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The Stimulated Brain

The Stimulated Brain
Cognitive Enhancement Using Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

by Roi Cohen Kadosh

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2014-06-03
  • Pages : 568
  • ISBN : 9780124047044
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Stimulated Brain-which garnered an Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience at the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers-presents the first integration of findings on brain stimulation from different research fields with a primary focus on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES), one of the most frequently used noninvasive stimulation methods. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the amount of research exploring how noninvasive brain stimulation can not only modulate but also enhance cognition and brain functions. However, although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and particularly tES have the potential to become more widely applicable techniques (as they come with none of the risks associated with deep brain stimulation) the reference literature on these neurotechnologies has been sparse. This resource provides a broad survey of current knowledge, and also marks future directions in cognitive and neuro-enhancement. It expands our understanding of basic research findings from animals and humans, including clear translational benefits for applied research and the therapeutic use of noninvasive brain stimulation methods. The book's coverage includes a primer that paves the way to a more advanced knowledge of tES and its physiological basis; current research findings on cognitive and neuro-enhancement in animals and typical and atypical human populations, such as neurological patients; and discussions of future directions, including specific neuroethical issues and pathways for collaboration and entrepreneurialism. The Stimulated Brain is the first book to provide a comprehensive understanding of different aspects of noninvasive brain stimulation that are critical for scientists, clinicians, and those who are interested in "stimulating their minds" by exploring this fascinating field of research. Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers The only reference on the market to focus on transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) Coverage across technical, historical, and application topics makes this the single, comprehensive resource for researchers and students Edited book with chapters authored by international leaders in the fields of medicine, neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy-providing the broadest, most expert coverage available

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 56. Transcranial stimulation and cognition

by Carlo Miniussi,Manuela Ruzzoli

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080620
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a unique method for studying cognitive function. For the study of cognition, NIBS has gained popularity as a complementary method to functional neuroimaging. By bypassing the correlative approaches of standard imaging techniques, it is possible to establish a putative relationship between brain cognition. In fact, functional neuroimaging data cannot demonstrate the actual role of a particular cortical activation in a specific function because an activated area may simply be correlated with task performance, rather than being responsible for it. NIBS can induce a temporary modification of performance only if the stimulated area is causally engaged in the task. In analogy with lesion studies, NIBS can provide information about where and when a particular process occurs. Based on this assumption, NIBS has been used in many different cognitive domains. However, one of the most interesting questions in neuroscience may not be where and when, but how cognitive activity occurs. Beyond localization approaches, NIBS can be employed to study brain mechanisms. NIBS techniques have the potential to influence behavior transiently by altering neuronal activity, which may have facilitatory or inhibitory behavioral effects. NIBS techniques include transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). TMS has been shown transiently to modulate neural excitability in a manner that is dependent mainly on the timing and frequency of stimulation (high versus low). The mechanism underlying tES is a change in neuronal membrane potentials that appears to be dependent mainly on the direction of current flow (anodal versus cathodal). Nevertheless, the final effects induced by TMS or tES depend on many technical parameters used during stimulation, such as the intensity of stimulation, coil orientation, site of the reference electrode, and time of application. Moreover, an important factor is the possible interactions between these factors and the physiological and cognitive state of the subject. To use NIBS in cognition, it is important to understand not only how NIBS functions but also the brain mechanisms being studied and the features of the area of interest. To describe better the advanced knowledge provided by NIBS in cognition, we will treat each NIBS technique separately and underline the related hypotheses beyond applications.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 29. Physics of effects of transcranial brain stimulation

by Pedro Cavaleiro Miranda

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080353
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The effects of transcranial stimulation are determined to a large extent by the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the electric field produced in the brain. In this chapter, we first describe some of the factors that affect the electric field in the brain generally, such as the effect of tissue heterogeneity and anisotropy, or focality. These are common to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and to several forms of transcranial current stimulation (tCS), such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). Then the main features of the electric field in the human brain during TMS and tCS are presented. This knowledge is important to predict the location and extent of the stimulated region as well as the stimulation intensity in the brain.

The Stimulated Brain

The Stimulated Brain
A Psychological Perspective on Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-refractory Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

by Anonim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 179
  • ISBN : 9789462951358
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 4. Deep brain stimulation: how does it work?

by Filippo Agnesi,Matthew D. Johnson,Jerrold L. Vitek

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080108
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely accepted surgical treatment for medication-refractory movement disorders and is under evaluation for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to create opportunities to improve treatment efficacy, streamline parameter selection, and foster new potential applications, it is important to have a clear and comprehensive understanding of how DBS works. Although early hypothesis proposed that high-frequency electrical stimulation inhibited neuronal activity proximal to the active electrode, recent studies have suggested that the output of the stimulated nuclei is paradoxically activated by DBS. Such regular, time-locked output is thought to override the transmission of pathological bursting and oscillatory activity through the stimulated nuclei, as well as inducing synaptic plasticity and network reorganization. This chapter reviews electrophysiological experiments, biochemical analyses, computer modeling and imaging studies positing that, although general principles exist, the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action depend both on the site of stimulation and on the disorder being treated.

Augmentation of Brain Function: Facts, Fiction and Controversy

Augmentation of Brain Function: Facts, Fiction and Controversy
Volume II: Neurostimulation and Pharmacological Approaches

by Ioan Opris,Manuel F. Casanova,Mikhail Lebedev

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2018-09-14
  • Pages : 403
  • ISBN : 2889456153
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Volume II is entitled “Neurostimulation and pharmacological approaches”. This volume describes augmentation approaches, where improvements in brain functions are achieved by modulation of brain circuits with electrical or optical stimulation, or pharmacological agents. Activation of brain circuits with electrical currents is a conventional approach that includes such methods as (i) intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), (ii) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), and (iii) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). tDCS and TMS are often regarded as noninvasive methods. Yet, they may induce long-lasting plastic changes in the brain. This is why some authors consider the term “noninvasive” misleading when used to describe these and other techniques, such as stimulation with transcranial lasers. The volume further discusses the potential of neurostimulation as a research tool in the studies of perception, cognition and behavior. Additionally, a notion is expressed that brain augmentation with stimulation cannot be described as a net zero sum proposition, where brain resources are reallocated in such a way that gains in one function are balanced by costs elsewhere. In recent years, optogenetic methods have received an increased attention, and several articles in Volume II cover different aspects of this technique. While new optogenetic methods are being developed, the classical electrical stimulation has already been utilized in many clinically relevant applications, like the vestibular implant and tactile neuroprosthesis that utilizes ICMS. As a peculiar usage of neurostimulation and pharmacological methods, Volume II includes several articles on augmented memory. Memory prostheses are a popular recent development in the stimulation-based BMIs. For example, in a hippocampal memory prosthesis, memory content is extracted from hippocampal activity using a multiple-input, multiple-output non-linear dynamical model. As to the pharmacological approaches to augmenting memory and cognition, the pros and cons of using nootropic drugs are discussed.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 1. Principles of electrical stimulation of neural tissue

by David T. Brocker,Warren M. Grill

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080078
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Deep brain stimulation is a remarkable therapy that has mainstreamed electrical stimulation of the brain for the treatment of neurological dysfunction. To appreciate the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation, we need to understand the excitability of neural tissue. Here, we survey the pertinent principles of electrical excitation in the brain. The amount of current delivered and the tissue conductivity together determine the strength and extent of potentials generated by stimulation. The electrode–tissue interface is an important junction where electrical charge carriers in the stimulation hardware are converted to ionic charge carriers in the tissue. Cathodic stimulation tends to depolarize neural elements more easily than anodic stimulation. The current–distance relationship describes how the amount of current needed to excite an axon increases as a function of its distance from the electrode. This relationship also depends on the axon’s diameter because large-diameter axons are excited more easily than small-diameter axons. For a given axon, the strength–duration relationship describes the inverse relationship between threshold current amplitude and pulse duration. Specific stimulation parameters must be considered to avoid stimulation-induced tissue damage. A strong foundation in these principles facilitates understanding of the complex effects of electrical stimulation in the brain.

Transcranial Brain Stimulation

Transcranial Brain Stimulation
A Book

by Carlo Miniussi,Walter Paulus,Paolo M. Rossini

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2012-12-03
  • Pages : 465
  • ISBN : 1439875715
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Since the discovery of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), these non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been used to investigate the state of cortical excitability, and the excitability of the cortico-cortical and corticospinal pathways. In addition, these techniques have been found to induce neuroplasticity—a significant breakthrough in our understanding of the brain at work. Transcranial Brain Stimulation presents a wide range of possible brain stimulation applications and discusses what new information can be gained from using this technique on the dynamics of brain functions, hierarchical organization, and effective connectivity. Implications of recent findings related to the therapeutic application are discussed by an international group of leading experts, who present practical guidance on the use of each technique, and catalog the results of numerous TMS and tES studies on biological and behavioral effects.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 52. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and vision

by Juha Silvanto

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080582
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The challenge in visual neuroscience is to characterize the neuronal properties and functional significance of the numerous regions of the visual cortex, and to understand how they interact during the processing of visual information. The strength of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in this endeavor is its ability to assess the necessity of visual cortical areas in perceptual functions and to trace the corticocortical interactions that underlie them. Most of the early studies in this field were carried out using the so-called “virtual lesion” approach, in which the impact of TMS was thought to be akin to inducing a brain lesion in the stimulated area. This approach established causal links between specific visual areas and perceptual functions such as motion perception, object processing, and visual awareness. Recently, the view of TMS as a tool for inducing “virtual lesion” has been challenged by a number of experimental findings, giving rise to the conceptualization of TMS effects as a state-dependent interaction between the initial state of the stimulated area and the parameters of the TMS pulse. This state dependency is the basis of paradigms aiming selectively to target specific neuronal representations and thus reveal neuronal tuning properties, a major challenge in the understanding of the cortical visual system.

Brain Stimulation and Behavioral Change

Brain Stimulation and Behavioral Change
A Book

by Claudio Lucchiari,Nicholas J. Kelley,Maria E. Vanutelli,Roberta Ferrucci

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2019-05-15
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889458385
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The eBook entitled “Brain Stimulation and Behavioral Change” is a collection of articles about the use of transcranial electric stimulation (tES) to change behaviors and face pathological conditions, to enhance cognition and to explore cerebral functions using safe and non-invasive brain modulation techniques. The tESs include transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), transcranial alternate current stimulation (tACS), and, due to the way it induces changes in the brain, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). The use of tES has recently exploded. Certainly, one reason for this explosion of research is that it is a cheap way to change behavior. However, on the other hand, we still know very little about the neural mechanisms that underlie tES. The present eBook includes both original studies and reviews. It covers a wide scope of arguments, including studies aimed at testing the potential ability of tES in mitigating physical and psychiatric symptoms, and to support neurological rehabilitation, enhancing reading abilities, motor abilities, and creativity. Furthermore, some contributions about the role of tES in discovering and mapping the neuro-functional correlates of higher cognitive functions are also included. The common background of the contributions included in the eBook lies in the idea that we need sound scientific evidence about how to move these techniques from labs to real-life contexts. Addressing these issues and understanding the real potentialities of tES in clinical and non-clinical applications require a significant cross-fertilization between disciplines. We hope this eBook will be able to boost the discussion on this vital topic.

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The Safety and Efficacy of Noninvasive Brain Stimulation in Development and Neurodevelopmental Disorders

by Lindsay M. Oberman,Peter G. Enticott

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2015-12-03
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889196992
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Noninvasive brain stimulation (including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Current Brain Stimulation (TCS)) can be used both experimentally and therapeutically. In the experimental domain TMS can be applied in single pulses to depolarize a small population of neurons in a targeted brain region. This protocol can be used, for example, to map cortical motor outputs, study central motor conduction time, or evaluate the cortical silent period (a measure of intracortical inhibition) all of which are relevant to neurodevelopment. TMS can also be applied in pairs of pulses (paired pulse stimulation, ppTMS) where two pulses are presented in rapid succession to study intracortical inhibition and facilitation. Trains of repeated TMS (rTMS) pulses can be applied at various stimulation frequencies and patterns to modulate local cortical excitability beyond the duration of the stimulation itself. Depending on the parameters of stimulation the excitability can be either facilitated or suppressed. TCS (including Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), alternating current (tACS), and random noise current stimulation (tRNS) also have the potential to modulate cortical excitability and have also been used to study and modulate cortical activity in healthy and patient populations. The after-effects of rTMS and TCS are thought to be related to changes in efficacy (in either the positive or negative direction) of synaptic connections of the neurons being stimulated, thus these techniques have been used to study and modulate cortical plasticity mechanisms in a number of populations. Recently, researchers have begun to apply these techniques to the study of neurodevelopmental mechanisms as well as the pathophysiology and development of novel treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders. Though there is much promise, caution is warranted given the vulnerability of pediatric and clinical populations and the potential that these techniques have to modify circuit development in a cortex that is in a very dynamic state. This Research Topic hopes to provide an opportunity to share ideas across areas (human and animal researchers, clinicians and basic scientists). We are particularly interested in papers that address issues of choosing a protocol (intensity, frequency, location, coil geometry etc.), populations where noninvasive brain stimulation may have direct impact on diagnostics and treatment, as well as the safety and ethics of applying these techniques in pediatric populations. As many may not be aware of the potential and limitations of noninvasive brain stimulation and its use for research and treatment in this area, this Research Topic promises to have broad appeal. Submissions for all Frontiers article types are encouraged.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 40. Noninvasive brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation

by Marco Sandrini,Leonardo G. Cohen

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080469
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability worldwide, with impaired manual dexterity being a common feature. In the past few years, noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been investigated as adjuvant strategies to neurorehabilitative interventions. These NIBS techniques can be used to modulate cortical excitability during and for several minutes after the end of the stimulation period. Depending on the stimulation parameters, cortical excitability can be reduced (inhibition) or enhanced (facilitation). Differential modulation of cortical excitability in the affected and unaffected hemisphere of patients with stroke may induce plastic changes within neural networks active during functional recovery. The aims of this chapter are to describe results from these proof-of-principle trials and discuss possible putative mechanisms underlying such effects. Neurophysiological and neuroimaging changes induced by application of NIBS are reviewed briefly.

Brain Stimulation

Brain Stimulation
Chapter 36. Tinnitus: therapeutic use of superficial brain stimulation

by Berthold Langguth,Dirk De Ridder

  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release : 2013-11-11
  • Pages : 784
  • ISBN : 0128080426
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Tinnitus is a common disorder and traditional treatment approaches such as medication, active or passive sound enhancement, and cognitive behavioral therapy have limited efficacy. Thus, there is an urgent need for more effective treatment approaches. Functional imaging studies in patients with tinnitus have revealed alterations in neuronal activity of central auditory pathways, probably resulting as a consequence of sensory deafferentation. However, nonauditory brain areas are also involved. These nonauditory brain areas might represent both an “awareness” network involved in the conscious perception of the tinnitus signal as well as areas related to a nontinnitus-specific distress network consisting of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala. Moreover, memory mechanisms involving the hippocampus and the parahippocampal region may play a role in the persistence of the awareness of the phantom percept, as well as in the reinforcement of the associated distress. All of these networks represent potential targets for treatment via pharmacological treatment or noninvasive and invasive brain stimulation. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive method of applying electromagnetic fields to the brain that can induce alterations of neuronal activity that outlast the stimulation period. Single sessions of rTMS over the temporal or temporoparietal cortex have been successful in transiently reducing tinnitus perception. Repeated sessions of rTMS have resulted in tinnitus relief in a subgroup of patients, lasting from several days to several months. However, effect sizes of rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus are only moderate, and interindividual variability is high. Larger and longer lasting effects have been observed with direct electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex via implanted epidural electrodes. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has also shown potential for the treatment of tinnitus. Both auditory and frontal tDCS have shown tinnitus reduction in a subgroup of patients. In spite of the promising results of the different brain stimulation approaches, further research is needed before these techniques can be recommended for routine clinical use.

Pediatric Brain Stimulation

Pediatric Brain Stimulation
Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain

by Adam Kirton,Donald L. Gilbert

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2016-07-08
  • Pages : 500
  • ISBN : 0128020385
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Pediatric Brain Stimulation: Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain presents the latest on this rapidly expanding field that has seen an exponential growth in publications over the past 10 years. Non-invasive modalities like TMS can painlessly map and measure complex neurophysiology in real patients. Neuromodulatory applications like rTMS and tDCS carry increasingly proven therapeutic applications. Rapidly advancing technological methodologies are increasing opportunities and indications. Despite all these benefits, applications in the more plastic developing brains of children are only just emerging. This book provides a comprehensive overview of brain stimulation in children. Chapters include Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) fundamentals, brain stimulation in pediatric neurological conditions, and invasive brain stimulation. The main audience for this research will be those interested in applying brain stimulation technologies to advance clinical research and patient care, although a wide variety of clinicians and scientist will find this to be a valuable reference on brain stimulation with specific chapters on a variety of conditions. Provides an overview of recent findings and knowledge of pediatric brain stimulation and the developing brain Edited by renowned leaders in the field of pediatric brain stimulation Presents a great resource for basic and clinical scientists and practitioners in neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: New Prospects in Cognitive Neurorehabilitation

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: New Prospects in Cognitive Neurorehabilitation
A Book

by Carlo Professor Miniussi,Giuseppe Professor Vallar

  • Publisher : Psychology Press
  • Release : 2012-12-06
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 1135849153
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Cognitive deficits are a common consequence of neurological disease, and there is evidence that specific cognitive training may be effective in rehabilitation. Behavioural dysfunction following neurological disease constitutes one of the major causes of disability worldwide, exerts a major impact on the daily life of affected individuals, and their families, also with a financial burden both for patients, and the society in general. Therefore, the adequate treatment of cognitive dysfunction is a much relevant issue, with social and economical implications, over and above the neuropsychological problem per se. Several investigations emphasise the fact that interacting with neural activity, by means of cortical stimulation, can affect cognitive performance. A number of studies have reported enhanced performance in specific cognitive tasks in patients with several types of neurological disease, after receiving Non Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) to specific cortical areas, namely: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, and transcranial Electrical Stimulation. In general, the evidence highlights the possibility of inducing changes in cortical excitability, which, in turn, may lead to a plastic reorganization of dysfunctional networks, responsible for the impaired cognitive functions. Despite these advances, a number of important questions remain open, regarding the use of stimulation techniques in cognitive rehabilitation. This special issue puts together international leading experts in the field, to review and discuss recent advances as to whether NIBS techniques alone, or combined with behavioural cognitive rehabilitation, can lead to performance enhancements, and why. The issue is timely and promises to have a huge impact across many domains of clinical and basic neuroscience.

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions

Revisiting the Effectiveness of Transcranial Direct Current Brain Stimulation for Cognition: Evidence, Challenges, and Open Questions
A Book

by Evangelia G. Chrysikou,Marian E. Berryhill,Marom Bikson,H. Branch Coslett

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2017-11-15
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889453251
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The aim of this Frontiers Research Topic is to assemble a collection of papers from experts in the field of non‐invasive brain stimulation that will discuss (1) the strength of the evidence regarding the potential of tDCS to modulate different aspects of cognition; (2) methodological caveats associated with the technique that may account for the variability in the reported findings; and (3) a set of challenges and future directions for the use of tDCS that can determine its potential as a reliable method for cognitive rehabilitation, maintenance, or enhancement.

Deep Brain Stimulation Programming

Deep Brain Stimulation Programming
Mechanisms, Principles and Practice

by Erwin B Montgomery, Jr

  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release : 2016-10-07
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 0190259612
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Deep brain stimulation programming (DBS) continues to grow as an effective therapy for a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, helping patients reach optimal control of their disorder. With the technique finding so much success, the next question is how to make the complexities of post-operative programming cost-effective, especially when traditional medications and treatments can no longer do the job. The second edition of Deep Brain Stimulation Programming is fully revised and up-to-date with the latest technologies and focuses on post-operative programing, which no other text does. This book provides programmers with a foundation of the brain as an electrical device, focusing on the mechanisms by which neurons respond to electrical stimulation, how to control the stimulation and the regional anatomy, and the many variations that influence a patient's response to DBS. Dr. Montgomery explores new techniques of programming; including those based on stimulation frequency, closed-loop DBS, and the roles of oscillators in DBS; and new technological advances that make pre-existing theories of pathophysiology obsolete. Key Features of the Second Edition Include · Highlights post-operative deep brain stimulation; · Includes the most recent discoveries in deep brain stimulation programming; · Highly illustrated with figures for absorption of key programming and techniques; · Provides an appendix of additional resources available through the Greenville Neuromodulation Center.

The Stimulated Brain

The Stimulated Brain
Cognitive Enhancement Using Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

by Roi Cohen Kadosh

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2014-06-01
  • Pages : 568
  • ISBN : 0124047122
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Stimulated Brain—which garnered an Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience at the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers—presents the first integration of findings on brain stimulation from different research fields with a primary focus on Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES), one of the most frequently used noninvasive stimulation methods. The last decade has witnessed a significant increase in the amount of research exploring how noninvasive brain stimulation can not only modulate but also enhance cognition and brain functions. However, although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and particularly tES have the potential to become more widely applicable techniques (as they come with none of the risks associated with deep brain stimulation) the reference literature on these neurotechnologies has been sparse. This resource provides a broad survey of current knowledge, and also marks future directions in cognitive and neuro-enhancement. It expands our understanding of basic research findings from animals and humans, including clear translational benefits for applied research and the therapeutic use of noninvasive brain stimulation methods. The book's coverage includes a primer that paves the way to a more advanced knowledge of tES and its physiological basis; current research findings on cognitive and neuro-enhancement in animals and typical and atypical human populations, such as neurological patients; and discussions of future directions, including specific neuroethical issues and pathways for collaboration and entrepreneurialism. The Stimulated Brain is the first book to provide a comprehensive understanding of different aspects of noninvasive brain stimulation that are critical for scientists, clinicians, and those who are interested in “stimulating their minds by exploring this fascinating field of research. Honorable Mention for Biomedicine & Neuroscience in the 2015 PROSE Awards from the Association of American Publishers The only reference on the market to focus on transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) Coverage across technical, historical, and application topics makes this the single, comprehensive resource for researchers and students Edited book with chapters authored by international leaders in the fields of medicine, neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy—providing the broadest, most expert coverage available

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in the Study and Modulation of Metaplasticity in Neurological Disorders

Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in the Study and Modulation of Metaplasticity in Neurological Disorders
A Book

by Mariagiovanna Cantone,Giuseppe Lanza,Federico Ranieri,George M. Opie,Carmen Terranova

  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 2021-09-03
  • Pages : 129
  • ISBN : 2889712605
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians

Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians
A Book

by Edmund S. Higgins,Mark S. George

  • Publisher : American Psychiatric Pub
  • Release : 2019-08-13
  • Pages : 197
  • ISBN : 1615372709
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A comprehensive survey of the state of current practice, this new edition of Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians provides thoroughly updated information on the growing list of electrical stimulation therapies now in use or under study, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), cortical stimulation (CS), and transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS), as well as new coverage of promising treatments such as low intensity focused ultrasound pulsation (LIFUP) and temporal interference stimulation (TI). After a brief course on the fundamentals of electricity and a refresher on neuroanatomy, the text explores how electricity works within biological systems before progressing to the chapters on individual therapies, which cover the history and evolution of the treatment, the techniques involved, clinical indications, side effects, and an up-to-date review of the evidence base supporting its use. The book is designed to help the reader cut through the initially daunting "alphabet soup" (e.g., ECT, TMS) by providing a clear and straightforward analysis of the prevailing techniques -- an indispensable resource for both clinicians and patients seeking in-depth knowledge of these acronyms and methods. The book's noteworthy features are many: Refinements in treatment protocols since the last edition are discussed in detail. For example, the sections on ECT cover advances such as focal electrically administered seizure therapy (FEAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), while the TMS chapter covers theta burst and recent approval for obsessive-compulsive disorder. The underlying science is addressed in the initial review of electricity and physics, information that is foundational to these treatment modalities, but that clinicians do not encounter in the medical school curriculum. The section also addresses the parameters for brain stimulation and how to determine the right dose. A separate chapter is devoted to low intensity focused ultrasound pulsations (LIFUP) and temporally interfering (TI) electric fields, emerging treatments that have the potential to noninvasively stimulate focal locations deep in the brain without surgery or the implantation of hardware. The section on using DBS for treatment-resistant Parkinson's disease (PD) is thorough, authoritative, and a boon to clinicians assessing the viability and efficacy of treatment options for their PD patients. The new edition retains the amusing, but always informative sidebars highlighting the history of brain experimentation and applications of brain stimulation techniques Written in a down-to-earth, accessible style by authors at the forefront of progress in the field, Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians is a rigorous, evidence based review of clinical data that focuses on what we know, what we don't know, and the strength of the evidence.