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The Auditory System and Human Sound-Localization Behavior

The Auditory System and Human Sound-Localization Behavior
A Book

by John van Opstal

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-03-29
  • Pages : 436
  • ISBN : 0128017252
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Auditory System and Human Sound-Localization Behavior provides a comprehensive account of the full action-perception cycle underlying spatial hearing. It highlights the interesting properties of the auditory system, such as its organization in azimuth and elevation coordinates. Readers will appreciate that sound localization is inherently a neuro-computational process (it needs to process on implicit and independent acoustic cues). The localization problem of which sound location gave rise to a particular sensory acoustic input cannot be uniquely solved, and therefore requires some clever strategies to cope with everyday situations. The reader is guided through the full interdisciplinary repertoire of the natural sciences: not only neurobiology, but also physics and mathematics, and current theories on sensorimotor integration (e.g. Bayesian approaches to deal with uncertain information) and neural encoding. Quantitative, model-driven approaches to the full action-perception cycle of sound-localization behavior and eye-head gaze control Comprehensive introduction to acoustics, systems analysis, computational models, and neurophysiology of the auditory system Full account of gaze-control paradigms that probe the acoustic action-perception cycle, including multisensory integration, auditory plasticity, and hearing impaired

Cross-sensory Calibration of Spatial Hearing

Cross-sensory Calibration of Spatial Hearing
A Book

by Marcel Peter Zwiers

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 9789090168739
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Auditory Cortex

The Auditory Cortex
A Book

by Jeffery A. Winer,Christoph E. Schreiner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2010-12-02
  • Pages : 715
  • ISBN : 9781441900746
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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There has been substantial progress in understanding the contributions of the auditory forebrain to hearing, sound localization, communication, emotive behavior, and cognition. The Auditory Cortex covers the latest knowledge about the auditory forebrain, including the auditory cortex as well as the medial geniculate body in the thalamus. This book will cover all important aspects of the auditory forebrain organization and function, integrating the auditory thalamus and cortex into a smooth, coherent whole. Volume One covers basic auditory neuroscience. It complements The Auditory Cortex, Volume 2: Integrative Neuroscience, which takes a more applied/clinical perspective.

Neural Mechanisms of Spatial Stream Segregation Along the Ascending Auditory Pathway

Neural Mechanisms of Spatial Stream Segregation Along the Ascending Auditory Pathway
A Book

by Justin Daniel Yao

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN : 9781339528687
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In a complex auditory scene, listeners are capable of disentangling multiple competing sequences of sounds that originate from distinct sources. This process is referred to as "stream segregation", where each "stream" represents the perception of a sound sequence from a particular source. Spatial separation of sound sources facilitates the recognition of multiple sequences of sounds (i.e., multiple "streams") as belonging to distinct sources. Several neurophysiological studies in laboratory animals have shown that perceptual streams are represented by distinct mutually-synchronized neural populations in the auditory cortex. However, the mechanisms leading to those cortical responses are unknown. This dissertation explores the neural substrates and mechanisms of spatial stream segregation ("SSS") at several stages in the ascending auditory pathway.We recorded in vivo extracellular spike activity from neurons along different stations of the ascending auditory system of the anesthetized rat, from the midbrain, thalamus, and cortex. Several novel observations were made: (1) The rat primary auditory cortex (area A1) was exclusively tuned to the contralateral hemifield and was level-tolerant across a 30-dB range of sound levels. (2) Level-tolerant contralateral hemifield spatial sensitivity arises independently along the tectal and lemniscal pathways, highlighting two parallel brainstem pathways for spatial hearing. (3) A linear discriminator analysis of cortical spike counts exhibited high spatial acuity for near-midline sounds and poor discrimination for off-midline locations, which is consistent with previous findings describing the rat's sound localization behavior. (4) Under stimulus conditions at which human listeners report SSS, neural SSS is weak in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), it appears in the nucleus of the brachium of the IC (BIN) and in about two thirds of neurons in the ventral MGB (MGBv), and is prominent in A1. Cortical SSS reflects the spatial sensitivity of neurons enhanced by forward suppression. (5) GABA receptor blockers showed no change on cortical forward suppression, suggesting that it does not result from GABAergic inhibition but might reflect synaptic depression at the thalamocortical synapse. Overall, these findings provide substantial evidence that auditory streams are increasingly segregated along the ascending auditory pathways that culminate in distinct mutually-synchronized neural populations in the auditory cortex.

Rodent Bioacoustics

Rodent Bioacoustics
A Book

by Micheal L. Dent,Richard R. Fay,Arthur N. Popper

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2018-08-28
  • Pages : 221
  • ISBN : 3319924958
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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By far, the most widely used subjects in psychological and biological research today are rodents. Although rats and mice comprise the largest group of animals used in research, there are over 2,000 species and 27 families of rodents, living all over the world (except Antarctica) and thriving in many different habitat types. The vast environmental diversity that rodents face has led to numerous adaptations for communication, including vocalizing and hearing in both the sonic and ultrasonic ranges, effectively communicating in the open air and underground, and using vocalizations for coordinating sexual behavior, for mother-pup interactions, and for signaling an alarming situation to the group. Some rodent species have even developed foot drumming behaviors for communication. Comparative studies from around the globe, using both field and laboratory methodologies, reveal the vast differences in acoustic communication behavior across many rodent species. Some rodents are amenable to training and have been domesticated and bred purely for research purposes. Since the early 1900s, rats and mice have been indispensable to research programs around the world. Thus, much of what we know about hearing and vocalizations in rodents come from these two species tested in the laboratory. The sequencing of the mouse genome in 2002, followed by the rat genome in 2004, only increased the utility of these animals as research subjects since genetically engineered strains mimicking human diseases and disorders could be developed more easily. In the laboratory, rats and mice are used as models for human communication and hearing disorders and are involved in studies on hearing loss and prevention, hormones, and auditory plasticity, to name a few. We know that certain strains of mice retain hearing better than others throughout their lifespan, and about the genes involved in those differences. We know about the effects of noise, hormones, sex, aging, and circadian rhythms on hearing in mice and other rodents. We also know about normal hearing in many families of rodents, including the perception of simple and complex stimuli and the anatomy and physiology of hearing and sound localization. The importance of acoustic communication to these animals, as well as the significance of these mammals to biomedical research, are summarized in the chapters.

Neural Correlates of Auditory Cognition

Neural Correlates of Auditory Cognition
A Book

by Yale E. Cohen,Arthur Popper,Richard R. Fay

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-10-20
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 146142349X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Hearing and communication present a variety of challenges to the nervous system. To be heard and understood, a communication signal must be transformed from a time-varying acoustic waveform to a perceptual representation to an even more abstract representation that integrates memory stores with semantic/referential information. Finally, this complex, abstract representation must be interpreted to form categorical decisions that guide behavior. Did I hear the stimulus? From where and whom did it come? What does it tell me? How can I use this information to plan an action? All of these issues and questions underlie auditory cognition. Since the early 1990s, there has been a re-birth of studies that test the neural correlates of auditory cognition with a unique emphasis on the use of awake, behaving animals as model. Continuing today, how and where in the brain neural correlates of auditory cognition are formed is an intensive and active area of research. Importantly, our understanding of the role that the cortex plays in hearing has the potential to impact the next generation of cochlear- and brainstem-auditory implants and consequently help those with hearing impairments. Thus, it is timely to produce a volume that brings together this exciting literature on the neural correlates of auditory cognition. This volume compliments and extends many recent SHAR volumes such as Sound Source Localization (2005) Auditory Perception of Sound Sources (2007), and Human Auditory Cortex (2010). For example, in many of these volumes, similar issues are discussed such as auditory-object identification and perception with different emphases: in Auditory Perception of Sound Sources, authors discuss the underlying psychophysics/behavior, whereas in the Human Auditory Cortex, fMRI data are presented. The unique contribution of the proposed volume is that the authors will integrate both of these factors to highlight the neural correlates of cognition/behavior. Moreover, unlike other these other volumes, the neurophysiological data will emphasize the exquisite spatial and temporal resolution of single-neuron [as opposed to more coarse fMRI or MEG data] responses in order to reveal the elegant representations and computations used by the nervous system.

Auditory Development in Infancy

Auditory Development in Infancy
A Book

by Sandra E. Trehub,Bruce Schneider

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-11-21
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN : 1475793405
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The small but growing body of information about auditory processes in infancy is a tribute to the ingenuity and persistence of investigators in this realm. Undeter red by the frequent expressions of boredom, rage, and indifference in their subjects, these investigators nevertheless continue to seek answers to the intrigu ing but difficult questions about the course of auditory development. In the spring of 1981, a group of leading scholars and researchers in audi tion gathered to discuss the topic, Auditory Development in Infancy, at the 11th annual psychology symposium at Erindale College, University of Toronto. They came from both sides of the Atlantic and from various disciplines, including audiology, neurology, physics, and psychology. They shared their views on theory and data, as well as their perspectives from the laboratory and clinic. One unexpected bonus was an unusually distinguished audience of researchers and clinicians who contributed to lively discussion within and beyond the formal sessions.

Binaural Hearing

Binaural Hearing
With 93 Illustrations

by Ruth Y. Litovsky

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 3030571009
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Auditory System at the Cocktail Party

The Auditory System at the Cocktail Party
A Book

by John C. Middlebrooks,Jonathan Z. Simon,Arthur N. Popper,Richard R. Fay

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2017-03-19
  • Pages : 291
  • ISBN : 3319516620
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Auditory System at the Cocktail Party is a rather whimsical title that points to the very serious challenge faced by listeners in most everyday environments: how to hear out sounds of interest amid a cacophony of competing sounds. The volume presents the mechanisms for bottom-up object formation and top-down object selection that the auditory system employs to meet that challenge. Ear and Brain Mechanisms for Parsing the Auditory Scene by John C. Middlebrooks and Jonathan Z. Simon Auditory Object Formation and Selection by Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Virginia Best, and Adrian K. C. Lee Energetic Masking and Masking Release by John F. Culling and Michael A. Stone Informational Masking in Speech Recognition by Gerald Kidd, Jr. and H. Steven Colburn Modeling the Cocktail Party Problem by Mounya Elhilali Spatial Stream Segregation by John C. Middlebrooks Human Auditory Neuroscience and the Cocktail Party Problem by Jonathan Z. Simon Infants and Children at the Cocktail Party by Lynne Werner Older Adults at the Cocktail Party by M. Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, Claude Alain, and Bruce A. Schneider Hearing with Cochlear Implants and Hearing Aids in Complex Auditory Scenes by Ruth Y. Litovsky, Matthew J. Goupell, Sara M. Misurelli, and Alan Kan About the Editors: John C. Middlebrooks is a Professor in the Department of Otolaryngology at the University of California, Irvine, with affiliate appointments in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, the Department of Cognitive Sciences, and the Department of Biomedical Engineering. Jonathan Z. Simon is a Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, with joint appointments in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the Department of Biology, and the Institute for Systems Research. Arthur N. Popper is Professor Emeritus and Research Professor in the Department of Biology at the University of Maryland, College Park. Richard R. Fay is Distinguished Research Professor of Psychology at Loyola University, Chicago. About the Series: The Springer Handbook of Auditory Research presents a series of synthetic reviews of fundamental topics dealing with auditory systems. Each volume is independent and authoritative; taken as a set, this series is the definitive resource in the field.

Functional and Clinical Neuroanatomy

Functional and Clinical Neuroanatomy
A Guide for Health Care Professionals

by Jahangir Moini,Pirouz Piran

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-02-21
  • Pages : 770
  • ISBN : 0128174250
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Functional and Clinical Neuroanatomy: A Guide for Health Care Professionals is a comprehensive, yet easy-to read, introduction to neuroanatomy that covers the structures and functions of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems. The book also focuses on the clinical presentation of disease processes involving specific structures. It is the first review of clinical neuroanatomy that is written specifically for nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, medical students and medical assistants who work in the field of neurology. It will also be an invaluable resource for graduate and postgraduate students in neuroscience. With 22 chapters, including two that provide complete neurological examinations and diagnostic evaluations, this book is an ideal resource for health care professionals across a wide variety of disciplines. Written specifically for "mid-level" providers in the field of neurology Provides an up-to-date review of clinical neuroanatomy based on the latest guidelines Provides a logical, step-by-step introduction to neuroanatomy Offers hundreds of full-color figures to illustrate important concepts Highlights key subjects in "Focus On" boxes Includes Section Reviews at critical points in the text of each chapter

Sound Source Localization

Sound Source Localization
A Book

by Richard R. Fay

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2005-07-27
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 9780387241852
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Springer Handbook of Auditory Research presents a series of compreh- sive and synthetic reviews of the fundamental topics in modern auditory - search. The volumes are aimed at all individuals with interests in hearing research including advanced graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and clinical investigators. The volumes are intended to introduce new investigators to important aspects of hearing science and to help established investigators to better understand the fundamental theories and data in ?elds of hearing that they may not normally follow closely. Each volume presents a particular topic comprehensively, and each serves as a synthetic overview and guide to the literature. As such, the chapters present neither exhaustive data reviews nor original research that has not yet appeared in peer-reviewed journals. The volumes focus on topics that have developed a solid data and conceptual foundation rather than on those for which a literature is only beginning to develop. New research areas will be covered on a timely basis in the series as they begin to mature.

The Human Auditory System

The Human Auditory System
Fundamental Organization and Clinical Disorders

by Gastone G. Celesia,Gregory Hickok

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-03-06
  • Pages : 722
  • ISBN : 0444626298
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Human Auditory System: Fundamental Organization and Clinical Disorders provides a comprehensive and focused reference on the neuroscience of hearing and the associated neurological diagnosis and treatment of auditory disorders. This reference looks at this dynamic area of basic research, a multidisciplinary endeavor with contributions from neuroscience, clinical neurology, cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science communications disorders, and psychology, and its dramatic clinical application. A focused reference on the neuroscience of hearing and clinical disorders Covers both basic brain science, key methodologies and clinical diagnosis and treatment of audiology disorders Coverage of audiology across the lifespan from birth to elderly topics

Mathematical Modelling in Motor Neuroscience: State of the Art and Translation to the Clinic, Gaze Orienting Mechanisms and Disease

Mathematical Modelling in Motor Neuroscience: State of the Art and Translation to the Clinic, Gaze Orienting Mechanisms and Disease
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2019-07-18
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN : 0444642552
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Mathematical Modelling in Motor Neuroscience: State of the Art and Translation to the Clinic, Gaze Orienting Mechanisms and Disease, Volume 249, the latest release in the Progress in Brain Research series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on a variety of topics, including Sequential Bayesian updating, Maps and Sensorimotor Transformations for Eye-Head Gaze Shifts: Role of the Midbrain Superior Colliculus, Modeling Gaze Position-Dependent Opsoclonus, Eye Position-Dependent Opsoclonus in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Saccades in Parkinson's disease -- hypometric, slow, and maladaptive, Brainstem Neural Circuits for Fixation and Generation of Saccadic Eye Movements, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Progress in Brain Research series Includes the latest information on mathematical modeling in motor neuroscience

Biomedical Index to PHS-supported Research

Biomedical Index to PHS-supported Research
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1990
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The effect of hearing loss on neural processing

The effect of hearing loss on neural processing

by Jonathan E. Peelle,Arthur Wingfield

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-06-03
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889195406
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Efficient auditory processing requires the rapid integration of transient sensory inputs. This is exemplified in human speech perception, in which long stretches of a complex acoustic signal are typically processed accurately and essentially in real-time. Spoken language thus presents listeners’ auditory systems with a considerable challenge even when acoustic input is clear. However, auditory processing ability is frequently compromised due to congenital or acquired hearing loss, or altered through background noise or assistive devices such as cochlear implants. How does loss of sensory fidelity impact neural processing, efficiency, and health? How does this ultimately influence behavior? This Research Topic explores the neural consequences of hearing loss, including basic processing carried out in the auditory periphery, computations in subcortical nuclei and primary auditory cortex, and higher-level cognitive processes such as those involved in human speech perception. By pulling together data from a variety of disciplines and perspectives, we gain a more complete picture of the acute and chronic consequences of hearing loss for neural functioning.

Psychoacoustic Music Sound Field Synthesis

Psychoacoustic Music Sound Field Synthesis
Creating Spaciousness for Composition, Performance, Acoustics and Perception

by Tim Ziemer

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2019-08-06
  • Pages : 287
  • ISBN : 3030230333
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a broad overview of spaciousness in music theory, from mixing and performance practice, to room acoustics, psychoacoustics and audio engineering, and presents the derivation, implementation and experimental validation of a novel type of spatial audio system. Discussing the physics of musical instruments and the nature of auditory perception, the book enables readers to precisely localize synthesized musical instruments while experiencing their timbral variance and spatial breadth. Offering interdisciplinary insights for novice music enthusiasts and experts in the field of spatial audio, this book is suitable for anyone interested in the study of music and musicology and the application of spatial audio mixing, or those seeking an overview of the state of the art in applied psychoacoustics for spatial audio.

The Technology of Binaural Understanding

The Technology of Binaural Understanding
A Book

by Jens Blauert,Jonas Braasch

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-08-12
  • Pages : 815
  • ISBN : 3030003868
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Sound, devoid of meaning, would not matter to us. It is the information sound conveys that helps the brain to understand its environment. Sound and its underlying meaning are always associated with time and space. There is no sound without spatial properties, and the brain always organizes this information within a temporal–spatial framework. This book is devoted to understanding the importance of meaning for spatial and related further aspects of hearing, including cross-modal inference. People, when exposed to acoustic stimuli, do not react directly to what they hear but rather to what they hear means to them. This semiotic maxim may not always apply, for instance, when the reactions are reflexive. But, where it does apply, it poses a major challenge to the builders of models of the auditory system. Take, for example, an auditory model that is meant to be implemented on a robotic agent for autonomous search-&-rescue actions. Or think of a system that can perform judgments on the sound quality of multimedia-reproduction systems. It becomes immediately clear that such a system needs • Cognitive capabilities, including substantial inherent knowledge • The ability to integrate information across different sensory modalities To realize these functions, the auditory system provides a pair of sensory organs, the two ears, and the means to perform adequate preprocessing of the signals provided by the ears. This is realized in the subcortical parts of the auditory system. In the title of a prior book, the term Binaural Listening is used to indicate a focus on sub-cortical functions. Psychoacoustics and auditory signal processing contribute substantially to this area. The preprocessed signals are then forwarded to the cortical parts of the auditory system where, among other things, recognition, classification, localization, scene analysis, assignment of meaning, quality assessment, and action planning take place. Also, information from different sensory modalities is integrated at this level. Between sub-cortical and cortical regions of the auditory system, numerous feedback loops exist that ultimately support the high complexity and plasticity of the auditory system. The current book concentrates on these cognitive functions. Instead of processing signals, processing symbols is now the predominant modeling task. Substantial contributions to the field draw upon the knowledge acquired by cognitive psychology. The keyword Binaural Understanding in the book title characterizes this shift. Both books, The Technology of Binaural Listening and the current one, have been stimulated and supported by AABBA, an open research group devoted to the development and application of models of binaural hearing. The current book is dedicated to technologies that help explain, facilitate, apply, and support various aspects of binaural understanding. It is organized into five parts, each containing three to six chapters in order to provide a comprehensive overview of this emerging area. Each chapter was thoroughly reviewed by at least two anonymous, external experts. The first part deals with the psychophysical and physiological effects of Forming and Interpreting Aural Objects as well as the underlying models. The fundamental concepts of reflexive and reflective auditory feedback are introduced. Mechanisms of binaural attention and attention switching are covered—as well as how auditory Gestalt rules facilitate binaural understanding. A general blackboard architecture is introduced as an example of how machines can learn to form and interpret aural objects to simulate human cognitive listening. The second part, Configuring and Understanding Aural Space, focuses on the human understanding of complex three-dimensional environments—covering the psychological and biological fundamentals of auditory space formation. This part further addresses the human mechanisms used to process information and interact in complex reverberant environments, such as concert halls and forests, and additionally examines how the auditory system can learn to understand and adapt to these environments. The third part is dedicated to Processing Cross-Modal Inference and highlights the fundamental human mechanisms used to integrate auditory cues with cues from other modalities to localize and form perceptual objects. This part also provides a general framework for understanding how complex multimodal scenes can be simulated and rendered. The fourth part, Evaluating Aural-scene Quality and Speech Understanding, focuses on the object-forming aspects of binaural listening and understanding. It addresses cognitive mechanisms involved in both the understanding of speech and the processing of nonverbal information such as Sound Quality and Quality-of- Experience. The aesthetic judgment of rooms is also discussed in this context. Models that simulate underlying human processes and performance are covered in addition to techniques for rendering virtual environments that can then be used to test these models. The fifth part deals with the Application of Cognitive Mechanisms to Audio Technology. It highlights how cognitive mechanisms can be utilized to create spatial auditory illusions using binaural and other 3D-audio technologies. Further, it covers how cognitive binaural technologies can be applied to improve human performance in auditory displays and to develop new auditory technologies for interactive robots. The book concludes with the application of cognitive binaural technologies to the next generation of hearing aids.

Research Awards Index

Research Awards Index
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1988
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plasticity of the Auditory System

Plasticity of the Auditory System
A Book

by Thomas N. Parks,Edwin W. Rubel,Richard R. Fay

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-03-09
  • Pages : 324
  • ISBN : 1475742193
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The auditory system has a remarkable ability to adjust to an ever-changing environment. The six review chapters that comprise Plasticity of the Central Auditory System cover a spectrum of issues concerning this ability to adapt, defined by the widely applicable term "plasticity". With chapters focusing on the development of the cochlear nucleus, the mammalian superior olivary complex, plasticity in binaural hearing, plasticity in the auditory cortex, neural plasticity in bird songs, and plasticity in the insect auditory system, this volume represents much of the most current research in this field. The volume is thorough enough to stand alone, but is closely related a previous SHAR volume, Development of the Auditory System (Volume 9) by Rubel, Popper, and Fay. The book fully addresses the difficulties, challenges, and complexities of this topic as it applies to the auditory development of a wide variety of species.

Research Grants Index

Research Grants Index
A Book

by National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Division of Research Grants

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1975
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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