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The Changing Alpine Treeline

The Changing Alpine Treeline
The Example of Glacier National Park, MT, USA

by David R. Butler,George P. Malanson,Stephen J. Walsh,Daniel B. Fagre

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2009-03-13
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 9780080957098
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The alpine treeline ecotone (ATE) is an area of transition high on mountains where closed canopy forests from lower elevations give way to the open alpine tundra and rocky expanses above. Alpine tundra is an island biome and its ecotone with forest is subject to change, and like oceanic islands, alpine tundra is subject to invasion – or the upward advance of treeline. The invasion of tundra by trees will have consequences for the tundra biome as invasion does for other island flora and fauna. To examine the invasibility of tundra we take a plant’s-eye-view, wherein the local conditions become extremely important. Among these local conditions, we find geomorphology to be exceptionally important. We concentrate on aspects of microtopography (and microgeomorphology) and microclimate because these are the factors that matter: from the plant’s-eye-view, but we pay attention to multiple scales. At coarse scales, snow avalanches and debris flows are widespread and create “disturbance treelines whose elevation is well below those controlled by climate. At medium scales, turf-banked terraces create tread-and-riser topography that is a difficult landscape for a tree seedling to survive upon because of exposure to wind, dryness, and impenetrable surfaces. At fine scales, turf exfoliation of the fronts of turf-banked risers, and boulders, offer microsites where tree seedlings may find shelter and are able to gain a foothold in the alpine tundra; conversely, however, surfaces of needle-ice pans and frost heaving associated with miniature patterned ground production are associated with sites inimical to seedling establishment or survival. We explicitly consider how local scale processes propagate across scales into landscape patterns. The objective of this book is to examine the controls on change at alpine treeline. All the papers are focused on work done in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Although any one place is limiting, we are able to examine the alpine treeline here in some detail – and an advantage is that the treeline ecotone in Glacier National Park is quite variable in itself due to the underlying variability in geomorphology at multiple scales. This book will provide insights into an important ecological phenomenon with a distinctly geomorphic perspective. The editors collectively have over 100 years of experience in working in geomorphology, biogeography, and ecology. They also have each worked on research in Glacier National Park for several decades. The book will be a reference for a variety of professionals and students, both graduate and undergraduate, with interests in Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Ecology, and Environmental Science. Because of the importance of the alpine treeline ecotone for recreation and aesthetic interests in mountain environments, wildland and park managers will also use this book. * Subject matter: geomorphology at alpine treeline * Expertise of contributors: each editor brings over 25 years of experience in studies of ecotones and geomorphology, and collectively over 100 years of experience in Glacier National Park * Changing alpine treeline examines climate change

Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment

Alpine and Polar Treelines in a Changing Environment
A Book

by Gerhard Wieser

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2020-04-09
  • Pages : 268
  • ISBN : 3039286307
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Concerns have been raised with respect to the state of high-altitude and high-latitude treelines, as they are anticipated to undergo considerable modifications due to global changes, and especially due to climate warming. As high-elevation treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, they are considered to be sensitive to climate warming. As a consequence, in this future, warmer environment, an upward migration of treelines is expected because low air and root-zone temperatures constrain their regeneration and growth. Despite the ubiquity of climate warming, treeline advancement is not a worldwide phenomenon: some treelines have been advancing rapidly, others have responded sluggishly or have remained stable. This variation in responses is attributed to the potential interaction of a continuum of site-related factors that may lead to the occurrence of locally conditioned temperature patterns. Competition amongst species and below-ground resources have been suggested as additional factors explaining the variability in the movement of treelines. This Special Issue (book) is dedicated to the discussion of treeline responses to changing environmental conditions in different areas around the globe.

Alpine Treelines

Alpine Treelines
Functional Ecology of the Global High Elevation Tree Limits

by Christian Körner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-05-26
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 3034803966
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Alpine treelines mark the low-temperature limit of tree growth and occur in mountains world-wide. Presenting a companion to his book Alpine Plant Life, Christian Körner provides a global synthesis of the treeline phenomenon from sub-arctic to equatorial latitudes and a functional explanation based on the biology of trees. The comprehensive text approaches the subject in a multi-disciplinary way by exploring forest patterns at the edge of tree life, tree morphology, anatomy, climatology and, based on this, modelling treeline position, describing reproduction and population processes, development, phenology, evolutionary aspects, as well as summarizing evidence on the physiology of carbon, water and nutrient relations, and stress physiology. It closes with an account on treelines in the past (palaeo-ecology) and a section on global change effects on treelines, now and in the future. With more than 100 illustrations, many of them in colour, the book shows alpine treelines from around the globe and offers a wealth of scientific information in the form of diagrams and tables.

Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry

Wilderness Science in a Time of Change Conference: Wilderness as a place for scientific inquiry
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2000
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Alpine Treelines

Alpine Treelines
Functional Ecology of the Global High Elevation Tree Limits

by Christian Körner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-05-26
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN : 3034803966
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Alpine treelines mark the low-temperature limit of tree growth and occur in mountains world-wide. Presenting a companion to his book Alpine Plant Life, Christian Körner provides a global synthesis of the treeline phenomenon from sub-arctic to equatorial latitudes and a functional explanation based on the biology of trees. The comprehensive text approaches the subject in a multi-disciplinary way by exploring forest patterns at the edge of tree life, tree morphology, anatomy, climatology and, based on this, modelling treeline position, describing reproduction and population processes, development, phenology, evolutionary aspects, as well as summarizing evidence on the physiology of carbon, water and nutrient relations, and stress physiology. It closes with an account on treelines in the past (palaeo-ecology) and a section on global change effects on treelines, now and in the future. With more than 100 illustrations, many of them in colour, the book shows alpine treelines from around the globe and offers a wealth of scientific information in the form of diagrams and tables.

Modeling Snow Water Equivalent at the Alpine Treeline Ecotone Using Vegetation Structure and Topography Variables

Modeling Snow Water Equivalent at the Alpine Treeline Ecotone Using Vegetation Structure and Topography Variables
A Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment ... for the Degree of Master of Science (Natural Resources and Environment) ...

by Christine Alayne Geddes

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2003
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Federal Register

Federal Register
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2012-06
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Alpine Plant Life

Alpine Plant Life
Functional Plant Ecology of High Mountain Ecosystems

by Christian Körner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 343
  • ISBN : 364298018X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Generations of plant scientists have been fascinated by alpine plant lifean ecosystem that experiences dramatic climatic gradients over a very short distance. This comprehensive book examines a wide range of topics including alpine climate and soils, plant distribution and the treeline phenomenon, plant stress and development, global change at high elevation, and the human impact on alpine vegetation. Geographically, the book covers all parts of the world including the tropics.

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research

Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Alpine Biodiversity in Europe

Alpine Biodiversity in Europe
A Book

by Laszlo Nagy,Georg Grabherr,Christian Körner,Desmond B.A. Thompson

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 479
  • ISBN : 3642189679
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, spawned a multitude of pro grammes aimed at assessing, managing and conserving the earth's biological diversity. One important issue addressed at the conference was the mountain environment. A specific feature of high mountains is the so-called alpine zone, i. e. the treeless regions at the uppermost reaches. Though covering only a very small proportion of the land surface, the alpine zone contains a rela tively large number of plants, animals, fungi and microbes which are specifi cally adapted to cold environments. This zone contributes fundamentally to the planet's biodiversity and provides many resources for mountain dwelling as well as lowland people. However, rapid and largely man-made changes are affecting mountain ecosystems, such as soil erosion, losses of habitat and genetic diversity, and climate change, all of which have to be addressed. As stated in the European Community Biodiversity Strategy, "the global scale of biodiversity reduction or losses and the interdependence of different species and ecosystems across national borders demands concerted international action". Managing biodiversity in a rational and sustainable way needs basic knowledge on its qualitative and quantitative aspects at local, regional and global scales. This is particularly true for mountains, which are distributed throughout the world and are indeed hot spots of biodiversity in absolute terms as well as relative to the surrounding lowlands.

Global Change and Mountain Regions

Global Change and Mountain Regions
An Overview of Current Knowledge

by Uli M. Huber,Harald K.M. Bugmann,Mel A. Reasoner

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2006-03-09
  • Pages : 652
  • ISBN : 140203508X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book gives an overview of the state of research in fields pertaining to the detection, understanding and prediction of global change impacts in mountain regions. More than sixty contributions from paleoclimatology, cryospheric research, hydrology, ecology, and development studies are compiled in this volume, each with an outlook on future research directions. The book will interest meteorologists, geologists, botanists and climatologists.

The Diatoms

The Diatoms
Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences

by E. F. Stoermer,John P. Smol

  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release : 2001-07-19
  • Pages : 469
  • ISBN : 9780521004121
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Timely synopsis of applications in environment and industry using ubiquitous microscopic algae.

Arctic Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment

Arctic Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment
A Book

by Jon Børre Ørbaek,Roland Kallenborn,Ingunn Tombre,Else N. Hegseth,Stig Falk-Petersen,Alf H. Hoel

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2007-01-10
  • Pages : 434
  • ISBN : 3540485147
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The European Arctic and Alpine regions are experiencing large environmental changes. These changes may have socio-economic effects if the changes affect the bioproduction, which form the basis for the marine and terrestrial food chains. This uniquely multidisciplinary book presents the various aspects of contemporary environmental changes in Arctic and Alpine Regions.

Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline

Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline
Tree Existence at High Altitudes with Special Reference to the European Alps

by W. Tranquillini

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 140
  • ISBN : 3642671071
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the European Alps the importance of forests as protection against ava lanches and soil erosion is becoming ever clearer with the continuing increase in population and development of tourism. The protective potential of the moun tain forests can currently only be partially realised because a considerable propor tion of high-altitude stands has been destroyed in historical times by man's extensive clearing ofthe forests. The forests still remaining are of limited effec tiveness, due to inadequate density of trees and over-maturity. Considerable efforts, however, are now being made in the Alps and other mountains of the globe to increase the high-altitude forested area through reforestation, to raise depressed timberlines, and to restore remaining protection forests using suit able silvicultural methods to their full protective value. This momentous task, if it is to be successful, must be planned on a sound foundation. An important prerequisite is the assembly of scientific facts con cerning the physical environment in the protection forest zone of mountains, and the course of various life processes of tree species occurring there. Since the introduction of practical field techniques it has been possible to investigate successfully the reaction of trees at various altitudes to recorded factors, and the extent to which they are adapted to the measured situations. Such ecophysio logical studies enable us to recognize the site requirements for individual tree species, and the reasons for the limits of their natural distribution.

Arctic and Alpine Research

Arctic and Alpine Research
A Book

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1997
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Land Use Change and Mountain Biodiversity

Land Use Change and Mountain Biodiversity
A Book

by Eva M. Spehn,Maximo Liberman,Christian Korner

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2006-01-13
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN : 1420002872
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Part of the worldwide biodiversity program DIVERSITAS, the Global Mountain Biodiversity Assessment (GMBA) assesses the biological richness of high-elevation biota. GMBA's focus includes the uppermost forest regions or their substitute rangeland vegetation, the treeline ecotone, and the alpine and nival belts. Providing more than description, the GM

Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland

Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland
A Book

by Randall W. Myster

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-07-10
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN : 1461437970
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Ecotones are dynamic over-lapping boundary areas where major terrestrial biomes meet. As past studies have shown, and as the chapters in this book will illustrate, their structure, size, and scope have changed considerably over the millennia, expanding and shrinking as climate and/or other driving conditions, also changed. Today, however, many of them are changing at a rate not seen for a long time, perhaps largely due to climate change and other human-induced factors. Indeed ecotones are more sensitive to climate change than the biomes on either side, and thus may serve as critical early indicators of future climate change. As ecotones change, they also redefine the limits of the biomes on either side by altering their distributions of species because, in addition to their own endemic species, any ecotone will also have species from both adjoining biomes. Consequently, they may also be places of high levels of species interaction, serving as active evolutionary laboratories, which generate new species that then migrate back into adjacent biomes. Ecotones Between Forest and Grassland explores how these ecotones have changed in the past, how they are changing today, and how they are likely to change in the future. The book includes chapters from around the world with a special focus on South American and Neotropical ecotones.

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

The Oxford Companion to Global Change
A Book

by Master Andrew Goudie,David Cuff,Andrew Goudie,Professor of Geography David Cuff

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 684
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In recent years, global change has become increasingly important in technological, ecological and political spheres. This companion examines the environmental events of recent times, and investigates long-term trends as well as broader issues of global change.

Forest Development in Cold Climates

Forest Development in Cold Climates
A Book

by John Alden,J.Louise Mastrantonio,Soren Ødum

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2013-06-29
  • Pages : 570
  • ISBN : 1489916008
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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As forests decline in temperate and tropical climates, highly-developed countries and those striving for greater economic and social benefits are beginning to utilize marginal forests of high-latitude and mountainous regions for resources to satisfy human needs. The benefits of marginal forests range from purely aesthetic to providing resources for producing many goods and services demanded by a growing world population. Increased demands for forest resources and amenities and recent warming of high latitude climates have generated interest in reforestation and afforestation of marginal habitats in cold regions. Afforestation of treeless landscapes improves the environment for human habitation and provides for land use and economic prosperity. Trees are frequently planted in cold climates to rehabilitate denuded sites, for the amenity of homes and villages, and for wind shelter, recreation, agroforestry, and industrial uses. In addition, forests in cold climates reduce the albedo of the earth's surface in winter, and in summer they are small but significant long-lived sinks for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Finally, growth and reproductive success of forests at their geographic limits are sensitive indices of climatic change. As efforts to adapt forests to cold climates increase, however, new afforestation problems arise and old ones intensify. Austral, northern, and altitudinal tree limits are determined by many different factors. Current hypotheses for high-latitude tree limits are based on low growing-season temperatures that inhibit plant development and reproduction.

Mountain Ecosystems

Mountain Ecosystems
Studies in Treeline Ecology

by Gabriele Broll,Beate Keplin

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2006-01-16
  • Pages : 354
  • ISBN : 9783540273653
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume focuses on interaction between vegetation, relief, climate, soil and fauna in the treeline ecotone, and the effects of climate change and land use in North America and Europe.