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The Truth About Muhammad

The Truth About Muhammad
Founder of the World's Most Intolerant Religion

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2006-09-15
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 1596980478
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Muhammad: a frank look at his influential (and violent) life and teachings In The Truth about Muhammad, New York Times bestselling author and Islam expert Robert Spencer offers an honest and telling portrait of the founder of Islam-perhaps the first such portrait in half a century-unbounded by fear and political correctness, unflinching, and willing to face the hard facts about Muhammad's life that continue to affect our world today. From Muhammad's first "revelation" from Allah (which filled him with terror that he was demonpossessed) to his deathbed (from which he called down curses upon Jews and Christians), it's all here-told with extensive documentation from the sources that Muslims themselves consider most reliable about Muhammad. Spencer details Muhammad's development from a preacher of hellfire and damnation into a political and military leader who expanded his rule by force of arms, promising his warriors luridly physical delights in Paradise if they were killed in his cause. He explains how the Qur'an's teaching on warfare against unbelievers developed-with constant war to establish the hegemony of Islamic law as the last stage. Spencer also gives the truth about Muhammad's convenient "revelations" justifying his own licentiousness; his joy in the brutal murders of his enemies; and above all, his clear marching orders to his followers to convert non-Muslims to Islam-or force them to live as inferiors under Islamic rule. In The Truth about Muhammad, you'll learn - The truth about Muhammad's multiple marriages (including one to a nine-year-old) - How Muhammad set legal standards that make it virtually impossible to prove rape in Islamic countries - How Muhammad's example justifies jihad and terrorism - The real "Satanic verses" incident (not the Salman Rushdie version) that remains a scandal to Muslims - How Muhammad's faulty knowledge of Judaism and Christianity has influenced Islamic theology--and colored Muslim relations with Jews and Christians to this day. Recognizing the true nature of Islam, Spencer argues, is essential for judging the prospects for largescale Islamic reform, the effective prosecution of the War on Terror, the democracy project in Afghanistan and Iraq, and immigration and border control to protect the United States from terrorism. All of which makes it crucial for every citizen (and policymaker) who loves freedom to read and ponder The Truth about Muhammad

Did Muhammad Exist?

Did Muhammad Exist?
An Inquiry into Islam’s Obscure Origins

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Open Road Media
  • Release : 2014-04-08
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN : 1497608562
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Are jihadists dying for a fiction? Everything you thought you knew about Islam is about to change. Did Muhammad exist? It is a question that few have thought—or dared—to ask. Virtually everyone, Muslim and non-Muslim alike, takes for granted that the prophet of Islam lived and led in seventh-century Arabia. But this widely accepted story begins to crumble on close examination, as Robert Spencer shows in his eye-opening new book. In his blockbuster bestseller The Truth about Muhammad, Spencer revealed the shocking contents of the earliest Islamic biographical material about the prophet of Islam. Now, in Did Muhammad Exist?, he uncovers that material’s surprisingly shaky historical foundations. Spencer meticulously examines historical records, archaeological findings, and pioneering new scholarship to reconstruct what we can know about Muhammad, the Qur’an, and the early days of Islam. The evidence he presents challenges the most fundamental assumptions about Islam’s origins. Did Muhammad Exist? reveals: •How the earliest biographical material about Muhammad dates from at least 125 years after his reported death •How six decades passed before the Arabian conquerors—or the people they conquered—even mentioned Muhammad, the Qur’an, or Islam •The startling evidence that the Qur’an was constructed from existing materials—including pre-Islamic Christian texts •How even Muslim scholars acknowledge that countless reports of Muhammad’s deeds were fabricated •Why a famous mosque inscription may refer not to Muhammad but, astonishingly, to Jesus •How the oldest records referring to a man named Muhammad bear little resemblance to the now-standard Islamic account of the life of the prophet •The many indications that Arabian leaders fashioned Islam for political reasons Far from an anti-Islamic polemic, Did Muhammad Exist? is a sober but unflinching look at the origins of one of the world’s major religions. While Judaism and Christianity have been subjected to searching historical criticism for more than two centuries, Islam has never received the same treatment on any significant scale. The real story of Muhammad and early Islam has long remained in the shadows. Robert Spencer brings it into the light at long last.

The History of Jihad

The History of Jihad
From Muhammad to ISIS

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Bombardier Books
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 738
  • ISBN : 1682616606
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It is taken for granted, even among many Washington policymakers, that Islam is a fundamentally peaceful religion and that Islamic jihad terrorism is something relatively new, a product of the economic and political ferment of the twentieth century. But in The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS, Islamic scholar Robert Spencer proves definitively that Islamic terror is as old as Islam itself, as old as Muhammad, the prophet of Islam, who said “I have been made victorious through terror.” Spencer briskly traces the 1,400-year war of Islamic jihadis against the rest of the world, detailing the jihad against Europe, including the 700-year struggle to conquer Constantinople; the jihad in Spain, where non-Muslims fought for another 700 years to get the jihadi invaders out of the country; and the jihad against India, where Muslim warriors and conquerors wrought unparalleled and unfathomable devastation in the name of their religion. Told in great part in the words of contemporary chroniclers themselves, both Muslim and non-Muslim, The History of Jihad shows that jihad warfare has been a constant of Islam from its very beginnings, and present-day jihad terrorism proceeds along exactly the same ideological and theological foundations as did the great Islamic warrior states and jihad commanders of the past. The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS is the first one-volume history of jihad in the English language, and the first book to tell the whole truth about Islam’s bloody history in an age when Islamic jihadis are more assertive in Western countries than they have been for centuries. This book is indispensable to understanding the geopolitical situation of the twenty-first century, and ultimately to formulating strategies to reform Islam and defeat radical terror.

The Lies About Muhammad

The Lies About Muhammad
An Answer to the Robert Spencer Book "The Truth About Muhammad"

by Moustafa Zayed

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Pub
  • Release : 2010
  • Pages : 404
  • ISBN : 9781453618158
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the book "The lies about Muhammad", well known American Muslim scholar Moustafa Zayed refutes the historical errors and allegations in the New York Times Bestseller book "The Truth about Muhammad" by Robert Spencer. In refuting Spencer's claims, Zayed brings to life a richness of history, politics, and current events into the spectrum of the hot debate. The book uniquely shows Islam and Islamic history from the rare point of view of a true Muslim scholar without any politically biased alterations of a middle man; more importantly an America Muslim scholar who shares the pulse of our day to day life. The reader will come to know real Islam and Islamic history in regards to plenty of topics like the raging controversies about women, human, and minority's rights in Islam - not just from an Islamic perspective - but also in light of world history, Judaism, and Christianity. Zayed eloquently shows how the misinformation about Islam is woven into the Islamophobia of today. The depth of knowledge and unique perspective of Mr. Zayed enlightens the reader about the overall depth of the meaning of God and religion from an interesting angle that could give birth to a debate unparalleled in today's literature - a debate that matters greatly to millions of readers.

The Truth About Muhammad

The Truth About Muhammad
Founder of the World's Most Intolerant Religion

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Regnery Publishing
  • Release : 2006-10-01
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 9781596980280
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Traces the founder of Islam's rise to political and military power, focusing on controversial aspects of the prophet's beliefs and actions without adhering to political correctness.

The Bible the Quran and the Torah Say the Truth about Muhammad

The Bible the Quran and the Torah Say the Truth about Muhammad
A Book

by Faisal Fahim,Zakir Naik,Rahimullah Khan,Ahmed Deedat

  • Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Release : 2016-12-23
  • Pages : 56
  • ISBN : 9781541257498
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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5 of the 10 commandments Exod.20 [1] And God spake all these words, saying, [2] I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.[3] Thou shalt have no other gods before me.[4] Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: [5] Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me."[Surah al-Baqarah 2: 255] Al-Quran: Allah! There is no god but He - the Living, The Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him Nor Sleep. His are all things In the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede In His presence except As he permitteth? He knoweth What (appeareth to His creatures As) Before or After or Behind them. Nor shall they encompass Aught of his knowledge Except as He willeth. His throne doth extend Over the heavens And on earth, and He feeleth No fatigue in guarding And preserving them. For He is the Most High. The Supreme (in glory)." Muhammad (pbuh) mentioned by name in the old testament: Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is mentioned by name in the Song of Solomon chapter 5 verse 16: "Hikko Mamittakim we kullo Muhammadim Zehdoodeh wa Zehraee Bayna Jerusalem. ""His mouth is most sweet: yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem. "In the Hebrew language im is added for respect. Similarely im is added after the name of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) to make it Muhammadim. In English translation they have even translated the name of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as "altogether lovely," but in the Old Testament in Hebrew, the name of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is yet present. lt's majestic plural noun like Elohim which refers to 1 God only.So Muhammadim also refers to 1 Muhammad even though im can refer also to be plural. Isaiah chapter 29 verse 12: "And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying. Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned. "When angel Gabriel commanded Muhammad (pbuh) by saying Iqra - "Read," he replied, "I am not learned." Quran 33:40 Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing. Numbers 23:19 King James Version (KJV) God is not a man, that he should lie; neither the son of man, that he should repent: hath he said, and shall he not do it? or hath he spoken, and shall he not make it good? 112 Quran: Say: He is God the One and Only God the Eternal Refuge God, the Eternal, Absolute; He neither begets nor is born.Nothing is there comparable to him."Moses Jesus Muhammad are prophets of God & prophets are not God.Islam means peace & submission to that 1 God in arabic it is Allah! ("He said: "I am indeed a servant of God: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet; 019.031 "And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live; 019.032 "(He) hath made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable; 019.033 "So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)"! 019.034 Such (was) Jesus the son of Mary: (it is) a statement of truth, about which they (vainly) dispute. 019.035 It is not befitting to (the majesty of) God that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! when He determines a matter, He only says to it,"Be,"and it is.) Al-Quran. www.guideus.tv www.gainpeace.com Order A Free Copy of the Quran CALL 800-662-ISLAM There is a Judgment day and God is going to judge us all one day. Find out the truth. Peace be upon you: )

Islam Unveiled

Islam Unveiled
Disturbing Questions about the World s Fastest-Growing Faith

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Encounter Books
  • Release : 2003-11-25
  • Pages : 202
  • ISBN : 1594032955
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In "Islam Unveiled," Robert Spencer dares to face the hard questions about what the Islamic religion actually teaches--and the potentially ominous implications of those teachings for the future of both the Muslim world and the West. Going beyond the shallow distinction between a "true" peaceful Islam and the "hijacked" Islam of terrorist groups, Spencer probes the Koran and Islamic traditions (as well as the history and present-day situation of the Muslim world) as part of his inquiry into why the world's fastest growing faith tends to arouse fanaticism. "Islam Unveiled" evaluates the relationship between Islamic fundamentalism and "mainstream" Islam; the fixation with violence and jihad; the reasons for Muslims' disturbing treatment of women; and devastating effects of Muslim polygamy and Islamic divorce laws. Spencer explores other daunting questions--why the human rights record of Islamic countries is so unrelievedly grim and how the root causes of this record exist in basic Muslim beliefs; why science and high culture died out in the Muslim world--and why this is a root cause of modern Muslim resentment. He evaluates what Muslims learn from the life of Muhammad, the man that Islam hails as the supreme model of human behavior. Above all, this provocative work grapples with the question that most preoccupies us today: can Islam create successful secularized societies that will coexist peacefully with the West's multicultural mosaic?

Muhammad

Muhammad
Prophet of Peace Amid the Clash of Empires

by Juan Cole

  • Publisher : Bold Type Books
  • Release : 2018-10-09
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN : 1568587821
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the midst of the dramatic seventh-century war between two empires, Muhammad was a spiritual seeker in search of community and sanctuary. Many observers stereotype Islam and its scripture as inherently extreme or violent-a narrative that has overshadowed the truth of its roots. In this masterfully told account, preeminent Middle East expert Juan Cole takes us back to Islam's-and the Prophet Muhammad's-origin story. Cole shows how Muhammad came of age in an era of unparalleled violence. The eastern Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran fought savagely throughout the Near East and Asia Minor. Muhammad's profound distress at the carnage of his times led him to envision an alternative movement, one firmly grounded in peace. The religion Muhammad founded, Islam, spread widely during his lifetime, relying on soft power instead of military might, and sought armistices even when militarily attacked. Cole sheds light on this forgotten history, reminding us that in the Qur'an, the legacy of that spiritual message endures. A vibrant history that brings to life the fascinating and complex world of the Prophet, Muhammad is the story of how peace is the rule and not the exception for one of the world's most practiced religions.

Onward Muslim Soldiers

Onward Muslim Soldiers
How Jihad Still Threatens America and the West

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2013-02-05
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 1621571165
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In "Onward Muslim Soldiers," the author of "Islam Unveiled" reveals why the threat of violent jihad is growing daily, despite America's recent victory in Iraq. Spencer uncovers the cause of global violence as he goes straight to Muslim sources

A God Who Hates

A God Who Hates
The Courageous Woman Who Inflamed the Muslim World Speaks Out Against the Evils of Islam

by Wafa Sultan

  • Publisher : St. Martin's Press
  • Release : 2011-04-26
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN : 9781429984539
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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From the front page of The New York Times to YouTube, Dr. Wafa Sultan has become a force radical Islam has to reckon with. For the first time, she tells her story and what she learned, first-hand, about radical Islam in A God Who Hates, a passionate memoir by an outspoken Arabic woman that is also a cautionary tale for the West. She grew up in Syria in a culture ruled by a god who hates women. "How can such a culture be anything but barbarous?", Sultan asks. "It can't", she concludes "because any culture that hates its women can't love anything else." She believes that the god who hates is waging a battle between modernity and barbarism, not a battle between religions. She also knows that it's a battle radical Islam will lose. Condemned by some and praised by others for speaking out, Sultan wants everyone to understand the danger posed by A God Who Hates.

It's All About Muhammad

It's All About Muhammad
A Biography of the World's Most Notorious Prophet

by F. W. Burleigh

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2016-06-16
  • Pages : 558
  • ISBN : 9780996046930
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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It's All About Muhammad, A Biography of the World's Most Notorious Prophet, is a comprehensive biography of the man who created a religion that he called Islam. It gives a no-holds-barred account of the atrocities he committed in spreading his religion. The book contains 25 illustrations, half of them depicting these atrocities.

The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades)

The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (And the Crusades)
A Book

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Regnery Publishing
  • Release : 2005-07-01
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN : 0895260131
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Presents a critical analysis of the differences between Christianity and Islam and maintains that Islam contains a political agenda which endorses violence and aggression against non-Muslims.

The Palestinian Delusion

The Palestinian Delusion
The Catastrophic History of the Middle East Peace Process

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Bombardier Books
  • Release : 2019-12-03
  • Pages : 266
  • ISBN : 1642932558
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Every new American President has a plan to bring about peace between the Israelis and the Palestinians, and every one fails. Every “peace process” has failed in its primary objective: to establish a stable and lasting accord between the two parties, such that they can live together side-by-side in friendship rather than enmity. But why? And what can be done instead? While this failure is a consistent pattern stretching back decades, there is virtually no public discussion or even basic understanding of the primary reason for this failure. The Palestinian Delusion is unique in situating the Israeli/Palestinian conflict within the context of the global jihad that has found renewed impetus in the latter portion of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first. Briskly recounting the tumultuous history of the “peace process,” Robert Spencer demonstrates that the determination of diplomats, policymakers, and negotiators to ignore this aspect of the conflict has led the Israelis, the Palestinians, and the world down numerous blind alleys. This has often only exacerbated, rather than healed, this conflict. The Palestinian Delusion offers a general overview of the Zionist settlement of Palestine, the establishment of the State of Israel, and the Arab Muslim reaction to these events. It explores the dramatic and little-known history of the various peace efforts—showing how and why they invariably broke down or failed to be implemented fully. The Palestinian Delusion also provides shocking evidence from the Palestinian media, as well as statements from the Palestinian leadership, showing that negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians will never work. But there is still cause for hope. Spencer delineates a realistic, viable alternative to the endless and futile “peace process,” that shows how the Jewish State and the Palestinian Arabs can truly coexist in peace—without illusions or unrealistic expectations.

The People Vs Muhammad - Psychological Analysis

The People Vs Muhammad - Psychological Analysis
A Book

by J. K. Sheindlin

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015-06-09
  • Pages : 348
  • ISBN : 9780994362988
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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"The shocking evidence which exposes his catalogue of mental illnesses - psychopath - sex addict - schizophrenic - and more"--Cover.

The Lives of Muhammad

The Lives of Muhammad
A Book

by Kecia Ali

  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Release : 2014-10-07
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 0674050606
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Kecia Ali delves into the many ways the Prophet’s life story has been told from the earliest days of Islam to the present, by both Muslims and non-Muslims. Emphasizing the major transformations since the nineteenth century, she shows that far from being mutually opposed, these various perspectives have become increasingly interdependent.

Misquoting Muhammad

Misquoting Muhammad
The Challenge and Choices of Interpreting the Prophet's Legacy

by Jonathan A.C. Brown

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2014-08-07
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN : 1780744218
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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AN INDEPENDENT BEST BOOKS ON RELIGION 2014 PICK Few things provoke controversy in the modern world like the religion brought by Prophet Muhammad. Modern media are replete with alarm over jihad, underage marriage and the threat of amputation or stoning under Shariah law. Sometimes rumor, sometimes based on fact and often misunderstood, the tenets of Islamic law and dogma were not set in the religion’s founding moments. They were developed, like in other world religions, over centuries by the clerical class of Muslim scholars. Misquoting Muhammad takes the reader back in time through Islamic civilization and traces how and why such controversies developed, offering an inside view into how key and controversial aspects of Islam took shape. From the protests of the Arab Spring to Istanbul at the fall of the Ottoman Empire, and from the ochre red walls of Delhi’s great mosques to the trade routes of the Indian Ocean world, Misquoting Muhammad lays out how Muslim intellectuals have sought to balance reason and revelation, weigh science and religion, and negotiate the eternal truths of scripture amid shifting values.

Jesus and Muhammad

Jesus and Muhammad
A Book

by Mark A. Gabriel

  • Publisher : Charisma Media
  • Release : 2004
  • Pages : 258
  • ISBN : 1591852919
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This volume explores the surprising similarities and differences between two of the most important religious leaders of all time--Jesus and Muhammad. Born into a Muslim family in Egypt, Gabriel is a converted Christian and former professor of Islamic history at Al Azhar University in Cairo.

The Biography of Muhammad

The Biography of Muhammad
Nature and Authenticity

by Gregor Schoeler

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2010-10-18
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN : 1136959734
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book considers the Arabic biographies of Prophet Muhammad, the earliest of which dates from two centuries after his life. These biographies, prized by Muslims, have been approached in the Western study of Islam from a range of positions. Some scholars reject them entirely, seeing in them products of the Muslim community’s idealisation of its history, while others accept them at face value, reasoning that, if not exact versions of events, the events could not have differed too much from their descriptions. The author revisits the debate and reconsiders several key incidents in the life of the Prophet. By compiling an extensive corpus of materials and comparing them closely, this book analyses the transmission and the contents of the accounts. It shows that by understanding clearly the interaction in early Islam between written and oral modes of transmission, and by the judicious sieving of the accounts, as well as the lines of transmission, we can sometimes reach back to that generation of Muslims who though not themselves witness to the events were younger contemporaries of those who were. Establishing a solid basis for the informed study of Muhammad’s biography and adding to the ongoing debate, this book will appeal to scholars of early Islam, history and theology.

The Complete Infidel's Guide to the Koran

The Complete Infidel's Guide to the Koran
A Book

by Robert Spencer

  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release : 2009-09-21
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN : 1596981261
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Complete Infidel’s Guide to the Koran exposes how the Koran incites hatred and violence and is anti-democratic, anti-freedom, and intolerant of any other ideology. Stripping out the obsolete debate, The Complete Infidel’s Guide to the Koran focuses on the decrees toward Jews and Christians, how they were viewed by Muhammad, what “the infidels” have done wrong and what the Koran has in store for them. The Complete Infidel’s Guide to the Koran is the essential primer to comprehending one of the most cryptic and misunderstood religious texts. Robert Spencer sheds light on the violence inherent in the Koran and reveals the frightening implications for the War on Terror, the U.S. and the world. In The Complete Infidel’s Guide to the Koran you will learn: The true meaning of celebrated and seemingly benign verses, such as “Strive in the way of Allah” and “Persecution is worse than slaughter” How the Koran sanctions domestic abuse, honor killing, and murder How the Koran not only discourages Infidels from reading it, but mandates that they don’t even touch it Why Obama, Clinton, and others are dangerously close to supporting a multiculturalism based on an ideology that aims to destroy the principles America holds dear

Muhammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men

Muhammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men
The Making of the Last Prophet

by David Powers

  • Publisher : University of Pennsylvania Press
  • Release : 2011-03-15
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN : 0812221494
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Islamic claim to supersede Judaism and Christianity is embodied in the theological assertion that the office of prophecy is hereditary but that the line of descent ends with Muhammad, who is the seal, or last, of the prophets. While Muhammad had no natural sons who reached the age of maturity, he is said to have adopted a man named Zayd, and mutual rights of inheritance were created between the two. Zayd b. Muhammad, also known as the Beloved of the Messenger of God, was the first adult male to become a Muslim and the only Muslim apart from Muhammad to be named in the Qur'an. But if prophecy is hereditary and Muhammad has a son, David Powers argues, then he might not be the Last Prophet. Conversely, if he is the Last Prophet, he cannot have a son. In Muhammad Is Not the Father of Any of Your Men, Powers contends that a series of radical moves were made in the first two centuries of Islamic history to ensure Muhammad's position as the Last Prophet. He focuses on narrative accounts of Muhammad's repudiation of Zayd, of his marriage to Zayd's former wife, and of Zayd's martyrdom in battle against the Byzantines. Powers argues that theological imperatives drove changes in the historical record and led to the abolition or reform of key legal institutions. In what is likely to be the most controversial aspect of his book, he offers compelling physical evidence that the text of the Qur'an itself was altered.