas and many reasons why an understanding of evolution based on natural selection will advance thinking in finding practical solutions to our most difficult social problems." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social SciencesRichard D. Alexander is Donald Ward Tinkle Professor of Evolutionary Biology, Department of Biology, and Curator of Insects, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. A recipient of numerous awards, Dr. Alexander is the author of Darwinism and Human Affairs.

The Calculus of Life

The Calculus of Life
Towards a Theory of Life

by Andrés Moya

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-04-13
  • Pages : 95
  • ISBN : 331916970X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book explores the exciting world of theoretical biology and is divided into three sections. The first section examines the roles played by renowned scientists such as Jacob, Monod, Rosen, Turing, von Bertalanffy, Waddington and Woodger in developing the field of theoretical biology. The second section, aided with numerous examples, supports the idea that logic and computing are suitable formal languages to describe and understand biological phenomena. The third and final section is, without doubt, the most intellectually challenging and endeavors to show the possible paths we could take to compute a cell - the basic unit of life - or the conditions required for a predictive theory of biological evolution; ultimately, a theory of life in the light of modern Systems Biology. The work aims to show that modern biology is closer than ever to making Goethe's dream come true and that we have reached a point where synthetic and analytical traditions converge to shed light on the living being as a whole.

Microorganisms as Model Systems for Studying Evolution

Microorganisms as Model Systems for Studying Evolution
A Book

by Robert Mortlock

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 326
  • ISBN : 1468448447
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The microorganisms present on the earth today possess a vast range of metabolic activities and are often able to demonstrate their surprising versatility by gaining both new enzyme activities and new metabolic path ways through mutations. It is generally assumed that the earliest micro organisms were very limited in their metabolic abilities, but as time passed they gradually expanded their range of enzymatic activities and increased both their biosynthetic and catabolic capacity. It is also believed that these primitive microorganisms increased the amount of genetic material they possessed by duplicating their existing genes and possibly by ac quiring genetic material from other organisms. A small group of scientists has been exploring the means by which existing microorganisms are capable of mutating to expand their bio chemical abilities. In recent years, more attention has been focused on this type of research, sometimes called "evolution in a test tube." The recent advances in biotechnology and modern techniques of genetic trans fer have generated new interest in the methods by which a microorgan ism's metabolic activities can be improved or deliberately changed in some specific manner.

Evolutionary Instability

Evolutionary Instability
Logical and Material Aspects of a Unified Theory of Biosocial Evolution

by Gebhard Geiger

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 167
  • ISBN : 3642751717
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The recent sociobiology debate has raised fundamental and previously unresolved conceptual problems. Evolutionary Instability - Logical and Material Aspects of a Unified Theory of Biosocial Evolution - offers ap- proaches for their solution. The scientific applications comprise the dynamics and evolutionary instability of hierarchically organized systems, especially systems of interacting behavioural phenotypes in animals and man. The technical apparatus is thoroughly explained in intuitive terms within the text, and illustrated by numerous familiar examples and graphical representations, supplemented by an informal summary and discussion. The analyses offer new theoretical perspectives to such diverse fields as philosophy of science, evolutionary biology, general system theory and sociology.

Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences

Reductionism and Systems Theory in the Life Sciences
Some Problems and Perspectives

by Paul Hoyningen-Huene,Franz M. Wuketits

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 190
  • ISBN : 9400910037
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The present volume aims at giving a discussion ot the problems ot reductionism in contemporary life sciences. It contains six papers which deals with reduction/reductionism in different fields ot biological research. Also, the holistic perspective, 1. e. the systems view, is discussed in some ot the papers. The message ot this discussion Is that - whereas reductionism is indeed an important strategy - the systems approach is needed. It is argued by some ot the authors that organisms are complex systems and not just heaps of molecules, 50 that the analytical method does not suffice. Recent developments in systems theory offer the possibility to install a more comprehensive view ot living systems what can be seen particularly in the field ot evolutionary biology. It is true that any organismic activity is molecular, this is to say that it is based on molecular mechanisms. But it is also true that the whole organism displays certain patterns ot behavior which are not just molecular. Any organism can be described as a system ot different levels ot organization different levels ot order and complexity - and it is important, theretore, to study all ot the organizational levels and to see their peculiarities. It should be obvious, however, that there is not one problem ot reduction/reductionism, but that there are many problems linked together and that these problems appear at different levels ot biological research and bio philosophical reflections.

Evolutionary Biology from Concept to Application

Evolutionary Biology from Concept to Application
A Book

by Pierre Pontarotti

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-06-20
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 3540789936
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Every biological system is the outcome of its evolution; therefore, the deciphering of its evolutionary history is of tremendous importance to understand the biology of a system. Since 1997 scientists of different disciplines have held an annual "Evolutionary Biology Meeting" at Marseille (France) in order to discuss their research developments, exchange ideas and start collaborations. Consisting of the most representative talks of the 11th meeting, this book provides an up-to-date overview of evolutionary concepts and how these concepts can be applied to a better understanding of various biological aspects. It is divided into the following four parts: Modelization of Evolution - Concepts in Evolutionary Biology - Knowledge - Applied Evolutionary Biology. This book is an invaluable source of information not only for evolutionary biologists, but also for biologists in general.

A Legacy for Living Systems

A Legacy for Living Systems
Gregory Bateson as Precursor to Biosemiotics

by Jesper Hoffmeyer

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2008-02-01
  • Pages : 290
  • ISBN : 9781402067068
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Gregory Bateson’s contribution to 20th century thinking has appealed to scholars from a wide range of fields dealing in one way or another with aspects of communication and epistemology. A number of his insights were taken up and developed further in anthropology, psychology, evolutionary biology and communication theory. But the large, trans-disciplinary synthesis that, in his own mind, was his major contribution to science received little attention from the mainstream scientific communities. This book represents a major attempt to revise this deficiency. Scholars from ecology, biochemistry, evolutionary biology, cognitive science, anthropology and philosophy discuss how Bateson's thinking might lead to a fruitful reframing of central problems in modern science. Most important perhaps, Bateson's bioanthropology is shown to play a key role in developing the set of ideas explored in the new field of biosemiotics. The idea that organismic life is indeed basically semiotic or communicative lies at the heart of the biosemiotic approach to the study of life. The only book of its kind, this volume provides a key resource for the quickly-growing substratum of scholars in the biosciences, philosophy and medicine who are seeking an elegant new approach to exploring highly complex systems.

Functional Coherence of Molecular Networks in Bioinformatics

Functional Coherence of Molecular Networks in Bioinformatics
A Book

by Mehmet Koyutürk,Shankar Subramaniam,Ananth Grama

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2011-09-22
  • Pages : 228
  • ISBN : 9781461403203
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Molecular networks provide descriptions of the organization of various biological processes, including cellular signaling, metabolism, and genetic regulation. Knowledge on molecular networks is commonly used for systems level analysis of biological function; research and method development in this area has grown tremendously in the past few years. This book will provide a detailed review of existing knowledge on the functional characterization of biological networks. In 15 chapters authored by an international group of prolific systems biology and bioinformatics researchers, it will organize, conceptualize, and summarize the existing core of research results and computational methods on understanding biological function from a network perspective.

Creative Evolutionary Systems

Creative Evolutionary Systems
A Book

by David W. Corne,Peter J. Bentley

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2001-07-25
  • Pages : 576
  • ISBN : 0080503373
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The use of evolution for creative problem solving is one of the most exciting and potentially significant areas in computer science today. Evolutionary computation is a way of solving problems, or generating designs, using mechanisms derived from natural evolution. This book concentrates on applying important ideas in evolutionary computation to creative areas, such as art, music, architecture, and design. It shows how human interaction, new representations, and approaches such as open-ended evolution can extend the capabilities of evolutionary computation from optimization of existing solutions to innovation and the generation of entirely new and original solutions. This book takes a fresh look at creativity, exploring what it is and how the actions of evolution can resemble it. Examples of novel evolved solutions are presented in a variety of creative disciplines. The editors have compiled contributions by leading researchers in each discipline. If you are a savvy and curious computing professional, a computer-literate artist, musician or designer, or a specialist in evolutionary computation and its applications, you will find this a fascinating survey of the most interesting work being done in the area today. * Explores the use of evolutionary computation to generate novel creations including contemporary melodies, photo-realistic faces, jazz music in collaboration with a human composer, architectural designs, working electronic circuits, novel aircraft maneuvers, two- and three-dimensional art, and original proteins. * Presents resulting designs in black-and-white and color illustrations. * Includes a twin-format audio/CD-ROM with evolved music and hands-on activities for the reader, including evolved images, animations, and source-code related to the text. * Describes in full the methods used so that readers with sufficient skill and interest can replicate the work and extend it. * Is written for a general computer science audience, providing coherent and unified treatment across multiple disciplines.

Inheritance Systems and the Extended Synthesis

Inheritance Systems and the Extended Synthesis
A Book

by Eva Jablonka,Marion Lamb

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2020-05-31
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 1108607381
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Current knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and symbolic systems of inheritance requires a revision and extension of the mid-twentieth-century, gene-based, 'Modern Synthesis' version of Darwinian evolutionary theory. We present the case for this by first outlining the history that led to the neo-Darwinian view of evolution. In the second section we describe and compare different types of inheritance, and in the third discuss the implications of a broad view of heredity for various aspects of evolutionary theory. We end with an examination of the philosophical and conceptual ramifications of evolutionary thinking that incorporates multiple inheritance systems.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance
The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution

by Eugene V. Koonin

  • Publisher : FT Press
  • Release : 2011-06-23
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN : 9780132623179
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

The Evolution of Adaptive Systems

The Evolution of Adaptive Systems
The General Theory of Evolution

by James Patrick Brock

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2000-07-12
  • Pages : 642
  • ISBN : 0080542468
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The data of evolutionary biology have changed in a very radical way in recent years, the most significant input to this revolution being the advances made in developmental genetics. Another recent development is a noticeable shift away from extreme specialization in evolutionary biology. In this, we are perhaps to be reminded of George Gaylord Simpson's comments: "evolution is an incredibly complex but at the same time integrated and unitary process." The main objective of this book is to illustrate how natural adaptive systems evolve as a unity--with the particular objective of identifying and merging several special theories of evolution within the framework of a single general theory. The Evolution of Adaptive Systems provides an interdisciplinary overview of the general theory of evolution from the standpoint of the dynamic behavior of natural adaptive systems. The approach leads to a radically new fusion of the diverse disciplines of evolutionary biology, serving to resolve the considerable degree of conflict existing between different schools of contemporary thought. The book is a timely volume written by a natural historian with a broad view of biology The author draws examples from a large range of organisms from many different habitats and niches where interesting adaptations have evolved Probes deeply into mechanisms of evolution such as developmental genetics, morphogenesis, chromosome structure, and cladogenesis Clear definition of terms, with illustrations visualizing the main theoretical structures, and point-by-point summaries clearly stating the principal conclusions