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Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction

Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction
For Biofuels and Value-Added Products

by Stephen Gent,Michael Twedt,Christina Gerometta,Evan Almberg

  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • Release : 2017-06-16
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN : 0128095172
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Theoretical and Applied Aspects of Biomass Torrefaction: For Biofuels and Value-Added Products presents a firm foundation of torrefaction technologies and their economic and sustainability aspects. It offers a theoretical background in the underlying principles of torrefaction reactions, including thermodynamics, chemical reactions, process modeling, end-products, and value-added products such as biochar and torr-gas. It also provides an overview of best practices in torrefaction systems, reactor design and scale-up, and compares torrefaction with other thermochemical processing technologies. The authors discuss feedstock availability for a variety of biomass types, such as agricultural residues, woody residues, energy crops and municipal solid waste. They also examine logistics and markets for torrefied products, which includes their use in co-firing and combined heat and power generation, as well as emissions and other environmental aspects. This balanced and thorough approach to the subject matter makes this an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion, especially with background in energy engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, environmental engineering, biological engineering, and agriculture. Offers a comprehensive overview of torrefaction, balancing theoretical and applied perspectives of torrefaction technologies from a holistic perspective Examines economic and sustainability aspects, including logistics, markets, feedstock, and emissions Presents a variety of relevant, real-world examples that underscore the production and utilization of torrefied material Offers a balanced and thorough approach to the subject, making it an excellent resource for engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field of biomass conversion

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction

Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction
Practical Design and Theory

by Prabir Basu

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2013-07-18
  • Pages : 548
  • ISBN : 0123965438
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass is the most widely used non-fossil fuel in the world. Biomass resources show a considerable potential in the long-term given the increasing proliferation of dedicated energy crops for biofuels. The second edition of Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis is enhanced with new topics, such as torrefaction and cofiring, making it a versatile resource that not only explains the basic principles of energy conversion systems, but also provides valuable insight into the design of biomass conversion systems. This book will allow professionals, such as engineers, scientists, and operating personnel of biomass gasification, pyrolysis or torrefaction plants, to gain a better comprehension of the basics of biomass conversion. The author provides many worked out design problems, step-by-step design procedures and real data on commercially operating systems. With a dedicated focus on the design, analysis, and operational aspects of biomass gasification, pyrolysis, and torrefaction, Biomass Gasification, Pyrolysis and Torrefaction, Second Edition offers comprehensive coverage of biomass in its gas, liquid, and solid states in a single easy-to-access source. Contains new and updated step-by-step process flow diagrams, design data and conversion charts, and numerical examples with solutions Includes chapters dedicated to evolving torrefaction technologies, practicing option of biomass cofiring, and biomass conversion economics Expanded coverage of syngas and other Fischer-Tropsch alternatives Spotlights advanced processes such as supercritical water gasification and torrefaction of biomass. Provides available research results in an easy-to-use design methodology

Byproducts, Waste Biomass and Products to form Green Diesel and Biocrude Oils

Byproducts, Waste Biomass and Products to form Green Diesel and Biocrude Oils
A Book

by Brajendra K. Sharma,Kirtika Kohli

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2020-12-11
  • Pages : 166
  • ISBN : 3039435175
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides a collection of research and review articles useful for researchers, engineers, students and industry experts in the bioenergy field. The practical and valuable information can be utilized for developing and implementing renewable energy projects, selecting different waste feedstocks, technologies, and products. A detailed insight into advanced technologies such as hydrothermal liquefaction, torrefaction, and supercritical CO2 extraction for making sustainable biofuels and chemicals is provided. A case study on food waste-to-energy valorization processes in Latin America provides experts’ insights to promote a circular economy.

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies

Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies
A Book

by Avinash P. Ingle,Anuj Kumar Chandel,Silvio Silverio da Silva

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2020-03-02
  • Pages : 376
  • ISBN : 111956882X
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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A text to the advances and development of novel technologies in the production of high-value products from economically viable raw materials Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologiesis an essential guide to the most recent advances and developments of novel technologies in the production of various high-value products from economically viable raw materials. Written by a team of experts on the topic, the book covers important topics specifically on production of economical and sustainable products such as various biofuels, organic acids, enzymes, biopigments, biosurfactants, etc. The book highlights the important aspects of lignocellulosic biorefining including structure, function, and chemical composition of the plant cell wall and reviews the details about the various components present in the lignocellulosic biomass and their characterizations. The authors explore the various approaches available for processing lignocellulosic biomass into second generation sugars and focus on the possibilities of utilization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of biofuels and biochemicals. Each chapter includes a range of clear, informative tables and figures, and contains relevant references of published articles. This important text: Provides cutting-edge information on the recent developments in lignocellulose biorefinery Reviews production of various economically important and sustainable products, such as biofuels, organic acids, biopigments, and biosurfactants Highlights several broad-ranging areas of recent advances in the utilization of a variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks Provides a valuable, authoritative reference for anyone interested in the topic Written for post-graduate students and researchers in disciplines such as biotechnology, bioengineering, forestry, agriculture, and chemical industry, Lignocellulosic Biorefining Technologies is an authoritative and updated guide to the knowledge about various biorefining technologies.

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications

Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications
From Fundamentals to Industrial Scale

by Leonel JR Nunes,Joao Carlos De Oliveira Matias,Joao Paulo Da Silva Catalao

  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release : 2017-11-21
  • Pages : 254
  • ISBN : 0128096977
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Torrefaction of Biomass for Energy Applications: From Fundamentals to Industrial Scale explores the processes, technology, end-use, and economics involved in torrefaction at the industrial scale for heat and power generation. Its authors combine their industry experience with their academic expertise to provide a thorough overview of the topic. Starting at feedstock pretreatment, followed by torrefaction processes, the book includes plant design and operation, safety aspects, and case studies focusing on the needs and challenges of the industrial scale. Commercially available technologies are examined and compared, and their economical evaluation and life cycle assessment are covered as well. Attention is also given to non-woody feedstock, alternative applications, derived fuels, recent advances, and expected future developments. For its practical approach, this book is ideal for professionals in the biomass industry, including those in heat and power generation. It is also a useful reference for researchers and graduate students in the area of biomass and biofuels, and for decision makers, policy makers, and analysts in the energy field. Compares efficiency and performance of different commercially available technologies from the practical aspects of daily operation in an industrial scale plant Presents a cost analysis of the production, logistics, and storage of torrefied biomass Includes case studies addressing challenges that may occur in the daily operation in an industrial scale plant Covers other associated technologies, the densification of torrefied biomass, and non-woody feedstock

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy

Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy
Combustion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Torrefaction and Fermentation

by Erik Dahlquist

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2013-04-16
  • Pages : 520
  • ISBN : 0203120264
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Officially, the use of biomass for energy meets only 10-13% of the total global energy demand of 140 000 TWh per year. Still, thirty years ago the official figure was zero, as only traded biomass was included. While the actual production of biomass is in the range of 270 000 TWh per year, most of this is not used for energy purposes, and mostly it

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future

Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source for the Future
Fundamentals of Conversion Processes

by Wiebren de Jong,J. Ruud van Ommen

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-11-03
  • Pages : 600
  • ISBN : 1118304918
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Focusing on the conversion of biomass into gas or liquid fuels the book covers physical pre-treatment technologies, thermal, chemical and biochemical conversion technologies • Details the latest biomass characterization techniques • Explains the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes • Discusses the development of integrated biorefineries, which are similar to petroleum refineries in concept, covering such topics as reactor configurations and downstream processing • Describes how to mitigate the environmental risks when using biomass as fuel • Includes many problems, small projects, sample calculations and industrial application examples

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass
A Book

by Ashok Pandey,Thallada Bhaskar,Michael Stöcker,Rajeev Sukumaran

  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release : 2015-01-28
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN : 0444632905
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This book provides general information and data on one of the most promising renewable energy sources: biomass for its thermochemical conversion. During the last few years, there has been increasing focus on developing the processes and technologies for the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, in particular to develop low-cost technologies. This book provides date-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative processing of biomass as well as the process development elements on thermochemical processing of biomass for the production of biofuels and bio-products on (biomass-based biorefinery). The conversion of biomass to biofuels and other value-added products on the principle biorefinery offers potential from technological perspectives as alternate energy. The book covers intensive R&D and technological developments done during the last few years in the area of renewable energy utilizing biomass as feedstock and will be highly beneficial for the researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of biomass-biofuels- biorefinery. Provides the most advanced and innovative thermochemical conversion technology for biomass Provides information on large scales such as thermochemical biorefinery Useful for researchers intending to study scale up Serves as both a textbook for graduate students and a reference book for researchers Provides information on integration of process and technology on thermochemical conversion of biomass

Biomass and Carbon Fuels in Metallurgy

Biomass and Carbon Fuels in Metallurgy
A Book

by Jaroslav Legemza,Mária Fröhlichová,Róbert Findorák

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-12-19
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN : 1000037622
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass and Carbon Fuels in Metallurgy presents contemporary and new insights into the use of carbonaceous (Biomass) fuels in the metallurgical sector. The authors describe application of these fuels in different technological processes to produce pig iron, steel and ferroalloys. Emphasis is placed on biomass and its metallurgical utilization. Coverage includes the specification of fuels, their classification and the characteristics of their basic properties. The use of carbonaceous fuels in the production of various kinds of agglomerates (ferriferous, manganese and metalized) is also covered. Key Features: Provides a comprehensive view of carbonaceous fuels in various metallurgy processes Details experiments conducted on the use of traditional and alternative (biomass) carbonaceous fuels for the production of agglomerates. Demonstrates that the energy potential of biomass can also be successfully used in pyrometallurgical processes Describes applications of biomass-based fuels in different technological processes for the production of pig iron, steel and ferroalloys. Coverage includes the specification of fuels, their classification and the characteristics of their basic properties.

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass
A Book

by James H. Clark,Fabien Deswarte

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2014-12-22
  • Pages : 344
  • ISBN : 1118714458
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass, Second Edition presents an overview of the use of biorenewable resources in the 21st century for the manufacture of chemical products, materials and energy. The book demonstrates that biomass is essentially a rich mixture of chemicals and materials and, as such, has a tremendous potential as feedstock for making a wide range of chemicals and materials with applications in industries from pharmaceuticals to furniture. Completely revised and updated to reflect recent developments, this new edition begins with an introduction to the biorefinery concept, followed by chapters addressing the various types of available biomass feedstocks, including waste, and the different pre-treatment and processing technologies being developed to turn these feedstocks into platform chemicals, polymers, materials and energy. The book concludes with a discussion on the policies and strategies being put in place for delivering the so-called Bioeconomy. Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass is a valuable resource for academics, industrial scientists and policy-makers working in the areas of industrial biotechnology, biorenewables, chemical engineering, fine and bulk chemical production, agriculture technologies, plant science, and energy and power generation. We need to reduce our dependence on fossil resources and increasingly derive all the chemicals we take for granted and use in our daily life from biomass – and we must make sure that we do this using green chemistry and sustainable technologies! For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: • The biorefinery concept • Biomass feedstocks • Pre-treatment technologies • Platform molecules from renewable resources • Polymers from bio-based monomers • Biomaterials • Bio-based energy production Praise for the 1st edition: “Drawing on the expertise of the authors the book involves a degree of plant biology and chemical engineering, which illustrates the multidisciplinary nature of the topic beautifully” - Chemistry World

Smart Bioenergy

Smart Bioenergy
Technologies and concepts for a more flexible bioenergy provision in future energy systems

by Daniela Thrän

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 2015-04-20
  • Pages : 181
  • ISBN : 3319161938
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass is a vital source of renewable energy, because it offers a wide range of established and potential methods for energy generation. It is also an important facet of the progression toward a sustainable energy future. The need for further development in the provision of bioenergy is underlined by challenges affecting the biomass resource base, including rising demand for biomass for food, feed, materials and fuel. This is underlined by significant concerns over factors relating to land, such as soil, nutrients and biodiversity. This book examines and analyzes Germany's decade-long initiative toward implementation of an active policy for the transition of the energy system to make greater use of renewable energy sources, which has resulted in a significant increase in the amount of biomass used for electricity, heat and transport fuel. The book begins with a review of market and resource base issues and moves on to analyze the technical options for a more integrated bioenergy use. The analysis spans the entire bioenergy provision chain including solid, liquid and gaseous biofuels. A case study offers a detailed model of the effects of smart biomass energy on the German energy system. The book closes with a view of the most promising fields and an appraisal of needed elements for a successful transition.

Gasification for Low-grade Feedstock

Gasification for Low-grade Feedstock
A Book

by Yongseung Yun

  • Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
  • Release : 2018-07-11
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN : 1789232880
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Most coveted energy forms nowadays are gas in nature and electricity due to their environmental cleanness and convenience. Recently, gasification market trend is starting to switch to low-grade feedstock such as biomass, wastes, and low-rank coal that are still not properly utilized. In this sense, the most promising area of development in gasification field lies in low-grade feedstock that should be converted to more user-friendly gas or electricity form in utilization. This book tried to shed light on the works on gasification from many parts of the world and thus can feel the technology status and the areas of interest regarding gasification for low-grade feedstock.

Biochar for Environmental Management

Biochar for Environmental Management
Science and Technology

by Johannes Lehmann,Stephen Joseph

  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release : 2012-05-16
  • Pages : 448
  • ISBN : 1136571213
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biochar is the carbon-rich product when biomass (such as wood, manure or crop residues) is heated in a closed container with little or no available air. It can be used to improve agriculture and the environment in several ways, and its stability in soil and superior nutrient-retention properties make it an ideal soil amendment to increase crop yields. In addition to this, biochar sequestration, in combination with sustainable biomass production, can be carbon-negative and therefore used to actively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, with major implications for mitigation of climate change. Biochar production can also be combined with bioenergy production through the use of the gases that are given off in the pyrolysis process. This book is the first to synthesize the expanding research literature on this topic. The book's interdisciplinary approach, which covers engineering, environmental sciences, agricultural sciences, economics and policy, is a vital tool at this stage of biochar technology development. This comprehensive overview of current knowledge will be of interest to advanced students, researchers and professionals in a wide range of disciplines.

Pyrolysis and Gasification

Pyrolysis and Gasification
A Book

by G.L. Ferrero,K. Maniatis,A. Buekens,A.V. Bridgwater

  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release : 1989-12-31
  • Pages : 678
  • ISBN : 9876543210XXX
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass Pelletization

Biomass Pelletization
Standards and Production

by A. Garcia-Maraver,J.A. Perez-Jimenez

  • Publisher : WIT Press
  • Release : 2015-04-07
  • Pages : 194
  • ISBN : 1784660620
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Environmental and energy dependency problems derived from high fossil fuels consumption have made necessary the development of new energy models to be renewable and sustainable, efficient, practical and economical, and cost effective, to meet the demand for a sustainable energy supply. Among renewable resources, biomass is destined to play an important role in these new energy models since agricultural and forestry residues are an energy resource which is produced in relatively large amounts throughout the world and regarded as a renewable and environmentally safe way of providing energy. Compiling information on the conversion of energy from biomass, the book focuses on the use of pellets as homogeneous solid biofuels. It describes all the changes that forestry and agricultural biomass undergo to be converted into thermal energy and analyses the inputs and outputs of the process. It has to be noted that the standards used as guidelines and references in all the chapters of the book are there in order to not to forget the thresholds and guidelines established and thus to ensure a proper use. This book guides the reader through the entire biomass-to-energy process, emphasising important aspects and how the quality of the biofuel can be identified. It acts as a starting point for professionals and researchers interested in working with biomass and a guide for those people interested in the implementation of the technologies described.

Sustainable Rice Straw Management

Sustainable Rice Straw Management
A Book

by Martin Gummert,Nguyen Van Hung,Pauline Chivenge,M. B. Douthwaite

  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release : 2020-01-01
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN : 3030323730
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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This open access book on straw management aims to provide a wide array of options for rice straw management that are potentially more sustainable, environmental, and profitable compared to current practice. The book is authored by expert researchers, engineers and innovators working on a range of straw management options with case studies from Vietnam, the Philippines and Cambodia. The book is written for engineers and researchers in order to provide them information on current good practice and the gaps and constraints that require further research and innovation. The book is also aimed at extension workers and farmers to help them decide on the best alternative straw management options in their area by presenting both the technological options as well as the value chains and business models required to make them work. The book will also be useful for policy makers, required by public opinion to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, looking for research-based evidence to guide the policies they develop and implement.

Multiphase Reactor Engineering for Clean and Low-Carbon Energy Applications

Multiphase Reactor Engineering for Clean and Low-Carbon Energy Applications
A Book

by Yi Cheng,Fei Wei,Yong Jin

  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release : 2017-02-22
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN : 1119251087
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Provides a comprehensive review on the brand-new development of several multiphase reactor techniques applied in energy-related processes Explains the fundamentals of multiphase reactors as well as the sophisticated applications Helps the reader to understand the key problems and solutions of clean coal conversion techniques Details the emerging processes for novel refining technology, clean coal conversion techniques, low-cost hydrogen productions and CO2 capture and storage Introduces current energy-related processes and links the basic principles of emerging processes to the features of multiphase reactors providing an overview of energy conversion in combination with multiphase reactor engineering Includes case studies of novel reactors to illustrate the special features of these reactors

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications Ⅱ

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications Ⅱ
A Book

by Lionel Limousy,Mejdi Jeguirim

  • Publisher : MDPI
  • Release : 2019-10-16
  • Pages : 342
  • ISBN : 3039216627
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Handbook of Petrochemical Processes

Handbook of Petrochemical Processes
A Book

by James G. Speight

  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release : 2019-06-13
  • Pages : 562
  • ISBN : 1498729711
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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The petrochemical industry is a scientific and engineering field that encompasses the production of a wide range of chemicals and polymers. The purpose of this book is not only to provide a follow-on to form the later chapters of the highly successful Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 5th Edition but also provides a simplified approach to a very diverse chemical subject dealing with the chemistry and technology of various petroleum and petrochemical process. Following from the introductory chapters, this book provides the readers with a valuable source of information containing insights into petrochemical reactions and products, process technology, and polymer synthesis. Provides readers with a valuable source of information containing insights into petrochemical reactions and products, process technology, and polymer synthesis Introduces the reader to the various petrochemical intermediates are generally produced by chemical conversion of primary petrochemicals to form more complicated derivative products The reactions and processes involved in transforming petroleum-based hydrocarbons into the chemicals that form the basis of the multi-billion dollar petrochemical industry are reviewed and described The book includes information on new process developments for the production of raw materials and intermediates for petrochemicals Includes a description of the origin of the raw materials for the petrochemicals industry – including an overview of the coal chemicals industry

Renewable Fuel Standard

Renewable Fuel Standard
Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy

by National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Energy and Environmental Systems,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Economic and Environmental Impacts of Increasing Biofuels Production

  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release : 2012-01-29
  • Pages : 416
  • ISBN : 0309187516
  • Language : En, Es, Fr & De
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In the United States, we have come to depend on plentiful and inexpensive energy to support our economy and lifestyles. In recent years, many questions have been raised regarding the sustainability of our current pattern of high consumption of nonrenewable energy and its environmental consequences. Further, because the United States imports about 55 percent of the nation's consumption of crude oil, there are additional concerns about the security of supply. Hence, efforts are being made to find alternatives to our current pathway, including greater energy efficiency and use of energy sources that could lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions such as nuclear and renewable sources, including solar, wind, geothermal, and biofuels. The United States has a long history with biofuels and the nation is on a course charted to achieve a substantial increase in biofuels. Renewable Fuel Standard evaluates the economic and environmental consequences of increasing biofuels production as a result of Renewable Fuels Standard, as amended by EISA (RFS2). The report describes biofuels produced in 2010 and those projected to be produced and consumed by 2022, reviews model projections and other estimates of the relative impact on the prices of land, and discusses the potential environmental harm and benefits of biofuels production and the barriers to achieving the RFS2 consumption mandate. Policy makers, investors, leaders in the transportation sector, and others with concerns for the environment, economy, and energy security can rely on the recommendations provided in this report.