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The Urban Heat Island

The Urban Heat Island
A Book

by Iain D. Stewart,Gerald Mills

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2021-05-28
  • Pages : 182
  • ISBN : 0128156902
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is an area of growing interest for many people studying the urban environment and local/global climate change. The UHI has been scientifically studied for 200 years and, although it is an apparently simple phenomenon, there is considerable confusion around the different types of UHI and their assessment. The Urban Heat Island—A Guidebook provides simple instructions for measuring and analysing the phenomenon, as well as greater context for defining the UHI and the impacts it can have. Readers will be empowered to work within a set of guidelines that enable direct comparison of UHI effects across diverse settings, while informing a wide range of climate mitigation and adaptation programs to modify human behaviour and the built form. This opens the door to true global assessments of local climate change in cities. Urban planning and design strategies can then be evaluated for their effectiveness at mitigating these changes. Covers both on-surface and near-surface, or canopy, measurements and impacts of Urban Heat Islands (UHI) Provides a set of best practices and guidelines for UHI observation and analysis Includes both conceptual overviews and practical instructions for a wide range of uses

Urban Heat Island (UHI) Mitigation

Urban Heat Island (UHI) Mitigation
Hot and Humid Regions

by Napoleon Enteria

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2021
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9813340509
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Heat Islands

Heat Islands
Understanding and Mitigating Heat in Urban Areas

by Lisa Mummery Gartland

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2012-05-16
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN : 1136564209
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Heat islands are urban and suburban areas that are significantly warmer than their surroundings. Traditional, highly absorptive construction materials and a lack of effective landscaping are their main causes. Heat island problems, in terms of increased energy consumption, reduced air quality and effects on human health and mortality, are becoming more pressing as cities continue to grow and sprawl. This comprehensive book brings together the latest information about heat islands and their mitigation. The book describes how heat islands are formed, what problems they cause, which technologies mitigate heat island effects and what policies and actions can be taken to cool communities. Internationally renowned expert Lisa Gartland offers a comprehensive source of information for turning heat islands into cool communities. The author includes sections on cool roofing and cool paving, explains their benefits in detail and provides practical guidelines for their selection and installation. The book also reviews how and why to incorporate trees and vegetation around buildings, in parking lots and on green roofs.

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario

Counteracting Urban Heat Island Effects in a Global Climate Change Scenario
A Book

by Francesco Musco

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2016-08-30
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN : 331910425X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Urban heat islands are a new type of microclimatic phenomenon that causes a significant increase in the temperature of cities compared to surrounding areas. The phenomenon has been enforced by the current trend towards climate change. Although experts consider urban heat islands an urgent European Union public health concern, there are too few policies that address it. The EU carried out a project to learn more about this phenomenon through pilot initiatives. The pilots included feasibility studies and strategies for appropriately altering planning rules and governance to tackle the problem of urban heat islands. The pilots were carried out in eight metropolitan areas: Bologna/Modena, Budapest, Ljubljana, Lodz, Prague, Stuttgart, Venice/Padova, and Vienna. The feasibility studies carried out in these pilot areas focused on the specific morphology of EU urban areas, which are often characterised by the presence of historical old towns.

URBAN HEAT ISLAND

URBAN HEAT ISLAND
Assessment techniques, mitigation and applications in a post-socialist city.

by Ioana Herbel

  • Publisher : Ioana Herbel
  • Release : 2020-09-15
  • Pages : 203
  • ISBN : 6063708103
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The expansion without precedent of city boundaries determined the modification of the climatic conditions inside urban areas, with a direct impact on the environment and the population. Urban development implies fundamental changes in the natural setting, generating significant differences between the urban environment and the nearby areas in terms of meteorological parameters, air quality, and energy balance. Over the last decades, cities worldwide have experienced accelerated development, urbanization being one of the most important dimensions of global change. In Eastern Europe, another important matter is the forced industrialization from the communist era which lead to a complex process of urban change. This change influenced the urban climate of post-socialist cities. In such cities, the urban landscape was radically transformed with the emergence of over-sized production units and “dormitory neighborhoods” meant to accommodate their personnel. The replacement of natural surfaces with the built, impervious ones (with distinct caloric properties and lower cooling rates), is known as one of the main factors that generate the urban heat island effect. The topic of this book refers, therefore, to the urban heat island (UHI), as an example of climate change of anthropic origin, and to its atmospheric, biologic and economic impact (Yow 2007). The UHI phenomenon implies a temperature difference between the densely built urban areas and the nearby rural ones.

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates

Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates
A Book

by Ansar Khan,Soumendu Chatterjee,Yupeng Wang

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2020-11-17
  • Pages : 298
  • ISBN : 0128225580
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Urban Heat Island Modeling for Tropical Climates takes into account the different urban physics in tropical environments, presenting a way of UHI scaling for tropical cities. Topics include measuring, modeling and proper mitigation strategies, which account for the surface energy balance of tropics. Tropical cities are more susceptible to the effects of projected global warming because of conditions in tropical climates and the rapid growth of so many cities in this zone. The need for research on measuring, modeling and mitigation of UHI effects in tropical cities is of growing importance. This book walks through the basics of Urban Heat Islands, including causes, measurement and analysis then expands upon issues as well as the novel techniques that can be used to address issues specific to the region. Reviews topics related to understanding the fundamentals of modeling and impacts of urban heat islands Covers many techniques, from remote sensing, to numerical modeling and then applying them to urban climate studies in general, and in tropical cities Describes the scaling of urban heat islands based on long-term seasonal thermal parameters as feature-based classification systems using a probabilistic and fuzzy logic approach, unlike local climate zones (LCZs)

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate. In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable

Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies in an Arid Climate. In Outdoor Thermal Comfort Reacheable
A Book

by Suaad Ridha

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2017
  • Pages : 143
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Numerous studies over the past several decades focused on the effect of the Urban Heat Island. Initial efforts on understanding the factors affecting UHI contributed to proceed the appropriate solutions and mitigation strategies. Mitigation strategies comprise increase both urban albedo (reflectivity to solar radiation), and evapotranspiration. Albedo increases are obtained through high albedo roofing and paving technologies. An increase in evapotranspiration is achieved through a combination of decreasing the fraction of impervious surfaces and planting vegetation in urban areas. The outdoor thermal comfort is influenced by the perception and satisfaction of the pedestrians, especially in hot and arid climates. Consequently, this work focuses on the appropriate methods for reducing the Urban Heat Island and thus to enhance the pedestrians outdoor thermal comfort. However, there is limited research conducted on the outdoor thermal comfort in hot and arid climate. The studies on the mitigation the Urban Heat Island and the outdoor thermal comfort are almost non-existent for Baghdad city. Baghdad has a complex urban fabric with modern design constructions buildings, traditional and heritage houses. The climate in summer is hot, and summer months are considered the longest season with nearly 7 months of the year. This study focuses on investigating possible mitigation strategies to ensure how pedestrian comfort is affected by the constructions design choices comparing a traditional district to a modern one, and on how vegetation and shading patterns contribute to reducing the effect of UHI and improving the outdoor thermal comfort. Four different scenarios are designed to assess the role of vegetation elements such as trees, grass, and different shading patterns. The evaluation was performed on the hottest day in summer, the mean radiant temperature, specific humidity, air temperature, and wind speed distributions have been analyzed using ENVI-met software. Thermal comfort is assessed using the thermal indices the Physiological Equivalent Temperature PET and the Predicted Mean Vote PMV. Also, a proposal model is designed to evaluate the thermal comfort on the hottest day and the typical day in summer. The results revealed an improvement on thermal comfort in the typical day in summer. The study shows how the urban factors such as the aspect ratio, vegetation cover, shadings, and geometry of the canyon are crucial elements that urban planners and municipalities have to take into account, especially for new urban developments in hot, arid climate.

Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands

Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands
A Book

by Hideki Takebayashi

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2020-04
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN : 9780128176245
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Adaptation Measures for Urban Heat Islands helps the reader understand the relative performance of these adaptation measures, methods and analysis relating to their creation and maintenance, evaluation methods, and the role of policy and governance in implementing them. A suite of case studies is included on these urban or metropolitan areas that are significantly warmer than their surrounding rural areas due to human activities. In recent years, a suite of adaptation measures have been developed to mitigate the urban heat island phenomena. Provides a range of concrete implementation methods Assesses relative performance of adaptation measures and countermeasure technologies Establishes methods for human thermal environmental interventions Reviews adaptation cities selected for excellent energy performance and thermal comfort indicators

Reducing the Urban Heat Island Effect in Copenhagen

Reducing the Urban Heat Island Effect in Copenhagen
A Book

by Erik Alskog

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2013
  • Pages : 174
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Quantifying the Urban Heat Island (Uhi) Intensity in Hong Kong

Quantifying the Urban Heat Island (Uhi) Intensity in Hong Kong
A Book

by Leong-Wai Siu,蕭亮煒

  • Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
  • Release : 2017-01-26
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9781361241103
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This dissertation, "Quantifying the Urban Heat Island (UHI) Intensity in Hong Kong" by Leong-wai, Siu, 蕭亮煒, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4569256 Subjects: Urban heat island - China - Hong Kong Urban temperature - China - Hong Kong

Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands

Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands
A Global View

by Alan Meier

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2006
  • Pages : 329
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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An important milestone was passed this year when the fraction of the world's population living in cities exceeded 50%. This shift from the countryside to urban areas is certain to continue and, for many, the destination will be large cities. Already there are over 400 cities with populations greater than one million inhabitants and twenty cities with populations greater than ten million inhabitants. With a growing fraction of the population living in an urban environment, the unique aspects of an urban climate also rise in importance. These include features like air pollution and increased humidity. Another unique feature of the urban climate is the phenomenon of the urban heat island. The urban heat island phenomenon was first observed over one hundred years ago in northern latitude cities, where the city centers were slightly warmer than the suburbs. (Instantaneous communications probably played a role in its identification, much as it did for other weather-related events.) For these cities, a heat island was generally a positive effect because it resulted in reduced heating requirements during the winters. It was only in the 1960s, as air conditioning and heavy reliance on automobiles grew, that the negative impacts of heat islands became apparent. The heat islands made summer conditions much less comfortable and increased air conditioning energy use. Since then the summer heat island has become the dominant environmental concern. Measurements in thousands of sites, plus the development of sophisticated dynamic simulations of urban air basins, has enabled us to better understand the relationships between urban temperatures, sunlight, and rates of formation of air pollutants. These models have also given us insights into the roles of vegetation and other characteristics of the land surface. More recently-roughly the last fifteen years-it has become possible to quantify the roles of the major features influencing the formation and persistence of urban heat islands. These developments also allowed us to answer 'what if' questions, such as, 'what if surfaces were changed to be covered with more vegetation or if the albedo of the streets or the roofs was increased'? These simulations, plus measurements of the impact of actual changes, made it possible to imagine that countermeasures to urban heat islands would result in a cooler city requiring less air conditioning and other benefits. In the past five years we have seen the first generation of countermeasures to urban heat islands appear. 'Cool' roofing materials, are now available and, in California, help comply with energy efficiency requirements for buildings. In Japan, cities are giving special incentives to buildings that provide vegetation on their roofs.

Thermal Effects of Energy Consumption on the Urban Heat Island

Thermal Effects of Energy Consumption on the Urban Heat Island
A Book

by Joseph Shao Wah Shum

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 1975
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Urban Heat Island Effects in Kathmandu

The Urban Heat Island Effects in Kathmandu
Mitigating the Effects Through Urban Design

by Poonam Amatya

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2012
  • Pages : 140
  • ISBN : 9783848411375
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Plenty of things are being discussed about the compact cities as a sustainable urban form but has anyone discussed about any adverse effect of these cities to the environment? The local warming effect due to changes in urban fabric can be equally problematic as global warming because it is a major contributor for rising up the atmospheric temperature. This research focuses on urban heat island effect, a form of urban micro-climate, and suggests some mitigation measures for this phenomenon. As the topic is new for Nepal and most of the developing countries, mostly qualitative analysis is done based on literature reviews. The study carried out during the research in Kathmandu showed the presence of urban heat island affect and its growing trend. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to develop some guidelines to minimize as well as adapt the transitional city, Kathmandu, to this increasing urban heat island effect.

Land Use Planning and the Urban Heat Island

Land Use Planning and the Urban Heat Island
A Book

by Kim Jun-Pill

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2015-06-16
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 9783659744846
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The purpose of this research is to further develop statistical models of local temperature changes, using Landsat-5 satellite remote-sensing data. The temperature at any location and for any land use is modeled as a function of the pattern of land uses around this location. These models are estimated with data pertaining to the Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan area (CMA). Their applicability to land-use planning and regulation is illustrated by simulating hypothetical land-use changes in part of the CMA, and computing the resulting temperature effects. The results clearly demonstrate that it is possible to reduce temperatures in residential and urban areas through a judicious siting of green areas.

Urban Heat Island and Green Infrastructure

Urban Heat Island and Green Infrastructure
How Does Green Infrastructure Influence the Urban Heat Island?

by Corina Ioana Negrescu

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015-10-27
  • Pages : 84
  • ISBN : 9783668075887
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Bachelor Thesis from the year 2014 in the subject Geography / Earth Science - Demographics, Urban Management, Planning, grade: 12 on Danish grading system, Copenhagen School of Design and Technology, language: English, abstract: The aim of this report is to find out in which ways green infrastructure influences the urban heat island. Derived from this, there are other purposes for it. I want to find out what is the awareness level among people about this phenomenon and how involved they are in this matter. My Bachelor Project is a school with flat roof in Copenhagen. Because every new building in Copenhagen with a slope smaller than 30 must have a green roof, this report is also connected to my Bachelor Project. The first two chapters explain the urban heat island phenomenon and green infrastructure influence on it. Moreover, to reach a relevant conclusion I have decided to make two case study, one on Copenhagen, Denmark and one on New York City, U.S.A. Each case contains relevant information about the extent of urban heat island and how efficient green infrastructure is in mitigating it. Relevant information was from desk research and questionnaires among architects in Copenhagen, Denmark. The results of my report show that New York City is very affected by urban heat island, while Copenhagen has a potential for it but it is not yet considered a problem. I like to think that the most important point from my report is that any form of urban heat island should not be neglected and vegetation will always play a crucial role in a city healthy life."

The Urban Heat Island Circulation in the Presence of the Background Wind

The Urban Heat Island Circulation in the Presence of the Background Wind
A Book

by 王群

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2020
  • Pages : 250
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Urban Heat Islands

Urban Heat Islands
Consequences and Mitigation Measures

by Hashem Akbari

  • Publisher : Springer Verlag
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 300
  • ISBN : 9783540883883
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This is the first book to investigate the causes and effects of urban heat islands, including air quality and heat-related mortality. Coverage includes such inexpensive solutions as light-coloured walls, roofs and pavement, and trees and vegetation.

Urban Heat Island

Urban Heat Island
Remote Sensing and GIS Perspective

by Humayun Sarkar,Hartono Dess,Dewi Galuh CK

  • Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
  • Release : 2011-12
  • Pages : 124
  • ISBN : 9783846538371
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The Urban Heat Island (UHIs) phenomenon is a warmest condition of a certain city. Many new and simulating developments have been apparent in the field of remote sensing, urban planning and climatology. This book is not just new information but reflect the fresh concepts and frameworks about urban heat island in under developing countries. The main objectives of this book are 1, Inventory of landcover of urban area 2, Inventory of spatial distribution of urban surface radiant temperature 3, Mapping of urban population density based on built up area and 4, Investigating the influence of landcover and population density on urban heat island for Yogyakarta city. The statistical analysis reveals that Urban Heat Island exits over urban areas and thermal level vary gradually with in cities with a positive relationship to landcover and population density

Influence of Urban Green Vegetation Fraction on the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Europe

Influence of Urban Green Vegetation Fraction on the Urban Heat Island Effect Across Europe
A Book

by Arjan Droste

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2015
  • Pages : 45
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Land-use Planning and the Urban Heat Island Effect

Land-use Planning and the Urban Heat Island Effect
A Book

by Jun-Pill Kim

  • Publisher : Unknown Publisher
  • Release : 2009
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Abstract: Local climate changes due to urbanization have been well documented. These changes are epitomized by the concept of the "Urban Heat Island" (UHI), which represents temperature differences between urban and rural areas. In urban areas, the UHI effect is a critical factor for air quality and public health. It results in higher peak energy demand because of the use of air conditioning in Summer. Higher temperatures increase health risks to city dwellers, because increased air temperatures are associated with secondary air pollutants, such as ozone (O3). Recent research on the UHI, including theoretical models and statistical analyses, has resulted in a better understanding of climate modifications in urban areas. The purpose of this research is to further develop statistical models of local temperature changes, using Landsat-5 satellite remote-sensing data. The temperature at any location and for any land use is modeled as a function of the pattern of land uses around this location. These models are estimated with data pertaining to the Columbus, Ohio, metropolitan area (CMA). Their applicability to land-use planning and regulation is illustrated by simulating hypothetical land-use changes in part of the CMA, and computing the resulting temperature effects. The results clearly demonstrate that it is possible to reduce temperatures in residential and urban areas through a judicious siting of green areas.