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The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life

The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life
A Book

by Josef Neu

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2021-01-18
  • Pages : 160
  • ISBN : 0128206098
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Microbiome in Prenatal and Neonatal Life clarifies that the microbiome in the maternal fetal unit and immediate changes that occur as new microbes are acquired postnatally play major roles in subsequent health and disease. Rapidly developing technologies for multi-omic analyses and systems biology are shifting paradigms in both scientific knowledge and clinical care with regard to this topic. In essence, we are changing the idea that newborns emerge from sterile environments. As such, in-utero colonization may have impacts on the development of immunity and metabolism that, with epigenetic modifications, will lead to diseases in later life. In addition, the microbial profile that develops during and after birth depends on mode of delivery, type of feeding (human milk versus formula), and various other environmental factors to which the newborn is exposed. Discusses the critical nonredundant timeframe in a newborn's life during which many factors drive immune and tissue maturation and influence the susceptibility to immune-mediated and other diseases in adult life Proves that the fetus and uterine membranes are exposed to not only microbes in close proximity but also to microbial products from metabolism of microbes in the mother Shows that since early life periods are a critical window for development, epigenetic and/or immunologic alterations may occur that can affect not only the infant during his/her lifetime but also subsequent generations Gives insight into factors that may affect the newborn microbiome and subsequent development

The Human Microbiome in Early Life

The Human Microbiome in Early Life
Implications to Health and Disease

by Omry Koren,Samuli Rautava

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-09-18
  • Pages : 326
  • ISBN : 0128180986
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Human Microbiome in Early Life: Implications to Health and Disease presents recent research advances that have highlighted the significance of early life, possibly beginning before birth, in the establishment of both the microbiome and its role in health and disease. The book reviews current knowledge on the origins of the human microbiota in early life, presents exposures which may disturb normal microbial colonization, and covers their implications to the risk of disease. Finally, emerging means to modify the early human microbiome to improve health are discussed. Examines the timeline of the human microbiome, from before conception to infancy, with an emphasis on clinical implications Evaluates the effort to understand not only the composition but also the origin of the microbiome Proves the emerging means to modify the human microbiome and particularly ‘the first 1000 days of life’ improve human health and prevent disease Generates resources to facilitate characterization of the human microbiota to further our understanding of how the microbiome impacts human health and disease

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology E-Book
A Book

by Richard A. Polin,Steven H. Abman,David Rowitch,William E. Benitz

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2016-05-11
  • Pages : 2050
  • ISBN : 0323352324
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Fetal & Neonatal Physiology provides neonatologist fellows and physicians with the essential information they need to effectively diagnose, treat, and manage sick and premature infants. Fully comprehensive, this resource continues to serve as an excellent reference tool, focusing on the basic science needed for exam preparation and the key information required for full-time practice. The 5th edition is the most substantially updated and revised edition ever. In the 5 years since the last edition published, there have been thousands of publications on various aspects of development of health and disease; Fetal and Neonatal Physiology synthesizes this knowledge into definitive guidance for today's busy practitioner. Offers definitive guidance on how to effectively manage the many health problems seen in newborn and premature infants. Chapters devoted to clinical correlation help explain the implications of fetal and neonatal physiology. Allows you to apply the latest insights on genetic therapy, intrauterine infections, brain protection and neuroimaging, and much more. Features a fantastic new 4-color design with 1,000 illustrations, 170+ chapters, and over 350 contributors. 16 new chapters cover such hot topics as Epigenetics; Placental Function in Intrauterine Growth Restriction; Regulation of Pulmonary Circulation; The Developing Microbiome of the Fetus and Newborn; Hereditary Contribution to Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Mechanistic Aspects of Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia; Cerebellar Development; Pathophysiology of Neonatal Sepsis; Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn; Pathophysiology of Meconium Aspiration Syndrome; Pathophysiology of Ventilator Dependent Infants; Pathophysiology of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury; Pathophysiology of Neonatal White Matter Injury; Pathophysiology of Meningitis; Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia; and Pathophysiology of Chorioamnionitis. New Pathophysiology of Neonatal Diseases section highlights every process associated with a disease or injury, all in one place. In-depth information, combined with end-of-chapter summaries, enables deep or quick use of the text.

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood

Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood
A Book

by Pamela D. Browne,Eric Claassen,Michael D. Cabana

  • Publisher : Wageningen Academic Publishers
  • Release : 2017-07-20
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 9086868398
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of the vital relationship between human microbiota and infant and child health. Renowned clinical-experimental experts in this field discuss the development of microbiota during early life and review the environmental inputs that affect the developing infant’s gut microbiota, such as early diet and (postnatal) medical interventions. They further describe the interplay between gut microbiota and functional systems of the body, from the immune system to the central nervous system. The book discusses a range of infant and childhood diseases that are associated with microbial changes or dysbiosis, such as gastrointestinal disorders, allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and respiratory disorders. Additionally mechanisms by which microbial dysbiosis may influence behaviour in infants are discussed. Other topics include the use of current tools in molecular microbiology for microbiota-related research and clinical practice. In the management of particular paediatric disorders, the potential of microbial manipulation with pre- and probiotics during infancy and childhood is increasingly being investigated. This book presents the evidence supporting their use in practice and reviews safety aspects. Microbiota in health and disease: from pregnancy to childhood has the ambition to provide the reader with an overview of the most recent and stunning advances in the field of infant and child microbiota and their role in health, disease and prevention. As such, it is an excellent resource for health care professionals, students and researchers in the field of life sciences.

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development
A Book

by Ashley Wazana

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 3030601595
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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P2-21-03 - Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants in Shaping Offspring's Microbiota in the First Year of Life. A Study Protocol

P2-21-03 - Prenatal and Postnatal Determinants in Shaping Offspring's Microbiota in the First Year of Life. A Study Protocol
A Book

by Benedetta Raspini

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction. Fetal programming during fetal life defines the set point of physiological and metabolic responses that lead into adulthood. Events happening in the first 1,000 days of life play a pivotal role in the development of chronic diseases. Also, diet and lifestyle during pregnancy are recognized to be crucial determinants in modulating offspring microbiota. After this first period, the children gut microbial composition continues to evolve until the age of 2 years; this is u201ca window of opportunityu201d for microbial modulation, impacting on child future health.The present study protocol is designed to examine the association of maternal diet and lifestyle, type of delivery and lactation with the intestinal microbiome development of infants (0-12 months) by identifying the relative abundance of the dominant organism genera; assessing the microbial diversity (u03b1-diversity); assessing inter-individual variation (u03b2-diversity).Methods. We planned to enroll 60 mothers/child couples attending the Neonatal Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia (Italy). The study was approved by the Human Ethics Committee (Protocol number 20180022618); children or mothers with genetic/congenital diseases, children hospitalized immediately after birth or born before 35 and after 42 weeks will be excluded. as well as non-physiological pregnancies.Data will be collected at T0 (before discharge), T1 (30 days post-partum), T2 (6 months post-partum) and T3 (12 months post-partum).u00b7Anthropometric parameters for both mothers (weight, height at T0-T3 and waist circumference at T1-T3) and children (weight, length, head circumference at T0-T3) will be assessed.u00b7Mothersu2019 dietary habits will be explored by using a previously validated questionnaire by us, while physical activity throughout the IPAQ short version (T0-T3).u00b7Information about family environment, infant feeding (breastfed/formula-fed), time/type of weaning, use of antibiotics/probiotics/supplements in both mothers and children will be obtained (T1- T3).u00b7Childrenu2019s dietary habits will be evaluated by using the INTERGROWTH-21st questionnaire at T3.u00b7Childrenu2019s stool samples will be collected (T0-T3) and analyzed using metagenomics 16s rRNA gene sequence-based methods. Shotgun sequencing will be conducted on a small subgroup.Expected results. The knowledge obtained in this study will provide the starting point for a future prospective and longer observational cohort, aimed at assessing the potential association between lifestyle and maternal factors with infant microbiome composition and their influence on adverse growth parameters. The extension of the present study aims to identify specific intervention programs targeted to first 1,000 days window besides preconception.Conflict of interest:There is no conflict of interest.

The Neonatal Immune System: A Unique Host-Microbial Interface

The Neonatal Immune System: A Unique Host-Microbial Interface

by Joseph M. Bliss,James L. Wynn

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2018-01-25
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 2889454037
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Emerging from the protective environment of the uterus, the newborn is exposed to a myriad of microbes, and quickly establishes a complex microbiome that shapes the infant’s biology in ways that are only now beginning to come to light. Among these exposures are a number of potential pathogens. The host responses to these pathogens in the neonatal period are unique, reflecting a developing immune system even with delivery at term. Preterm infants are delivered at a time when host defense mechanisms are even less developed and therefore face additional risk. As such, the organisms that cause disease in this period are different from the pathogens that are common in other age groups, or the disease they cause manifests in more severe fashion. Developmental alterations in both innate and adaptive immune responses in neonates have been documented among many cell types and pathways over the last several decades. Contemporary insights into the human immune system and methodologies that allow an “omics” approach to these questions have continued to provide new information regarding the mechanisms that underlie the human neonate as an “immunocompromised host.” This Research Topic highlights studies related to this unique host-pathogen interface. Contributions include those related to the innate or adaptive immune system of neonates, their response to microbial colonization or infection, and/or the pathogenesis of microbes causing disease in neonates.

Leifer's Introduction to Maternity & Pediatric Nursing in Canada E-Book

Leifer's Introduction to Maternity & Pediatric Nursing in Canada E-Book
A Book

by Gloria Leifer,Lisa Keenan-Lindsay

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2019-09-06
  • Pages : 848
  • ISBN : 177172207X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Gain a solid foundation in Canadian maternity and pediatric nursing! Written in a clear, concise, friendly style, Leifer’s Intro to Maternity & Pediatric Nursing in Canada, is the first Canadian edition of the best-selling Leifer textbook. Fully revised by author, Lisa Keenan-Lindsay, RN, MN, PNC(C), it includes Canadian statistics, terminology, references, guidelines, resources, Canadian nursing best practices, assessments, and more! It’s organized by developmental stages and includes discussions of pediatric disorders by body system from simple-to-complex and health-to-illness. With a rich focus on family health, this text contains exam-style review questions, case studies, and numerous other pedagogical features to give you the tools you need to successfully care for patients within the Canadian social and institutional context. Logical organization of content by simple-to-complex and health-to-illness, makes it easy for you to locate and access information. Health Promotion Considerations boxes focus on preventive strategies for achieving prenatal wellness, health during pregnancy, postpartum health, newborn health, and pediatric illness prevention and wellness---including Canadian immunization schedules for all ages. Unfolding Case Studies with open-ended critical thinking questions assess application of content to practice as you follow one family through conception and the birth process. Nursing Care Plans provide expected outcomes, interventions, and rationales for nursing interventions. Comprehensive coverage of over 35 skills, outlined in step-by-step format cover a wide range of maternal and pediatric nursing interventions. Focus on health promotion and illness prevention, covers women’s health issues, and growth and development of child and parent. Cultural considerations applied as they relate to maternal/infant, and pediatric care in detailed tables. Safety Alerts emphasize protecting patients, family, health care providers, and the public from accidents, medication errors, and the spread of disease. Nursing Tips throughout text provide you with pertinent information applicable in the clinical setting.

Neonatal Gastroenterology: Challenges, Controversies And Recent Advances, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology, E-Book

Neonatal Gastroenterology: Challenges, Controversies And Recent Advances, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology, E-Book
A Book

by Sudarshan R. Jadcherla

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2020-06-21
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN : 032372079X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Together with Consulting Editor Dr. Lucky Jain, Dr. Sudarshan R. Jadcherla has put together a comprehensive issue devoted to neonatal gastroenterology. Expert authors have contributed clinical review articles on the following topics: Neonatal Aerodigestive Disorders: Epidemiology and Economic Burden; Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Neonates: Developmental Physiology and Pathophysiology; Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the NICU Neonate: Controversies, Current Understanding and Future Directions; Feeding Difficulties and Tube-feeding Controversies in Complex Neonates: Evidence-Based Practices; Physiology and Pathological basis of Aerodigestive Difficulties in Chronic Lung Disease; Congenital Diarrheas in Infants: Pathophysiology, Consequences, and Potential Treatment Strategies; Short Gut syndrome: Recent Advances in Pathophysiology and Intestinal Support Practices; Neonatal Cholestasis in the Premature Infant: Approaches to Diagnosis and Management; Strategies for Prevention of TPN-related Liver Injury; Supplements and Additives to Human Milk: Principles and Practices, Current Controversies; Microbiome and Gut Injury in Neonates; Recent Advances in NEC Research: Strategies for Implementation in Clinical Practice; Transfusion-Related Gut Injury and NEC; Neonatal Endoscopy, Diagnosis and Intervention Procedures Crib-side; and Surgical Gastrointestinal Emergencies in Neonates: An overview. Readers will come away with the information they need to improve outcomes in the neonate.

Avery's Diseases of the Newborn E-Book

Avery's Diseases of the Newborn E-Book
A Book

by Christine A. Gleason,Sherin Devaskar

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2011-08-12
  • Pages : 1520
  • ISBN : 1455727148
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Avery’s Diseases of the Newborn, edited by Christine A. Gleason and Sherin U. Devaskar, is a practical, clinical reference for diagnosing and managing of all the important diseases affecting newborns. Thoroughly revised by a team of new editors, this edition provides new perspectives and updated coverage of genetics, nutrition, respiratory conditions, MRSA, neonatal pain, cardiovascular fetal interventions, care of the late preterm infant, and more. This authoritative reference is ideal as a clinical resource or subspecialty review tool. Treat newborns effectively with focused coverage of diagnosis and management, including pertinent developmental physiology and the pathogenesis of neonatal problems. Meet every challenge you face in neonatology with Avery’s authoritative, comprehensive clinical resource and subspecialty review tool. Navigate quickly and easily with extensive cross-referencing throughout the organ-related sections. Stay current with coverage of hot topics including MRSA, neonatal pain, cardiovascular fetal interventions, care of the late preterm infant, and the developing intestinal microbiome. Tap into the fresh perspectives of new editors who provide extensive updates throughout, particularly on genetic and respiratory disorders. Apply the latest nutritional findings with thorough discussions of this valuable information in the more comprehensive nutrition section. Master the fundamentals of neonatology through the greater emphasis on developmental biology and pathobiology.

Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology - E-Book

Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology - E-Book
A Clinical Perspective

by Susan Blackburn

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2017-10-12
  • Pages : 720
  • ISBN : 0323473954
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Maternal, Fetal, & Neonatal Physiology - E-Book

Nutrition in Infancy

Nutrition in Infancy
A Book

by Ronald Ross Watson,George Grimble,Victor R. Preedy,Sherma Zibadi

  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release : 2012-12-02
  • Pages : 467
  • ISBN : 162703224X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Nutrition in Infancy: Volume 1 is a very useful resource for all clinicians treating and preventing nutritional problems in infants. This volume covers a wide range of topics that support wellness in infants through the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, malnutrition, and developmental and genetic abnormalities. A variety of chapters deal with nutrients for infants with disabilities, surgery, and other special needs. Special emphasis is provided for clinicians treating the millions of children in developing countries whose death is promoted by undernutrition or malnutrition. The next sections discuss the health benefits of supplementation and breast feeding and methods to improve use of berast feeding and it’s duration. In Nutrition in Infancy: Volume 1, all of these facets of nutrition and nutritional therapy are covered in a precise and practical way. The latest developments in diagnostic procedures and nutritional support are also included. Written by a group of international experts, this volume is an indispensable new reference for clinicians with an interest in the nutrition and health of pregnant mothers and their infants.

The microbiome: Interactions with organ systems, diet, and genetics, An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, Ebook

The microbiome: Interactions with organ systems, diet, and genetics, An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, Ebook
A Book

by Rochellys Diaz Heijtz

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2019-08-09
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 0323679013
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In consultation with Consulting Editor, Dr. Alan Buchman, Dr. Rocheyllys Diaz Heijtz has put together a state-of the-art issue of the Gastroenterology Clinics of North America devoted to The Microbiome: Interactions with Organ Systems, Diet, and Genetics. Clinical review articles from expert authors are specifically devoted to the following: The Role of the Microbiome of o the Female Reproductive Tract on Health and Pregnancy; Eating Disorders and the Gut Microbiota; Maturation of the Infant Microbiome Community Structure and Function; Microbe-Host Interactions in Allergic Diseases; Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiota in Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mood Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota and ADHD; The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Postpartum Depression; and The Microbiota and Pancreatic Cancer. Readers will come away with the latest information on the microbiome and how to incorporate the information into gut health for patients.

Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases E-Book

Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases E-Book
A Book

by James Cherry,Gail J. Demmler-Harrison,Sheldon L. Kaplan,William J. Steinbach,Peter J Hotez

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2017-12-29
  • Pages : 3000
  • ISBN : 0323392814
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Offering unparalleled coverage of infectious diseases in children and adolescents, Feigin & Cherry’s Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases 8th Edition, continues to provide the information you need on epidemiology, public health, preventive medicine, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and much more. This extensively revised edition by Drs. James Cherry, Gail J. Demmler-Harrison, Sheldon L. Kaplan, William J. Steinbach, and Peter J. Hotez, offers a brand-new full-color design, new color images, new guidelines, and new content, reflecting today’s more aggressive infectious and resistant strains as well as emerging and re-emerging diseases Features expanded information on infections in the compromised host; immunomodulating agents and their potential use in the treatment of infectious diseases; and Ebola virus. Contains hundreds of new color images throughout, as well as new guidelines, new resistance epidemiology, and new Global Health Milestones. Includes new chapters on Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Examination of the Newborn and Neonatal Health E-Book

Examination of the Newborn and Neonatal Health E-Book
A Multidimensional Approach

by Lorna Davies,Sharon McDonald

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2020-09-16
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN : 0702079413
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An essential guide to this most important of examinations The first book to assist in the recognition of the psychosocial and emotional elements of physical disability that may impact on the family Provides a multi-professional perspective, with contributors from specialists in their fields Each chapter addresses the subject from a holistic perspective that includes ethical, legal and psychosocial aspects as well as the physical

Aging and Vulnerability to Environmental Chemicals

Aging and Vulnerability to Environmental Chemicals
Age-related Disorders and Their Origins in Environmental Exposures

by Bernard Weiss,Diana Anderson,Tim Marrs,Mike D. Waters,Martin Wilks

  • Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
  • Release : 2012-10-01
  • Pages : 484
  • ISBN : 1849734186
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a comprehensive review of how environmental exposures may alter the health of our aging population.

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse

Fetal and Neonatal Physiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse
A Book

by Amy Jnah, DNP, NNP-BC,Andrea Nicole Trembath, MD, MPH, FAAP

  • Publisher : Springer Publishing Company
  • Release : 2019-01-08
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN : 0826157459
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Written for neonatal and pediatric nurse practitioner students, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse explores the developmental physiology of premature and term infants and presents common diseases that affect this specialized population. This unique text offers an innovative and engaging approach to learning normal and abnormal physiology to prepare students for their roles as resourceful and informed problem-solvers, caregivers, and health promoters. Part One introduces core concepts including fetal origins of disease, genetic inheritance patterns, and placental physiology. Part Two investigates each major human body system. Finally, Part Three offers an exploration into the transition to extrauterine life and common challenges for perinatal and neonatal clinicians. With a multitude of student learning resources and tools, Fetal and Neonatal Physiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse promotes contemplative thinking, understanding, and retention. Every chapter includes learning objectives for guidance, advice from the authors, and a mind map to visualize difficult concepts. Written by junior and senior nurses and physicians, this text embodies the interprofessional approach associated with optimal outcomes. Chapter podcasts and discussion questions are included with the text to actively integrate written content and engage students using multisensory teaching methods. Key Features Presents a concise, visual and interactive presentation of a challenging subject Designed specifically to accommodate a semester-long course Contains numerous illustrations depicting fetal development and physiology of the different body systems Each chapter contains reflective questions and other interactive learning resources Incorporates genetics and pathophysiologic correlations Meets the nationally-recognized accreditation requirements for APN physiology coursework

The Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Administration of Propionic Acid and Lipopolysaccharide on the Behaviour of Adolescent Male and Female Rats

The Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Administration of Propionic Acid and Lipopolysaccharide on the Behaviour of Adolescent Male and Female Rats
A Book

by Kelly A. Foley

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Increasing evidence suggests the gut microbiome plays an important role in immune functioning and neurodevelopment. Metabolic products of enteric bacteria, such as short chain fatty acids and lipopolysaccharides, may alter development and subsequent behaviour. Altered microbiome composition, including elevated short chain fatty acids, and/or immune system dysfunction has been observed in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This thesis describes the effects of prenatal propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid and metabolic fermentation product of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria, and of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic and product of enteric bacteria, on a range of behaviours in male and female neonatal, adolescent and adult rats. Long-Evans rats were administered PPA or LPS during pregnancy and rat pups were administered PPA in the second week of life. The first study evaluated the effects of prenatal PPA and LPS, and postnatal PPA, on developmental milestones in early life and on locomotor activity, repetitive behaviour, and anxiety-related behaviour in adolescent rats. Secondly, sensorimotor behaviours were examined using the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition. The final study investigated the effects of prenatal PPA and LPS on social and related behaviours in neonatal, adolescent, and adult rats. Overall, prenatal and postnatal treatments subtly altered behaviour in a sex-and test-specific manner. Male and female rats showed developmental delay in day of eye opening and in acquiring a nest seeking odor discrimination. Prenatal and postnatal treatments increased anxiety-related behaviour and altered acoustic startle responses in male and female adolescent rats. Male rats displayed alterations in social behaviour and locomotor activity that was not observed in female rats, supporting the male bias seen in ASD. However, female rats showed sensitivity to PPA, displaying repetitive behaviour, altered acoustic startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. There is evidence to suggest that these behaviours are more severe in females diagnosed with ASD. These findings demonstrate that the metabolic products of enteric bacteria, PPA and LPS, may alter development in ways resembling ASD and contribute to the growing literature on the importance of the gut microbiome and its components on influencing brain and behaviour.

Perinatal Interventions to Improve Neonatal Outcomes, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology, E-Book

Perinatal Interventions to Improve Neonatal Outcomes, An Issue of Clinics in Perinatology, E-Book
A Book

by Ravi Mangal Patel,Tracy A. Manuck

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2018-05-23
  • Pages : 249
  • ISBN : 0323584144
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This issue is a must-read for perinatologists and neonatologists who need current advances in treastment and interventions to improve the viability of the neonate. The Guest Editors have put together a concise monograph on the topic, offering the most current clinica review articles on the following topics: Antenatal corticosteroids: Who should we be treating?; Quality improvement strategies to improve care of women in preterm labor; Delivery at term: when, how, and why?; Detection and prevention of perinatal infection; Current strategies to prevent perinatal HIV transmission; Advances in fetal monitoring and association with outcomes; Relationship between perinatal interventions, the maternal-infant microbiome and neonatal outcomes; Understanding outcomes and counseling families at a periviable gestational age; Therapeutic hypothermia - how can we optimize this therapy to further improve outcomes; Reducing CPAP failure in extremely preterm infants; Optimizing caffeine therapy in preterm infants; Improving uptake of key perinatal interventions using state-wide quality collaboratives; Oxygen therapy in the delivery room: What is the right dose?; and Perinatal white matter injury: prevention and long-term outcomes. Readers will leave with the best evidence they need to improve outcomes.

Gray's Anatomy E-Book

Gray's Anatomy E-Book
The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice

by Susan Standring

  • Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Release : 2020-10-01
  • Pages : 1606
  • ISBN : 0702077070
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Susan Standring, MBE, PhD, DSc, FKC, Hon FAS, Hon FRCS Trust Gray’s. Building on over 160 years of anatomical excellence In 1858, Drs Henry Gray and Henry Vandyke Carter created a book for their surgical colleagues that established an enduring standard among anatomical texts. After more than 160 years of continuous publication, Gray’s Anatomy remains the definitive, comprehensive reference on the subject, offering ready access to the information you need to ensure safe, effective practice. This 42nd edition has been meticulously revised and updated throughout, reflecting the very latest understanding of clinical anatomy from the world’s leading clinicians and biomedical scientists. The book’s acclaimed, lavish art programme and clear text has been further enhanced, while major advances in imaging techniques and the new insights they bring are fully captured in state of the art X-ray, CT, MR and ultrasonic images. The accompanying eBook version is richly enhanced with additional content and media, covering all the body regions, cell biology, development and embryogenesis – and now includes two new systems-orientated chapters. This combines to unlock a whole new level of related information and interactivity, in keeping with the spirit of innovation that has characterised Gray’s Anatomy since its inception. Each chapter has been edited by international leaders in their field, ensuring access to the very latest evidence-based information on topics Over 150 new radiology images, offering the very latest X-ray, multiplanar CT and MR perspectives, including state-of-the-art cinematic rendering The downloadable Expert Consult eBook version included with your (print) purchase allows you to easily search all of the text, figures, references and videos from the book on a variety of devices Electronic enhancements include additional text, tables, illustrations, labelled imaging and videos, as well as 21 specially commissioned ‘Commentaries’ on new and emerging topics related to anatomy Now featuring two extensive electronic chapters providing full coverage of the peripheral nervous system and the vascular and lymphatic systems. The result is a more complete, practical and engaging resource than ever before, which will prove invaluable to all clinicians who require an accurate, in-depth knowledge of anatomy.